South East Arabian COASTLINE GAZETTEER ... now extended to include the Persian gulf.
Place names,toponyms and variants thereof, on or near to the South East Arabian coastline and the Persian gulf.
updated 10/01/2024

Place Name: `Abbasabad
NIMA/GNS feature: FRM UFI: -3051186 coordinate: lat 29.0258 long 52.9801
NIMA/GNS names: `Abbasabad , عباس آباد ,
VARIANT names: `Abbasabad ,

※ SOURCE for: `Abbasabad:
« Abbasabad » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: `Abbasah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 379881 coordinate: lat 23.964494 long 57.127379
NIMA/GNS names: `Abasah , `Abbasah , عباسة ,
VARIANT names: `Abbasah , Ahassa , al Abbasa ,


※ SOURCE for: Ahassa:
« Gassbeyher is a village in lat..24° 2' 20" N., long. 57° 12' 54" E. Four miles to the SSE. is the village of Khoohoor, and between it and Kaderrah, Ahassa and three other villages, at all of which cattle may be procured. The country continues the same as to appearance and cul-tivation. The soundings off the coast are regular. . » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 626

※ SOURCE for: al Abbasa:
« al Abbasa » in {map#1009 Chart 2837a. Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet, Constable, Stiffe, Guy, Brucks, 1860, 'Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet' [?1r] (1/2), British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3828/2837a, in Qatar Digital Library}

Place Name: `Ali Changi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052656 coordinate: lat 28.9563 long 51.0616
NIMA/GNS names: `Ali Changi , Ali Chagi , Ali Jangi , آلی جنگی , عالی چنگی ,
VARIANT names: `Ali Changi , Alichangee ,

※ SOURCE for: `Ali Changi:
« Of Alichangi it has been said, (however paradoxical the assertion may appear) that the village is not always situate exactly on the same spot; the huts which compose it being of such slight construction, that they are easily removed, … Within a mile of our tents were several ancient wells, lately discovered by the peasants who had ascertained their position to be at regular intervals and in a particular direction; of five or six that I examined, the mouths were circular and in diameter from ten to twelve feet; one was triangular; all were very deep; the upper part, for above a yard, faced with stone; from that downwards they were built of excellent brick. The country people call them chah-e-gabrán; "wells of the Fire-worshippers" (?) or, in their provincial manner of speaking, chah-a-gavroona; (see p. 202); and have applied to them wheels and buckets, as they afford good water. in greater quantity than the modern wells, which are seldom, diainetrically, three feet; » #2876 William Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, More Particularly Persia, Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819, ~ vol. 1 pp. 252-3

※ SOURCE for: Alichangee:
« Alichangee » in {map#1161 Route of H.M. Mission through Persia on 1809, , , #3070 James Justinian Morier, A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1812 ~}

Place Name: `Aliabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052374 coordinate: lat 27.68645 long 54.69611
NIMA/GNS names: `Aliabad , علی آباد ,
VARIANT names: `Aliabad ,

※ SOURCE for: `Aliabad:
« In the neighbourhood of Lar are a few villages. At twelve miles we passed the ruins of Tanguni, with a small but well-built caravansarai, now untenanted; the qanat which gave life to the place has been choked some years. Here the plain proper ends in a tangle of dry watercourses and ravines, which extend ten miles, Kahna. 147 and then smooth themselves out into the plain of Aliabad, a circular area surrounded by black rocky hills, with Aliabad village in a tamarisk grove in the middle. Here the Forg and Hormuz roads diverge : we left Aliabad three miles on the right, and turned northward » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 pp. 146-7

« Aliabad » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: `Alimarvdasht
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052261 coordinate: lat 27.6262 long 53
NIMA/GNS names: `Ala'-e Marvdasht , `Alimarvdasht , علاء مرودشت ,
VARIANT names: `Alimarvdasht ,


Place Name: `Amq
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786182 coordinate: lat 24.440532 long 56.67276
NIMA/GNS names: `Amq , `Umq , عمق ,
VARIANT names: `Amq , Ammock ,


※ SOURCE for: Ammock:
« Going to the south from Nabor for about 3 miles one finds a place called Ammock,38 where one also may get fresh water. From Ammock till Soar39 is about 3½ miles, where fresh water is also to be had. (3374) fn. 38 'Amq. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 304-5

Place Name: `Aqr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786217 coordinate: lat 24.80935 long 56.43813
NIMA/GNS names: `Aqr , Al `Aqr , Al `Aqur , العقر ,
VARIANT names: `Aqr ,

※ SOURCE for: `Aqr:
« To al-'Aqr four parasangs.(3)To Kalbah four parasangs. fn3. I.e. from Sohar. About 15 miles N of Asrar (Lorimer map). » #2350 Yusuf ibn Yaʿqub Ibn al-Mujawir ed G. Rex Smith, A traveller in thirteenth-century Arabia : Ibn al-Mujawir's Tarikh al-mustabṣir / translated from Oscar Lo¨fgren's Arabic text and edited with revisions and annotations, Ashgate, Aldershot, 2008 ~ p. 282

« The other ports on this coast only receive the briefest notices and then only amongst the later Arab authors-Ibn Mujawir, Yaqut and Ibn Battuta. Ibn Mujawir (p. 287) gives us a coastal itinerary which went from al-'Aqr to Kalba, to Khawr Fukkan, to Lima, each four parasangs apart and thence eight parasangs to Julfar (reading Zufar as an orthographic error for Julfar. » #130 Wilkinson, John C., A Sketch of the Historical Geography of the Trucial Oman down to the beginning of the 16th Century, The Geographical Journal, London, 1964 130:3:337-49 ~ p.346

« … also, that Nasir did not gain control over the whole of Nizwa at this time. He had approached it from the south and had settled in al -'Aqr, in lower Nizwa, whereas his previous attempt had been from the north. With a base in al-'Aqr, the seat of many former Imams, he was in a strong position to institute Imamate government in the heart of the country. But before he could do this, he had to deal with a rebellion by the chief family of al-'Aqr, the Banu bu Sa'id » #2816 Bathurst, Raymond Denis, The Ya’rubi dynasty of Oman, (unpublished thesis), University of Oxford, 1967 ~ p. 59

Place Name: `Auha Island
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -789660 coordinate: lat 29.3777778 long 48.4391667
NIMA/GNS names: `Auha Island , `Awhah , Auhah Island , Jazirat `Awhah , Jazirat Auha , Jazirat Auhah ,
VARIANT names: `Auha Island , 'Auhah , Hoa ,

※ SOURCE for: `Auha Island:
« Kuwait, and especially the island of Failaka, was one of the main centres of Dilmun civilisation in the northern area of the Gulf. As I mentioned above, there are at least four sites on Failaka itself dating to the golden age of the Dilmun period, that is the end of the 3rd millennium: F 3 and F 6 are the most important, but we must not forget the small site G 3, which we excavated in 1983 (Calvet in Salles 1984, 51-72); it was most probably a bronze craftmanship area. » #2921 Yves Calvet, Failaka and the northern part of Dilmun, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1989 vol. 19:pp. 5-11 ~ p. 8



※ SOURCE for: 'Auhah:
« ad est 'Auhah rappresenta l'estremo protendimento sud-orientale della panchina, giacendo a poco piu di km. 3 dall'estremità sud-est dell'isola di Failakah; anche essa è bassa e sabbiosa. [to the east 'Auhah represents the extreme south-eastern extension of the bench, lying just over km. 3 from the southeast end of Failakah Island; it too is low and sandy.] » #2947 S. Patitucci, G. Uggeri, Failakah : insediamenti medievali islamici ricerche e scavi nel Kuwait, L'Erma di Bretschneider, Rome, 1984 ~ p. 10

※ SOURCE for: Hoa:
« Hoa » in {map#835 Afteekening van de PERSISCHE GOLF, Johannes van Keulen, 1753, Nationaalarchief, The Hague 4 VEL S6B 033 Kaart 13} see AHduGP map 55

Place Name: `Iwaz
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062454 coordinate: lat 27.762197 long 54.004175
NIMA/GNS names: `Avaz , `Iwaz , Avaz , Evaz , Evazeh , اوز ,
VARIANT names: `Iwaz , Evaz ,

※ SOURCE for: `Iwaz:
« 22nd March, Iwaz, 5 farsakhs ; 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. ... Winding round hill after hill, we came at last to a low saddle-back, over which the fort and houses of Iwaz stood out white upon a narrow green plain. The houses looked taller and better than any we had seen for some days, and we got capital quarters in the hall of the kalantar's house. The village has a population of about 1000, though it is partly uninhabited. It is full of abambars, some of which are very large, with high-domed roofs of stone. The well-water is brackish. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 128 and 130

※ SOURCE for: Evaz:
« Evaz » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars}

Place Name: `Umm al-Nar
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -784517 coordinate: lat 24.442477 long 54.509478
NIMA/GNS names: `Umm al-Nar , Jazirat Umm an Nar , Umm an Nar , أم النار ,
VARIANT names: `Umm al-Nar ,

※ SOURCE for: `Umm al-Nar:
« Umm al-Nar, (UAE) 24° 57' N 54° 49' E" » #429 Roaf, Michael, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Facts on File Publications, New York, 1996, pp. 79, 98

« Umm al-Nar » #411 Whitehouse, David and Ruth, Archaeological Atlas of the World, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1975 ~ p.85

Arch. Site in IRN name: 113 T. Zari
UTM: 5253, 2942 converted to coordinate: lat 29.7 long 52.8833333333333
VARIANT names: 113 T. Zari ,

※ SOURCE for: 113 T. Zari:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of the site has been plotted by Whitcomb (1979: 368). No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 324 Sistan
UTM: 5256, 2944 converted to coordinate: lat 29.7333333333333 long 52.9333333333333
VARIANT names: 324 Sistan ,

※ SOURCE for: 324 Sistan:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 369
UTM: 5250, 2952 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8666666666667 long 52.8333333333333
VARIANT names: 369 ,

※ SOURCE for: 369 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 377
UTM: 5251, 2954 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9 long 52.85
VARIANT names: 377 ,

※ SOURCE for: 377 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 384
UTM: 5251, 2952 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8666666666667 long 52.85
VARIANT names: 384 ,

※ SOURCE for: 384 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 390
UTM: 5252, 2950 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8333333333333 long 52.8666666666667
VARIANT names: 390 ,

※ SOURCE for: 390 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 393
UTM: 5251, 2954 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9 long 52.85
VARIANT names: 393 ,

※ SOURCE for: 393 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 396 T Shaikh
UTM: 5250, 2950 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8333333333333 long 52.8333333333333
VARIANT names: 396 T Shaikh ,

※ SOURCE for: 396 T Shaikh:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 397
UTM: 5254, 2954 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9 long 52.9
VARIANT names: 397 ,

※ SOURCE for: 397 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 399
UTM: 5256, 2952 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8666666666667 long 52.9333333333333
VARIANT names: 399 ,

※ SOURCE for: 399 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 3X1
UTM: 5245, 2945 converted to coordinate: lat 29.75 long 52.75
VARIANT names: 3X1 ,

※ SOURCE for: 3X1 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 500 Bar Chenar -Abad Koreh
UTM: 5244, 2950 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8333333333333 long 52.7333333333333
VARIANT names: 500 Bar Chenar -Abad Koreh ,

※ SOURCE for: 500 Bar Chenar -Abad Koreh:
« Other variants: Tabas Gilaki Details: See 113. The second Site Card associated with site 500 has the toponym Tabas Gilaki written on the back (Site Card 1:485). The site may also be referred to by this name. No. of sherds: 8 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 501 Dasht-i- Bayad
UTM: 5245, 2950 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8333333333333 long 52.75
VARIANT names: 501 Dasht-i- Bayad ,

※ SOURCE for: 501 Dasht-i- Bayad:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113 No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 502 Ak Tepe
UTM: 5240, 2959 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9833333333333 long 52.6666666666667
VARIANT names: 502 Ak Tepe ,

※ SOURCE for: 502 Ak Tepe:
« Other variants: Junabad, Ak Tepe Junabad Details: See 113. The Site Card for site 502 has Junabad written on the back (Site Card 1: 487), the site may therefore be referred to as Ak Tepe, Junabad or Ak Tepe Junabad. No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 504 T. Shah Grabb
UTM: 5241, 2957 converted to coordinate: lat 29.95 long 52.6833333333333
VARIANT names: 504 T. Shah Grabb ,

※ SOURCE for: 504 T. Shah Grabb:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 507 Jarmaq
UTM: 5239, 3000 converted to coordinate: lat 30 long 52.65
VARIANT names: 507 Jarmaq ,

※ SOURCE for: 507 Jarmaq:
« Other variants: Jarma Q. Details: See 113. The toponym is not written clearly (Site Card 1: 490) and may be either Jarmag or Jarma Q. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 513
UTM: 5241, 3002 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0333333333333 long 52.6833333333333
VARIANT names: 513 ,

※ SOURCE for: 513 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 514 Fulanak
UTM: 5240, 2959 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9833333333333 long 52.6666666666667
VARIANT names: 514 Fulanak ,

※ SOURCE for: 514 Fulanak:
« Other variants: Takinabad Details: See 113. The Site Card for site 514 has Takinabad written on the back (Site Card 1: 492), the site may therefore be referred to as Fulanak or Takinabad. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 519
UTM: 5237, 3003 converted to coordinate: lat 30.05 long 52.6166666666667
VARIANT names: 519 ,

※ SOURCE for: 519 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 531
UTM: 5239, 2956 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9333333333333 long 52.65
VARIANT names: 531 ,

※ SOURCE for: 531 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 534
UTM: 5238, 2953 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8833333333333 long 52.6333333333333
VARIANT names: 534 ,

※ SOURCE for: 534 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 536 Bust
UTM: 5241, 2956 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9333333333333 long 52.6833333333333
VARIANT names: 536 Bust ,

※ SOURCE for: 536 Bust:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 549
UTM: 5236, 3007 converted to coordinate: lat 30.1166666666667 long 52.6
VARIANT names: 549 ,

※ SOURCE for: 549 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 551
UTM: 5232, 3003 converted to coordinate: lat 30.05 long 52.5333333333333
VARIANT names: 551 ,

※ SOURCE for: 551 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 554 Talus
UTM: 5232, 3005 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0833333333333 long 52.5333333333333
VARIANT names: 554 Talus ,

※ SOURCE for: 554 Talus:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 555
UTM: 5231, 3003 converted to coordinate: lat 30.05 long 52.5166666666667
VARIANT names: 555 ,

※ SOURCE for: 555 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 559 Khur
UTM: 5241, 2934 converted to coordinate: lat 29.5666666666667 long 52.6833333333333
VARIANT names: 559 Khur ,

※ SOURCE for: 559 Khur:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 5 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 560
UTM: 5240, 2948 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8 long 52.6666666666667
VARIANT names: 560 ,

※ SOURCE for: 560 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 564 Kumbinan
UTM: 5236, 2950 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8333333333333 long 52.6
VARIANT names: 564 Kumbinan ,

※ SOURCE for: 564 Kumbinan:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 565
UTM: 5235, 2951 converted to coordinate: lat 29.85 long 52.5833333333333
VARIANT names: 565 ,

※ SOURCE for: 565 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 567 Zurhuh
UTM: 5232, 2953 converted to coordinate: lat 29.8833333333333 long 52.5333333333333
VARIANT names: 567 Zurhuh ,

※ SOURCE for: 567 Zurhuh:
« Other variants: Zirkum Details: See 113. The toponym is not written clearly (Site Card 1: 369) and may be either Zurhuh or Zirkum. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 570
UTM: 5237, 3006 converted to coordinate: lat 30.1 long 52.6166666666667
VARIANT names: 570 ,

※ SOURCE for: 570 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 571
UTM: 5237, 3006 converted to coordinate: lat 30.1 long 52.6166666666667
VARIANT names: 571 ,

※ SOURCE for: 571 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 577
UTM: 5235, 3005 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0833333333333 long 52.5833333333333
VARIANT names: 577 ,

※ SOURCE for: 577 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 586
UTM: 5235, 3005 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0833333333333 long 52.5833333333333
VARIANT names: 586 ,

※ SOURCE for: 586 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 590 T. Qab Ramtird
UTM: 5238, 3007 converted to coordinate: lat 30.1166666666667 long 52.6333333333333
VARIANT names: 590 T. Qab Ramtird ,

※ SOURCE for: 590 T. Qab Ramtird:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 593
UTM: 5235, 3007 converted to coordinate: lat 30.1166666666667 long 52.5833333333333
VARIANT names: 593 ,

※ SOURCE for: 593 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5A2
UTM: 5237,2954 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9 long 52.6166666666667
VARIANT names: 5A2 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5A2:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5B1
UTM: 5247,2959 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9833333333333 long 52.7833333333333
VARIANT names: 5B1 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5B1:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5B9
UTM: 5244, 3001 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0166666666667 long 52.7333333333333
VARIANT names: 5B9 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5B9 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5C5
UTM: 5241, 2958 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9666666666667 long 52.6833333333333
VARIANT names: 5C5 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5C5 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 9 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5C8
UTM: 5241, 2958 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9666666666667 long 52.6833333333333
VARIANT names: 5C8 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5C8 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5E2
UTM: 5239, 2957 converted to coordinate: lat 29.95 long 52.65
VARIANT names: 5E2 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5E2:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 8 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5E3
UTM: 5237, 2955 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9166666666667 long 52.6166666666667
VARIANT names: 5E3 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5E3:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 5 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5F3
UTM: 5235, 2945 converted to coordinate: lat 29.75 long 52.5833333333333
VARIANT names: 5F3 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5F3 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5G2
UTM: 5234, 2957 converted to coordinate: lat 29.95 long 52.5666666666667
VARIANT names: 5G2 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5G2 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5J2 Shabankar- ah
UTM: 5233, 3003 converted to coordinate: lat 30.05 long 52.55
VARIANT names: 5J2 Shabankar- ah ,

※ SOURCE for: 5J2 Shabankar- ah:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5N7
UTM: 5236, 2955 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9166666666667 long 52.6
VARIANT names: 5N7 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5N7 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5T9
UTM: 5229, 3005 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0833333333333 long 52.4833333333333
VARIANT names: 5T9 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5T9 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 5Y6
UTM: 5228, 3000 converted to coordinate: lat 30 long 52.4666666666667
VARIANT names: 5Y6 ,

※ SOURCE for: 5Y6:
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 607
UTM: 5251, 2956 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9333333333333 long 52.85
VARIANT names: 607 ,

※ SOURCE for: 607 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 616
UTM: 5251, 3000 converted to coordinate: lat 30 long 52.85
VARIANT names: 616 ,

※ SOURCE for: 616 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 632
UTM: 5246, 2951 converted to coordinate: lat 29.85 long 52.7666666666667
VARIANT names: 632 ,

※ SOURCE for: 632 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 633
UTM: 5248, 2954 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9 long 52.8
VARIANT names: 633 ,

※ SOURCE for: 633 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 634
UTM: 5253, 2959 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9833333333333 long 52.8833333333333
VARIANT names: 634 ,

※ SOURCE for: 634 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 638
UTM: 5248, 2958 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9666666666667 long 52.8
VARIANT names: 638 ,

※ SOURCE for: 638 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 639
UTM: 5247, 2558 converted to coordinate: lat 29.966667 long 52.7833333333333
VARIANT names: 639 ,

※ SOURCE for: 639 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

[above table p. 390 coordinatesfor 639 given as 5247, 2558. possible typo error so amended to 5247, 2958. PBR]

Arch. Site in IRN name: 644
UTM: 5250, 2958 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9666666666667 long 52.8333333333333
VARIANT names: 644 ,

※ SOURCE for: 644 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 645
UTM: 5249, 2956 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9333333333333 long 52.8166666666667
VARIANT names: 645 ,

※ SOURCE for: 645 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 665
UTM: 5249, 2956 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9333333333333 long 52.8166666666667
VARIANT names: 665 ,

※ SOURCE for: 665 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 669
UTM: 5248, 2958 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9666666666667 long 52.8
VARIANT names: 669 ,

※ SOURCE for: 669 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 678
UTM: 5243, 3005 converted to coordinate: lat 30.0833333333333 long 52.7166666666667
VARIANT names: 678 ,

※ SOURCE for: 678 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 684
UTM: 5248, 2959 converted to coordinate: lat 29.9833333333333 long 52.8
VARIANT names: 684 ,

※ SOURCE for: 684 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: 819
UTM: 5200, 2930 converted to coordinate: lat 29.5 long 52
VARIANT names: 819 ,

※ SOURCE for: 819 :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A10 Mehtabi
UTM: 5520, 2647 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7833333333333 long 55.3333333333333
VARIANT names: A10 Mehtabi ,

※ SOURCE for: A10 Mehtabi:
« Other variants: See A8 Details: See A8. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A11 Bandar Soflan
UTM: 5514, 2645 converted to coordinate: lat 26.75 long 55.2333333333333
VARIANT names: A11 Bandar Soflan ,

※ SOURCE for: A11 Bandar Soflan:
« Other variants: Bandar Suflin, Berkeh-ye Soflin, Berkeh Sofle Details: Equivalent versions of the place name, Bandar Suflin and Berkeh-ye Soflin, are listed in more than one location, but only one of the locations falls within the relevant region (USBGN: 59). A further variant of the same name, Berkeh Sofleyn, is marked (TPC Sheet H-7D) and the location of this is given. No. of sherds: 45 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A12 Moalem
UTM: 5530, 2639 converted to coordinate: lat 26.65 long 55.5
VARIANT names: A12 Moalem ,

※ SOURCE for: A12 Moalem:
« Other variants: Mu'allim Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Mu'allim, is listed and the location of this is given (Adamec, 1989: 551). The Site Card for Al2 also contains the sub-heading Pol Angur 3, but the reason for the second toponym is not clear. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A13 Moalem
UTM: 5530, 2639 converted to coordinate: lat 26.65 long 55.5
VARIANT names: A13 Moalem ,

※ SOURCE for: A13 Moalem:
« Other variants: Mu'allim Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Mu'allim, is listed and the location of this is given (Adamec, 1989: 551). The Site Card for A13 also contains the sub-heading Mehtabi 2, but the reason for the second toponym is not clear. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A14 Moalem
UTM: 5530, 2639 converted to coordinate: lat 26.65 long 55.5
VARIANT names: A14 Moalem ,

※ SOURCE for: A14 Moalem:
« Other variants: Mu'allim Details: location of this is given (Adamec, 1989: 551). No. of sherds: 11 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A15 Khamir
UTM: 5536, 2657 converted to coordinate: lat 26.95 long 55.6
VARIANT names: A15 Khamir ,

※ SOURCE for: A15 Khamir:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Khamir is given (USBGN: 280). A large fort and high tower are said to occupy the centre of the town (C and S: 159). No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A17 Kung
UTM: 5456, 2635 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5833333333333 long 54.9333333333333
VARIANT names: A17 Kung ,

※ SOURCE for: A17 Kung:
« Other variants: Bandar-e Kong Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Bandar-e Kong, is listed and the location of this is given (USBGN: 59). No. of sherds: 66 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A18 Kung
UTM: 5456, 2635 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5833333333333 long 54.9333333333333
VARIANT names: A18 Kung ,

※ SOURCE for: A18 Kung:
« Other variants: See Al7 Details: See A17. The Site Card for A18 also contains the sub-heading ‘Kung kiln’. No. of sherds: 227 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A19 Kung
UTM: 5456, 2635 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5833333333333 long 54.9333333333333
VARIANT names: A19 Kung ,

※ SOURCE for: A19 Kung:
« Other variants: See Al7 Details: See Al7. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A2 T. Podal- Lamzam
UTM: 5458, 2700 converted to coordinate: lat 27 long 54.9666666666667
VARIANT names: A2 T. Podal- Lamzam ,

※ SOURCE for: A2 T. Podal- Lamzam:
« Other variants: Podol- Lemazan, Podal Details: The town of Podol lies within the Lemazan district, which explains the construction used by Williamson. The position of Podal is marked (TPC Sheet H-7D). No. of sherds: 5 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A20 Kung
UTM: 5456, 2635 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5833333333333 long 54.9333333333333
VARIANT names: A20 Kung ,

※ SOURCE for: A20 Kung:
« Other variants: See Al7 Details: See Al7. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A21 Qaleh Leshtan
UTM: 5450, 2634 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5666666666667 long 54.8333333333333
VARIANT names: A21 Qaleh Leshtan ,

※ SOURCE for: A21 Qaleh Leshtan:
« Other variants: Qal'at Leshtan Details: The location on an equivalent version of the place name, Qal'at Leshtan, is marked (Rougeulle, 1996: 169). The place is described as being situated on a precipitous hill with ruined fortifications and water tanks and was apparently visited in 1694 by Gemelli Carreri (C and S: 172-73). No. of sherds: 127 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A3 Pol Angur
UTM: 5552, 2714 converted to coordinate: lat 27.2333333333333 long 55.8666666666667
VARIANT names: A3 Pol Angur ,

※ SOURCE for: A3 Pol Angur:
« Other variants: Pul- Anguran, Pul Details: The site is difficult to locate. The best guess is that it is a bridge at Anguran although it could also be the peninsula at Pul, which has been noted as a site with ruined water tanks at E5545/N2659 (C and S: 159). No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A4 Pol Angur
UTM: 5552, 2714 converted to coordinate: lat 27.2333333333333 long 55.8666666666667
VARIANT names: A4 Pol Angur ,

※ SOURCE for: A4 Pol Angur:
« Other variants: See A3 Details: See A3. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A8 Mehtabi
UTM: 5520, 2647 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7833333333333 long 55.3333333333333
VARIANT names: A8 Mehtabi ,

※ SOURCE for: A8 Mehtabi:
« Other variants: Bandar-e Mahtabi Details: More than one location is listed for an equivalent version of the place name, Bandar-e Mahtabi, but only one of these falls within the relevant region. The location of this is given (USBGN: 59). No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: A9 Mehtabi
UTM: 5520, 2647 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7833333333333 long 55.3333333333333
VARIANT names: A9 Mehtabi ,

※ SOURCE for: A9 Mehtabi:
« Other variants: See A8 Details: See A8. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AA1 Hormuz
UTM: 5628, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 56.4666666666667
VARIANT names: AA1 Hormuz ,

※ SOURCE for: AA1 Hormuz:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Hormuz is marked (TPC Sheet H-7D). No. of sherds: 594 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AA2 Hormuz
UTM: 5628, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 56.4666666666667
VARIANT names: AA2 Hormuz ,

※ SOURCE for: AA2 Hormuz:
« Other variants: none Details: See AAI. No. of sherds: 24 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AA3 Hormuz
UTM: 5628, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 56.4666666666667
VARIANT names: AA3 Hormuz ,

※ SOURCE for: AA3 Hormuz:
« Other variants: none Details: See AAI. No. of sherds: 41 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AAC Hormuz
UTM: 5628, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 56.4666666666667
VARIANT names: AAC Hormuz ,

※ SOURCE for: AAC Hormuz:
« Other variants: none Details: See AAI. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AAP Hormuz
UTM: 5628, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 56.4666666666667
VARIANT names: AAP Hormuz ,

※ SOURCE for: AAP Hormuz:
« Other variants: none Details: See AAI. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Ab Bad
NIMA/GNS feature: SPNG UFI: 13927347 coordinate: lat 28.138641 long 53.12752
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Bad , Cheshmeh-ye Ab Ma`dani-ye Akbar Yad , آب باد , چشمه آب معدنی اکبر یاد ,
VARIANT names: Ab Bad ,


Place Name: Ab Kubr Island
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3096649 coordinate: lat 29.0666667 long 48.5
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Kubr Island , Al Kubbar , Al Kuber , Al Kubr , Jazirat al Kubr , Jazirat Kubar , Jazirat Kubbar , Kuber , Kubra Island ,
VARIANT names: Ab Kubr Island , Khubber Island ,


※ SOURCE for: Khubber Island:
« MULMARADAM ISLAND, in lat. 28° 48' N., about 6 or 7 leagues to the eastward of Ras-ul-zoor, is the southernmost island fronting this part of the coast; Garrow Island, lat. 28° 54' N. lies 4 or 5 leagues to the N. E. of Mulmaradam; and Khubber Island, in 29° 7 N. lies to the N. W.ward of Garrow, all of them being thought safe to approach, with good channels between them; and there is a safe channel between these islands and the coast, leading to the entrance of Graen Haven, but the passage to the eastward of them is generally used by the Company's Packets, which frequent Graen Haven. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817 ~ vol. 1 p. 272

Place Name: Ab Pakhsh
NIMA/GNS feature: DTCH UFI: -3760508 coordinate: lat 29.358618 long 51.074226
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Pakhsh , آب پخش ,
VARIANT names: Ab Pakhsh ,


Place Name: Abū Baqarah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786600 coordinate: lat 24.868005 long 56.403865
NIMA/GNS names: Abu Baqarah , Abu Baqrah , Bu Baqarah , أبو بقرة ,
VARIANT names: Abu Bakara , Abū Baqarah , Abubugarah ,

※ SOURCE for: Abu Bakara:
« Abu Bakara » in {map#1009 Chart 2837a. Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet, Constable, Stiffe, Guy, Brucks, 1860, 'Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet' [?1r] (1/2), British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3828/2837a, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Abū Baqarah:
« Bu Baqarah بر بقره [name] 200 houses of Za'ab and Bani Jabir. [Houses and inhabitants.] Wadi-al-Qor reaches the sea at this place. Tobacco, wheat and millet are grown, and there are 10 camels, 20 donkeys, 30 cattle and 200 sheep and goats, also 2,000 dates and 25 Shashahs [remarks] » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1811

※ SOURCE for: Abubugarah:
« Abubugarah » in {map#919 Map of Oman Routes of Wellsted and Whitelock, J. R. Wellsted Royal Geographical Society, 1837, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Rare 416-c Oman B-1837}

Place Name: Abadan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3051014 coordinate: lat 30.3392 long 48.3043
NIMA/GNS names: Abadan , آبادان ,
VARIANT names: Abadan ,


Place Name: Abadan Isl.
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3051016 coordinate: lat 30.0763 long 48.5654
NIMA/GNS names: `Abbadan Island , Abadan , Abadan Island , Jazirat al Khidr , Jazirat-al-Khidhar , Jazirat-al-Khidhr , Jazireh-e-Abadan , Jazireh-ye `Abbadan , Jazireh-ye Abadan , Jazireh-ye Abadan , Jezirat al Khidhr , جزیره آبادان ,
VARIANT names: Abadan Isl. , Abbadan , Appadan , Apphana , Cauder , Ghadder , Kab I. , Mouzique , mursiqe , Murzique , Teredon ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Abadan Isl.:
« As early as the campaigns of the Assyrian Sennacharib (ca. 700 BC) there is reference to an island at the mouth of the Euphrates, and Ptolemy refers to the island of Apphana. Pliny refers to the island in the first century AD, as does the great Arab geographer Yaqut (1179–1229),who mentions Abadan as the port at the mouth of the Euphrates. By the fourteenth century, Abadan was six miles from the open sea. By the 1900s, it was twenty miles from the open Gulf. » #2915 ed. M. R. T. Dumper and B. E. Stanley, Cities of the Middle East and North Africa : a historical encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2007 Santa Barbara, California ~ p. 1

※ SOURCE for: Abbadan:
« ABBADAN (ABADAN) stands on the south-west side of the island of the same name, on the left bank of the Shatt al-Arab. It is believed to have been founded by a holy man named Abbad in the 8th or gth century A.D. (the people of Basra used to add the termination "in" to a proper name in order to change it into a place name). In those days 'Abbadan was on the sea coast, but with the gra- dual extension of the delta of the Shatt al-Arab, it is now over 30 miles from the head of the Persian Gulf. In the early Abbasid period Abbadan was a center of ascetics living in ribif (L Massagnon, Essai, 135; Abu 'l-Atahiya, Diwan, 218). 'Abbadan is described in the Hudud al-Alam, 139 (cf. also 392) as "a flourishing and prosperous borough on the sea coast. All the "Abbadani mats come from there, and therefrom comes the salt for Basra and Wasit." Three and a half centuries later, when Ibn Battuta visited Abbädän, it was no more than a large village; it stood on a salty, uncultivated plain. In later times the inhabitants eliminated the salt from the soil bordering the river and planted the palm-groves which are now such a feature of both banks of the Shatt al-Arab and of those of the Bahmashir river on the north-east side of Abbadan island. Abbadan, however, re- mained a village until it was chosen, in 1909, as the site of the refinery of the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 1 p. 5

※ SOURCE for: Appadan:
see Source « Apphana »

※ SOURCE for: Apphana:
« I must now say a few words on the island between the two arms of the Euphrates at the apex of which Mohamrah is built. This is usually called the island of 'Abadán, from a certain ancient city of that name which was built on it. Hubadán may perhaps be read, in connexion with Billah, in the account of the maritime expedition of Sennacherib. The island of Apphana at any rate is named by Ptolemy, and in Marcian we have the island of Appadan, lying off the mouth of the Tigris, which was 80 stadia, or about 10 miles from Spasini Charax, nearly agreeing with the 12 miles of Pliny between Forat and Charax. This island of course gradually increased in size as the deposit of alluvium continued, and is thus often mentioned by the later geographers as Mesene from its position between the two arms. Philostorgius is the first author who describes it in any detail. "Before the Tigris," he says, "disembogues into the sea it is divided into two great streams, and thus discharges itself into the Persian Sea by two mouths situated at a considerable distance from each other, enclosing a large tract of territory between the two arms, and making an island of it surrounded partly by the rivers and partly the sea. This island is inhabited by the race of Mesenians. » #2917 Henry C. Rawlinson, Notes on the Ancient Geography of Mohamrah and the Vicinity, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857 vol. 27:pp. 185-190 ~ p. 188

« Apphana » in {map#840 Sexta Asiae Tabula, Claudius Ptolemaeus Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Buckinck, 1478, in Cosmographia, Rome} see AHduGP map 3

※ SOURCE for: Cauder:
« Cauder » in {map#1092 A draught of the gulf of Persia from cape Rosulgatt to Busero river, Anonymous English, 1721, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE SH 18 PF 209 DIV 2 P 11 D} see AHduGP map 91

※ SOURCE for: Ghadder:
« Detail of the map on plate 3 showing the soundings made between Kharg, Bubiyan and Basra. Dutch handwriting of the seven- teenth century may not be easy to read. The ships came from the right-hand side of the chart between Kgarack [Kharg] and Gargu [Khargu]. The Dutch ship first crossed the extremity of the shallows off Ghaban [Qubban], but, once there, did not enter by the right entrance. Instead they sailed around the shallows off Ghadder [Khidr]. They tried to enter the Shatt al Arab, but found it too shallow. Turning back they tried two lower entrances between the mudflats: the Khor Abdallah and a creek near Fasht al Aych. Finally they turned back, entering the Bamishir, as shown by the long line of depth figures. » #2936 B. Slot, The Origins of Kuwait, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1991 ~ pl. 4 p. 23

※ SOURCE for: Kab I.:
« Kab I. » in Pl. 175 (Map: E. 362) #1412 Alai, Cyrus, General Maps of Persia 1477 - 1925 (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1, the Near and Middle East), E.J. Brill, 2005 ~ pp. 249 and 251 see also in {map#1075 Persia, Afghanistan and Beluchistan, Royal Geographical Society Edward Stanford William James Turner, 1892, Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Stock#77684}

※ SOURCE for: Mouzique:
« MOUZIQUE, ilha --A ilha Abadam ou Jezirat Al Khidhr, em 30° 10' lat. N. e 48° 30' long. E., no Chate-Alárabe ou Shat al Arab, junto ao extremo do golfo Pérsico. [Diogo. do Couto - Da Asia].[ MUSIQUE, island --The island Abadam or Jazirat Al Khidr, at 30° 10' lat. N. and 48° 30' long. E., in Chate-Alárabe or Shat al Arab, near the end of the Persian Gulf. [Diogo. do Couto - From Asia].] » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 284

※ SOURCE for: mursiqe:
« Mursiqe » in {map#884 Atlas de Lázaro Luís FOL. 5V., Lazaro Luis, 1563, Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, atlas de dez folhas} see PMC vol. 2 EST 216 and AHduGP map 31

« mursiqe » listed as «155 – mursiqe » in #2661 Luís De Albuquerque e Maria Catarina Henriques Dos Santos, Atlas de Lazaro Luis 1563 Códice da Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, A Academia, 1990 ~ Toponómos e legendas das folhas cartográficas do atlas. [« mursiqe » in black adjacent long blue island east of smaller, yellow island « Jlha dos porcos ». PBR]

※ SOURCE for: Murzique:
« Leixando o interior que jaz das fozes do rio Eufrates, a que os párseos chamam Flate, ao Tigres, que se êle mete, Digila (1); e começando na Ilha Murzique, que faz ao rio duas fozes, a qual Ptolomeu chama Teredon, e situa em trinta e um graus, e nós em trinta escassos, fn. (1) Entenda-se: fica situada Digila. [Leaving the interior that lies at the mouth of the Euphrates, which the Parsees call Flate, to the Tigers, which he enters, Digila (1); and starting at Murzique Island, which makes the river two mouths, which Ptolemy calls Teredon, and places it at thirty-one degrees, and we at thirty scarce, fn. (1) Understand: Digila is located.] » #810 Barros, Joâo de ed: Cidade, Hernâni, Ásia de João de Barros: dos feitos que os portugueses fizeram no descobrimento e conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente., Agência Geral das Colónias, Lisboa, 1945-1946 ~ vol. 3 p. 317

« MURZIQUE, ilha - v. Mouzique ilha · [Joao de Barros - Da Asia]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 288

« Murzique. J. de » in {map#834 Eastern Africa, Arabia, and India, Fernão Vaz Dourado, 1550-1575, The Huntington Library HM41 fol11} see PMC vol. 3 EST 269 and AHduGP map 34 [« J: de murzique » black letters, brown island, parallel to and west of blue island « J. de S. mateus » red letters. PBR]

« Murzique. I. (42 E, 43 E. 51 C) : [Muḥriza?] Abadan? Mursique (49 C, 52 C, 81 C) : [Muḥriza ?] Abadan ? » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 426

※ SOURCE for: Teredon:
« 2. Now the Persian Gulf is also called the Persian Sea; and Eratosthenes describes it as follows: its mouth, he says, is so narrow that from Harmozi, the promontory of Carmania, one can see the promontory at Macae in Arabia; and from its mouth the coast on the right, being circular, inclines at first, from Carmania, slightly towards the east, and then towards the north, and , after this, towards the west as far as Teredon and the outlet of the Euphrates; and it comprises the coast of the Carmanians and in part that of the Persians and Susians and Babylonians, a distance of about ten thousand stadia. » #235 Strabo, The Geography of Strabo … Translated by Horace Leonard Jones, William Heinemann Ltd, London, 1917 ~ vol. 7p. 301

« Teredon (Diridotis), a town of the Orrheni, in Chaldæa, at the E. mouth of the Tigris. Noted as a mart for Arabian produce. Dorah. » #682 Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Senate, London, 1995 p. 340

« at Teredon (probably the former Eridu) » #53 Hourani, George Fadlo (revised and expanded by Carswell, John), Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1995 p. 10 n.. 11

« Later in the century the Latin Historian Ammianus Marcellinus, in describing the Sassinid realm, states that there is much navigation on the Persian Gulf, and that the terminus for seagoing ships is "Teredon" at the Euphrates mouth - the recurrence of this ancient name is surprising. » #53 Hourani, George Fadlo (revised and expanded by Carswell, John), Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1995 p. 38

« e começando na Ilha Murzique, que faz ao rio duas fozes, a qual Ptolomeu chama Teredon, e situa em trinta e um graus, e nós em trinta escassos » #810 Barros, Joâo de ed: Cidade, Hernâni, Ásia de João de Barros: dos feitos que os portugueses fizeram no descobrimento e conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente., Agência Geral das Colónias, Lisboa, 1945-1946 ~ p. 317

« The error of these longitudes is foreign to the inquiry ; but their relation and congruity prove that the termination of the Sinus Mesánius is at the western mouth of the Tigris ; that Terédon is between the western and eastern mouth , conse quently that the Khore Abdilla is Ptolemy's western , the Shat el - Arab his eastern 'Tigris ; and that the fort of Pásinus is be tween the Schat - el- Arab and the Mosêus or Karûn . » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 p. 430

Place Name: Abadeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3051024 coordinate: lat 31.1608 long 52.6506
NIMA/GNS names: Abadeh , آباده ,
VARIANT names: Abadeh ,


Place Name: Abadeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3051020 coordinate: lat 29.1355 long 52.8571
NIMA/GNS names: Abadeh , Abadeh Abgarm , آباده آبگرم ,
VARIANT names: Abadeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Abadeh:
« Abadeh » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Arch. Site in OMN name: Abayah 2
UTM: FA 875 620 converted to coordinate: lat 23.16712 long 58.83164
VARIANT names: Abayah 2 ,

※ SOURCE for: Abayah 2:
« Oval pill-box tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 40 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Abayah 3
UTM: FA 880 630 converted to coordinate: lat 23.16525 long 58.8365
VARIANT names: Abayah 3 ,

※ SOURCE for: Abayah 3:
« Rectangular and oval pill-box tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 40 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Abayah 4
UTM: FA 873 625 converted to coordinate: lat 23.16082 long 58.82961
VARIANT names: Abayah 4 ,

※ SOURCE for: Abayah 4:
« Rectangular tomb » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 40 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Stream in grp 01Z02 name: Ab-e Shirin
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3071025 coordinate: lat 30.310222 long 50.256623
NIMA/GNS names: Ab-e Shirin , Ab-i-Shirin , Khairabad , Khairabad Rud , Rud-e Kheyrabad , Rudkhaneh-ye Kheyrabad , رودخانه خیر آباد ,
VARIANT names: Ab-e Shirin , Abi Shirin , Khair-abád , Sirin ,


※ SOURCE for: Abi Shirin:
« Abi Shirin or Khair-abád R. (Arosis) » in {map#1141 Map to illustratr Baron Bode's route from Kazerun to Shushter, , 1841, #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~}

« The river which I have just named issues from the snowy range in an E.N.E. direction, and has a broad and pretty deep bed, and is called (the river of) Khair-abád, from a large village, now in ruins, on its opposite bank. It is the Abi-shírín (sweet-water) mentioned in Tímúr's route, the Arosis of the ancients, and the river of Hindíánt of the present day. From the Khaïr-abád River to Behbehán is a distance of 3 farsangs (11 miles): the first in a N.W., direction, across a very rugged country, abound. ing in mica; the two last, westward, over a level, well-cultivated country. » #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~ p. 85

※ SOURCE for: Khair-abád:
« Abi Sirin or Khair-abád R. (Arosis) » in {map#1141 Map to illustratr Baron Bode's route from Kazerun to Shushter, , 1841, #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~}

« The river which I have just named issues from the snowy range in an E.N.E. direction, and has a broad and pretty deep bed, and is called (the river of) Khair-abád, from a large village, now in ruins, on its opposite bank. It is the Abi-shírín (sweet-water) mentioned in Tímúr's route, the Arosis of the ancients, and the river of Hindíánt of the present day. From the Khaïr-abád River to Behbehán is a distance of 3 farsangs (11 miles): the first in a N.W., direction, across a very rugged country, abound. ing in mica; the two last, westward, over a level, well-cultivated country. » #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún an

※ SOURCE for: Sirin:
« 32. Another river is SIRIN (Shirin ?) which comes from the mountain Dhanbadh (Dinar?) in the district of Bazranj. It passes between Vayagan and Larandan; on the confines (bar hudud) of Arragan it passes through the town [ba-shahr read: *ba Rishahr "through Rishahr"] and joins the Great Sea between Siniz and Ganafa. These four rivers flow in a north to south direction. » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937, ~ p. 74

Stream in grp 08AB02 name: Ab-e Shur
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3196988 coordinate: lat 29.031521 long 51.028914
NIMA/GNS names: Ab-e Shur , Rudkhaneh-ye Sur , آب شور , رودخانه سور ,
VARIANT names: Ab-e Shur ,


Stream in grp 01Z03 name: Ab-e Shur
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3084485 coordinate: lat 30.358124 long 50.32467
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Gondi , Ab-e Shur , Rud-e Kombul , Rud-e Shams-e `Arab , Rud-e Shulestan , Rud-e Shulistan , Rud-i- Kumbul , Rudkhaneh-ye Kambal , Rudkhaneh-ye Kambol , Rudkhaneh-ye Kambul , Rudkhaneh-ye Kambul , Rudkhaneh-ye Kombul , Rudkhaneh-ye Shams-e `Arab , Shams Rud , Shams-i-Arab Rud , Shulistan Rud , آب گندی , رودخانه کمبل , رودخانه کمبول ,
VARIANT names: Ab-e Shur ,


Stream in grp 32KAR09 name: Ab-e Sur
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3878142 coordinate: lat 32.125825 long 48.886223
NIMA/GNS names: Ab-e Shur , Ab-e Sur , Ab-i-Shur , Rudkhaneh-ye Shur , Shur-i-Lahabari , آب سور , رودخانه شور ,
VARIANT names: Ab-e Sur ,


Place Name: Abhal
NIMA/GNS feature: FRM UFI: 10378983 coordinate: lat 28.0075 long 52.8484
NIMA/GNS names: Abhal , آبحل ,
VARIANT names: Abhal ,


Stream in grp 32KAR04 name: Ab-i-Diz
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 31.760618 long 48.695611
VARIANT names: Ab-i-Diz ,

※ SOURCE for: Ab-i-Diz:
« Ab-i-Diz » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} ahwaz-444-a

Place Name: Ab-i-Garm
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3051439 coordinate: lat 28.307105 long 53.050545
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Garm , Abgarm , Ab-i-Garm , آب گرم , آبگرم ,
VARIANT names: Ab-i-Garm ,


Place Name: Ab-i-Garm
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3051441 coordinate: lat 29.133333 long 52.883333
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Garm , Ab-i-Garm ,
VARIANT names: Ab-e Germ , Ab-i-Garm ,

※ SOURCE for: Ab-e Germ:
« Karavanserail Ab-e Germ (Taf. 21,4) (Abb. 5; 183) (127) Lage: 40 km südöstlich des Karavanserails Bid Zard, 27 km nordwestlich des Karavanserails Ali Abad, in + 1440 m ü.N.N., an der Hauptkarawanenstraße von Shiraz über Djahrom und Lar nach Bandar-e Abbas. Die Reste einer Be- festigung liegen auf einem vorgelagerten Felshügel unmittel- bar nördlich des Karavanserails; auf dem 2 km südwestlich gelegenen Felshügel befinden sich die Mauerreste der eisen- zeitlichen Befestigung Qal'eh Tall-e Kabud.Typ: Hofkaravanserail mit vier Iwanen, fünf Stallabtei- lungen, vier runden Innenräumen sowie Rundtürmen an den Gebäudeecken und als Torflankierung (Abb. 184). Abmessungen: Außenmaße ohne Turmvorsprünge 65 x 58,50 m, Hofabmessungen 40 x 40 m. Die Gebäudehöhe ist mit 5,90 m rekonstruierbar (Abb. 185). Baumaterial: Bruchstein. Bauliche Besonderheiten und Zustand: Partiell sehr stark zerstört. Inschriften: keine bekannt. Datierung: Qadjarisch, 19. Jahrhundert. fn. 127 Das Karavanserail wurde am 25. 9. 1992 vermessen. - Zu Qal'eh Tall-e Kabud, eine eisenzeitliche Befestigung südlich von Shiraz, Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens, Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer (Mainz 1995) 289 ff. [Karavanserail Ab-e Germ (Plate 21.4) (Fig. 5; 183) (127) Location: 40 km southeast of the Bid Zard caravanserail, 27 km northwest of the Ali Abad caravanserail, at + 1440 m above sea level, on the main caravan road from Shiraz via Djahrom and Lar to Bandar-e Abbas. The remains of a fortification lie on a rocky hill immediately north of the caravanserail; On the rocky hill 2 km to the southwest are the remains of the wall of the Iron Age fortification Qal'eh Tall-e Kabud. Type: Court caravan serail with four iwans, five stable compartments, four round interior rooms and round towers on the corners of the building and as a gate flanking (Fig. 184).Dimensions: External dimensions without tower projections 65 x58.50 m, courtyard dimensions 40 x 40 m. The building height can be reconstructed at 5.90 m (Fig. 185).Building material: quarry stone.Structural features and condition: Partially very badly damaged.Inscriptions: none known.Dating: Qajar, 19th century. fn. 127 The caravanserail was measured on September 25, 1992. - On Qal'eh Tall-e Kabud, an Iron Age fortification south of Shiraz, contributions to the cultural history of the Near East, Festschrift for Rainer Michael Boehmer (Mainz 1995) 289 ff.2] » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ pp. 102-4


Stream in grp 32KAR19 name: Ab-i-Shur
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 31.585395 long 49.465147
VARIANT names: Ab-i-Shur ,

※ SOURCE for: Ab-i-Shur:
« Ab-i-Shur » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} ahwaz-444-a

Stream in grp 06HR23 name: Ab-i-Shur
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 28.969605 long 52.02787
VARIANT names: Ab-i-Shur ,

※ SOURCE for: Ab-i-Shur:
« #3080 Simla Drawing Office, General Staff, India, Mobilisation Routes In Persia (Vol. IV, Part II) (Fars, Laristan, Kerman And Yazd) British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, in Qatar Digital Library, ~ » #3080 Simla Drawing Office, General Staff, India, Mobilisation Routes In Persia (Vol. IV, Part II) (Fars, Laristan, Kerman And Yazd) British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, in Qatar Digital Library, ~ p. 311

section of stream « Ab-i-Shur » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} -Shiraz-444-c

Place Name: Abissa
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 17.0397822 long 54.4337802 † see notes (u)
VARIANT names: Abissa ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Abissa AT Khor Rori (ruins) lat 17.03879 long 54.43432 [Potts, Groom],

※ SOURCE for: Abissa:
#2678 Alexander George Findlay, A classical atlas to illustrate ancient geography, W. Tegg and Company, London, 1847 ~ map XXIII

« Abissa finds its name and site accurately represented by Abisagi ; a town at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Bassas, between Harmin and Ras-al-Hhad. » #2678 Alexander George Findlay, A classical atlas to illustrate ancient geography, W. Tegg and Company, London, 1847 ~ vol. 2 p. 182

D.T. Potts, DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Abyssa: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2022 link39264 [accessed: 10 March 2023] Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 17.0397822, 54.4337802

In various maps after Ptolemy eg in {map#840 Sexta Asiae Tabula, Claudius Ptolemaeus Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Buckinck, 1478, in Cosmographia, Rome} see AHduGP map 3

« Hence he has spread the data, probably taken over from Marinus, about places on that bay over the whole of the south Arabian coastline from Ra’s Fartak eastwards. The most easterly place in the bay was ’Abissa Town’, which it can be assumed with reasonable confidence was Hor Rori because of the remarkable abyss at the upper end of the Hor Rori inlet (34). » fn. 34. See sketch map of Khor Rori in Bent JT. Exploration of the Frankincense Country, Southern Arabia. GJ 6: 1895: 129. #218 Groom, Nigel, Oman and the Emirates in Ptolemy's Map, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 1994 ~ p. 207

Place Name: Ab-i-Tangiz
NIMA/GNS feature: SPNG UFI: -3197237 coordinate: lat 28.4 long 52.333333
NIMA/GNS names: Ab-e Tangiz , Ab-i-Tangiz , آب تنگيز ,
VARIANT names: Ab-i-Tangiz ,

※ SOURCE for: Ab-i-Tangiz:
« Ab-i-Tangiz » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}

Arch. Site in IRN name: Abolverdi
UTM: 5754489 E, 3230467 N converted to coordinate: lat 29.2006605557701 long 51.7765335842519
VARIANT names: Abolverdi ,

※ SOURCE for: Abolverdi:
[Easting 5754489 , amended to 575489 E in line with Figure 1. PBR]

« Abolverdi » in {map#1174 Figure 1. Distribution of the tal-e khandaghs studied (Encarta 2009)., , , #3086 Parsa Ghasemi, Tal-e Khandagh (“Moated Mound”): A Military Structure in Ancient Fars, Near Eastern Archaeology, 2012 vol. 75:no. 4:pp. 240-251 ~}

« The Tal-e Khandagh at Abolverdi » #3086 Parsa Ghasemi, Tal-e Khandagh (“Moated Mound”): A Military Structure in Ancient Fars, Near Eastern Archaeology, 2012 vol. 75:no. 4:pp. 240-251 ~ p.243

Place Name: Abruwan
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 29.252486 long 51.741718 † see notes (u, d)
VARIANT names: Abruwan ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Abruwan:
« Now the lands of the Arabs were the nearest ones to Färs, (149) and these Arabs were among the most needy of all the nations for something to provide them with daily sustenance and with lands, because of their wretched condition and the harshness of their way of life. So a great horde of them crossed the sea from the region of the lands of 'Abd al-Qays, al-Bahrayn, and al-Kazimah, until they set up military encampments against (anākhū 'ala) (the town of] Abruwan, on the shores that had Ardashir Khurrah as their hinterland (sawāhil Ardashir Khurrah) and in the coastlands (asyāf) of Fårs. (150) fn. 149. Altheim and Stichl have pointed out (Die Araber, II, 346) that Nöldeke, trans. 53, was mistaken in rendering Färs here as "Persien" when the geographical context makes it clear that the province of Fårs is meant. When, as in I, 839, p. 55 below, al-Tabari specifically means "the land of Persia," he has mamlakat Färs. fn. 150. 'Abd al-Qays were an ancient Arab tribe, originally from the inland regions » #3081 trans: C. E. Bosworth, The History of al-Tabari, State University of New York Press, New York, 1999 ~ vol. 5 p. 51

« Abruwan -Attestations: Tabari named Abruwan as a town on the coast of Ardašir-Xwarrah. According to him, during the reign of Šābuhr II in the early 4th century A.D., Arab tribes from the western shores of the Persian Gulf crossed the sea and attacked this area.(5) Abruwan was also named as a village in the district of Dašt-e Bārin in Ardašir-Xwarrah as the birthplace of Mihr-Narseh, the minister of Yazdegird I (399-420 A.D.), Wahrām V (420-38 A.D.) and Yazdegird II (438-57A.D.). He built buildings and fire temples in this village, as well as in Gurrah in Šābuhr-Xwarrah. The fire temple in Abruwan, which was still burning in the fourth century A.H., was called Mihr-Narsiyān. He also founded four villages in the vicinity of Abruwan, erecting fire temples in each along with palm, olive and cypress gardens. These fire temples, gardens and villages were in the hands of Narseh descendants up until the fourth century A.H.(6) -Identification: The district of Dašt-e Bārin, with its administrative center at Γondekān during the early Islamic period, was located in the border area between Šābuhr-Xwarrah and ArdaširXwarrah. Γondekān is identified as being equivalent to, or as having been located near the modern village of Sar Mašhad, 48 km south of Kazerûn.(7) Dast-e Bärin, in which the village of Abruwan was located, therefore, was the area to the south of Gurrah between Firüz-Abad and Tawwaj. Several fire temples have been discovered in the area between Käzerün and Firüz-Abad, supposedly old Dast-e Bärin. Vanden Berghe identified the Farräsband area with the region in which Mihr-Narsch's 5 fire temples (including the Mihr-Narsiyan) were located, ie, near Abruwan, which was itself further to the north. The architectural similarities between these five fire temples suggest that they were all built in the same period. Besides the geographical location and the number of fire temples, Vanden Berghe has also suggested that a link exists between the modern name of the district to the southwest of Farräšband-Mahal-e Arba's (Four Localities/Districts) and the four villages founded by Mihr-Narseh(8). It is possible that the village of Abruwan and the town of Abruwan represent a single location, although Dast-e Barin is not located precisely in the coastal region. fn. 5 Tabari, Vol. V: 51-2. fn. 6 Tabari, Vol. V: 105. fn. 7 Savageb, 2006: 192; Whitcomb 1979b: 50, 64, fig. 5. fn. 8 Venden Berghe, 1961a: 190-1. » #3092 Negin Miri, Sasanian Pars: Historical Geography and Administrative Organization, Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa, California, 2012 ~ pp. 46-7

Place Name: Abu Dhabi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLC UFI: -782066 coordinate: lat 24.466667 long 54.366667
NIMA/GNS names: Abu Dabi , Abu Dhabi , Abu Zabi , Abu Zaby , Abu Zabye , Abu Zabyo , أبوظبي ,
VARIANT names: Abu Dhabi , es-Sir ,


※ SOURCE for: es-Sir:
« The name of "es-Sir" does not appear in our recent maps or charts. Niebuhr locates it within the district of es-Sirr, — the littoral on the west of the promontary of Runs el-Jebel or Musandim, — in the position now occupied by Abu-Zhaby, (the Abotbubbee of Brucks's chart, see note 2, p. 70,) with which I am inclined to identify it. It was the nearest and most convenient point of disembarcation for the projected march of the Persians to el-Bereimy and ezh-Zhâhirah. » #482 Razik, Salil-Ibn, History of the Imâms and Seyyids of ’Omân ... from A.D. 661-1856. Translated from the original Arabic and edited, with notes, appendices, and an introduction, continuing the history down to 1870, by G. P. Badger, Darf Publishers Limited, London, 1871/1986 ~ p. 138-9

Place Name: Abu Musa
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: 216753 coordinate: lat 25.86698 long 55.023633
NIMA/GNS names: Abu Musa , ابو موسی ,
VARIANT names: Abu Musa , Bomosa or Boumoseh , I. Abomoussa , Zaghnah , Zaua? ,

※ SOURCE for: Abu Musa:
« To make sure that the shaikhs fully understood this limitation, Hennell designated a line drawn between the islands of Abu Musa and Sirri as constituting the southern boundary of this highway, and he obtained from each of them a promise to confine their maritime conflicts to the south of this line. The following January, while Hennell was on furlough, the new Resident, Major James Morison, moved the restrictive line further from the Persian coast, after it had been pointed out to him by officers of the Gulf squadron that Abu Musa and Sirri were notorious pirate lairs. The new line ran from Sha'am, on the western side of the Musandam peninsula, to a point ten miles south of Abu Musa and onwards to the island of Sir Abu Nu'air.When the Qasimi chieftain, Sultan ibn Saqr, was informed of the change he protested that it prevented him from sending his dhows around Ras Musandam into the Gulf of 'Oman to defend his possessions around Khaur Fakkan. » #12 Kelly, John Barrett, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880, Oxford University Press, London, 1968 ~ p. 358

※ SOURCE for: Bomosa or Boumoseh:
« BOMOSA, OR BOUMOSEH, in lat. 25° 51' N. lon. 55° 9' E., distant about 11 leagues N. N. W. W. from Sharga, and 8 leagues to the S. S. W. of the Little Tumb, is an uninhabited island, about 4 or 5 miles long, conspicuous by a high round hill near its centre, with several small hummocks at the east end. There is deep water near it to the southward, but its northern side, seems not well known to European navigators. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ p. 260

※ SOURCE for: I. Abomoussa:
« I. Abomoussa » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

※ SOURCE for: Zaghnah:
« Zaua? [Portuguese name] Zaghnah [Arab name] Bū Müsa [Modern equivalent] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 ~ p. 100

※ SOURCE for: Zaua?:
« Zaua? [Portuguese name] Zaghnah [Arab name] Bū Müsa [Modern equivalent] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 ~ p. 100

Place Name: Abu Shahrain
NIMA/GNS feature: ANS UFI: -3105001 coordinate: lat 30.7975 long 45.9777778
NIMA/GNS names: Abu Shahrain , Abu Shahrein , Eridu ,
VARIANT names: Abu Shahrain ,


Place Name: Acila
NIMA/GNS feature: LGN independent coordinate: lat 12.711905 long 43.482329 † see notes (u, d)
VARIANT names: Acila ? , Akila , Ocilia , Okelis ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Acila AT Khawr Ghurayrah lat 12.711905 long 43.482329 [Sprenger, Forbiger], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Acila AT Ras al Hadd lat 22.53761 long 59.79599 [Dames],

※ SOURCE for: Acila:
« The prominent Cape known to the Arabs as Rasa'l-hadd, "the Boundary Cape," is generally called Rosalgate by the carly Portuguese travellers (sometimes Roselgate or Roçalgate). De Barros (Dec. II, Bk. ii, Ch. 1) wrongly considers it to be the Cape Syagrus of Ptolemy, a name which in reality applies to C. Fartak. This cape is the most easterly point of the Arabian peninsula, where, as Barbosa observes, the coast bends back towards the Persian Gulf. Strabo (xvi, iv, 6) calls it Acila, a name which Pliny applies to a town in its vicinity. It corresponds closely in position with Sur, though it is improbable that there is any etymological connection between the names as Schoff supposes (Periplus, p. 147). » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ p.68

« The early geography of the harbours in Oman is extremely obscure. There have always been ports along that coast, disguised under various names. Pliny and the Periplus both mention Oman as a port but we have no clues as to its location for none of the Muslim place names seem to have been used in those times. Of modern ports, Suhãr seems to be the most ancient, but Kalhat was important in the Middle ages, and was perhaps* Pliny's Ácila. » #2715 G. R. Tibbetts, Pre-Islamic Arabia and South-East Asia, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 29:No. 3 (175):pp. 182-208 ~ p. 191

« Miles took a different view, and saw the proprietorship of the Scenitae Sabaei over the emporium at Acila, a point of embarkation for trade with India, as the beginning of the second east Arabian section. This, however, was based on his identification of Acila with Qalhat, a coastal town located north of Sur.(206) Both Forbiger (207) and Sprenger, (208) however, have convincingly demonstrated the identity of Acila and Okelis, near the Bab al Mandab,(209) and this is surely more plausible as a Sabaean trading- station than Qalhat in Oman. More recently, von Wissmann has discussed this point in extenso, and proposed that the indication of Sabaean control at the Bab al Mandab is a sign that this portion of the text must have originated around 50 BC.(210) fn. 206 Miles, 'Note on Pliny's Geography', 169. Note that Marco Polo mentions 'Kalatu' as a port at which many ships from India called. Cf. the discussion in A. W. Stiffe, 'Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf, iv: Maskat', GJ 10 (1897), 615. fn. 207 Handbuch, 753 n. 4. fn. 208 Die alte Geographie, § 68. fn. 209 Cf. von Wissmann, 'Zaabram', 1309; J. Ryckmans, 'Petits royaumes sud-arabes, d'après les auteurs classiques', Le Muséon, 70 (1957), 79: 'Pline attribue Acila (Ocelis) à des Sabéens Scénites (c'est-à-dire non sédentaires).' fn. 210 Von Wissmann, 'Zangenae', 1342. 211 Miles, 'Note on Pliny's Geography', 169. » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ vol. 2 p. 312

※ SOURCE for: Akila:
« B3 | Akila/Okelis § | Khor Ghurayrah (Shaykh Sa'id)? YEM | Robin 1995, 225. » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 44

※ SOURCE for: Ocilia:
« B3 | Akila/Okelis § | Khor Ghurayrah (Shaykh Sa'id)? YEM | Robin 1995, 225. » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 44

※ SOURCE for: Okelis:
« Miles took a different view, and saw the proprietorship of the Scenitae Sabaei over the emporium at Acila, a point of embarkation for trade with India, as the beginning of the second east Arabian section. This, however, was based on his identification of Acila with Qalhat, a coastal town located north of Sur.206 Both Forbiger207 and Sprenger,208 however, have convincingly demonstrated the identity of Acila and Okelis, near the Bab al Mandab,209 and this is surely more plausible as a Sabaean trading- station than Qalhat in Oman. More recently, von Wissmann has discussed this point in extenso, and proposed that the indication of Sabaean control at the Bab al Mandab is a sign that this portion of the text must have originated around 50 BC.210 fn. 206 Miles, 'Note on Pliny's Geography', 169. Note that Marco Polo mentions 'Kalatu' as a port at which many ships from India called. Cf. the discussion in A. W. Stiffe, 'Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf, iv: Maskat', GJ 10 (1897), 615. fn. 207 Handbuch, 753 n. 4. fn. 208 Die alte Geographie, § 68. fn. 209 Cf. von Wissmann, 'Zaabram', 1309; J. Ryckmans, 'Petits royaumes sud-arabes, d'après les auteurs classiques', Le Muséon, 70 (1957), 79: 'Pline attribue Acila (Ocelis) à des Sabéens Scénites (c'est-à-dire non sédentaires).' fn. 210 Von Wissmann, 'Zangenae', 1342. 211 Miles, 'Note on Pliny's Geography', 169. » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ vol. 2 p. 312

« B3 | Akila/Okelis § | Khor Ghurayrah (Shaykh Sa'id)? YEM | Robin 1995, 225. » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 44

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ad Daffah 1 (DFH1)
UTM: GK903675 converted to coordinate: lat 22.2887807255937 long 59.8173433291277
VARIANT names: Ad Daffah 1 (DFH1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ad Daffah 1 (DFH1):
« Village » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 288

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ad Daffah 2 (DFH2)
UTM: GK905669 converted to coordinate: lat 22.2833330724625 long 59.8191738751217
VARIANT names: Ad Daffah 2 (DFH2) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ad Daffah 2 (DFH2):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Place Name: Ad Dayr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -784787 coordinate: lat 26.2841667 long 50.6236111
NIMA/GNS names: Ad Dayr , Dair , Dair-ar-Rahib , Dayr ar Rahib ,
VARIANT names: Ad Dayr ,

※ SOURCE for: Ad Dayr:
« Apart from these finds there are, however, toponymic indications of at least two settlements datable to the Sasanian period. Samahig, a village on the north coast of Muharraq, preserves the name of the Nestorian bishopric Mašmahig, attested in the acts of the Nestorian synods in 410 and 576 (see below). In 1914 'old foundations' were noted here. (125) Further west on Muharraq is the village of Dayr, the Aramaic name of which means 'cloister', 'monastery',(126) Thus, Dayr is almost certainly the site of one of the numerous Nestorian monasteries known to have existed in the region. These names, together with the literary evidence attesting to a substantial Nestorian population on Bahrain in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries, suggest that it is only a matter of time before more archaeological material of comparable date is discovered there.. fn. 125 E. Sachau, Die Chronik von Arbela (Abh. d. Königl. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl., 6; Berlin, 1915), 27. fn. 126 For Aramaic dayr, see S. Fränkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (Leiden, 1886), 275. For a discussion of Christian clerical terms in Arabic, cf. C. Hechaimé, » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ vol. 2 pp. 124-5

Place Name: Aden
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 420687 coordinate: lat 12.779444 long 45.036667
NIMA/GNS names: `Adan , Aden , عدن ,
VARIANT names: Adam , Adan , Adem , Aden , Arabia Eudaemon ,

※ SOURCE for: Adam:
« ADAM, porto de- Adém ou Aden, em 12° 45' lat. N. e 45° 04' long. E., na costa setentrional do golfo do mesmo nome. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 8

※ SOURCE for: Adan:
« 'ADAN (ADEN) (i) town, (ii) British crown colony, (iii) British protectorate in S.W. Arabia. (1) Town and seaport on the South coast of Arabia, in British possession since 1839, with a mixed population of ca 35,000. Adan (cf. akkad. edinu "steppe"), more precisely 'Adan Abyan (by way of distinction from Adan La'a, and al-'Adan in a verse of Ufnün al-Taghlibi; cf. Yakut, iii, 622 f., Kay, 232, AM, ii, 17, 284), or tha ghr "Adan from its being strongly fortified, is the Athene of Pliny, 'Abýv of Philostorgius, Ευδαίμων Αραβία of the Periplus, 'Apaßía Európtov of Ptolemy (cf. Pauly-Wissowa, Suppl., iii, 6), and most probably the 'eden of Ez., xxvii, 23 (see recently v. Wissmann-Höfner, Beiträge 206 (88), where also the triple do of CIH 550, which may, however, be a fake, is quoted). For other names of the place see al-Makdisi, 30, IM, 110 (= Löfgren, Arab. Texte, i, 29). » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden ~ vol. 1 p. 180

※ SOURCE for: Adem:
« ADAM, porto de- Adém ou Aden, em 12° 45' lat. N. e 45° 04' long. E., na costa setentrional do golfo do mesmo nome. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 8

※ SOURCE for: Aden:
« que nenhuma naao que tomar carrega em calecut nom posa pasar do estreito pera dentro nem hir a aden, resaluando se aden esteuese a nosa obidiencia e seruiço, porque emtam poderam hir a dita cidade, e sendo alguma das ditas naaos achada por nosas armadas do cabo de goarda fune pera dentro seja tomada de booa guerra. » #2516 Afonso de Albuquerque, Raymundo Antonio de Bulhão Pato, Henrique Lopes de Mendonça, Cartas de Affonso de Albus querque, seguidas de documentos que as elucidam, ~ vol. 2 p. 451

※ SOURCE for: Arabia Eudaemon:
#823 Warmington, E H, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India, Cambridge, 1928 p. 9 owtrad web file OWTRAD Dataset tmcIRa0100 last updated 3may01 gives « Arabia Eudaemon, 44.8825, 12.748333, YE, nkn, exact, 853, tmcIRa0100_017a »

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE1 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE1 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE1 Kish:
« Other variants: Qais Details: The location on an equivalent version of the place name, Qais, is marked (TPC Sheet H-7D). No. of sherds: 136 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE10 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE10 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE10 Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 10 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE2 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE2 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE2 Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 115 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE20 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE20 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE20 Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE3 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE3 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE3 Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 79 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE4 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE4 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE4 Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 54 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AE6 Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AE6 Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AE6 Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: AES Kish
UTM: 5359, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 53.9833333333333
VARIANT names: AES Kish ,

※ SOURCE for: AES Kish:
« Other variants: See AE1 Details: See AE1 No. of sherds: 17 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Ahmadabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3051945 coordinate: lat 28.4472 long 52.3688
NIMA/GNS names: Ahmad Abad Arba'eh , Ahmadabad , احمد آباد ,
VARIANT names: Ahmadabad , Ahmedabad ,

※ SOURCE for: Ahmadabad:
« Ahmadabad » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: fig. Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars}

« Ahmadabad » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}

※ SOURCE for: Ahmedabad:
« Gaouri à Ahmedabad (Dingar), 30 kilomètres (mardi 5 mars). »#3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p.132

Place Name: Ahmadi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 393237 coordinate: lat 29.0769 long 51.0607
NIMA/GNS names: Ahmadi , احمدی ,
VARIANT names: Ahmadi ,


Place Name: Ahram
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 14803349 coordinate: lat 28.85259 long 51.23315
NIMA/GNS names: Ahram ,
VARIANT names: Ahram ,


Stream in grp 08AB04 name: Ahram Rud
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 28.887543 long 51.223814
VARIANT names: Ahram Rud ,

※ SOURCE for: Ahram Rud:
« Ahram Rud » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} Shiraz 444 D

Place Name: Ahwaz
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052107 coordinate: lat 31.312381 long 48.677175
NIMA/GNS names: Ahvaz , Ahwaz , Bandar Nasiri , Bandar-e Naser , Naseri , Nasiri , اهواز ,
VARIANT names: Ahwaz , Hormizd-Ardashir , Khüzistan-wäzär , Süq al-Ahwaz ,


※ SOURCE for: Hormizd-Ardashir:
see source « Süq al-Ahwaz »

※ SOURCE for: Khüzistan-wäzär:
see source « Süq al-Ahwaz »

※ SOURCE for: Süq al-Ahwaz:
« The ancient capital of Shush (Susa), by its connections with Mesopotamia, Mesene (hence with the Gulf trade), and Färs, remained an important economic centre into the Sasanian period. It contained a mint and became the seat of a diocese by 410. Shäpür II, who refounded the city as Erin-khwarra-Shäpür ("Shäpür's Fortune of Iran"), settled many of his Roman captives in the area. Their labour was used there on such projects as the Pay-i Pul over the Karkha (Eulaeus). Others were settled at the major city upstream from Shush, Karkhä dhe Lädhan (Erinshahr-Shipür), which was likewise a bishopric, and perhaps also at the mint-city Nahr Tirag (Nahr Tire). One day's journey to the east lay the provincial capital, Khüzistan-wäzär (Süq al-Ahwaz), at the head of navigation on the Kärün (Pasitigris) river. A bishop was already installed in this market town when Ardashir I renamed it Hormizd-Ardashir. The city was linked with Shush via the Shaur canal (the Choaspes?); and its bridge carried a southern road toward the major city in the east of the province, Rämhurmuz (Räm-Ohrmazd-Ardashir "Ardashir's Peace of Ohrmazd"). This early Sasanian foundation was likewise a mint and, by 410, centre of a diocese. » #843 Gershevitch, Ilya (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985 ~ vol. 3(2) p. 753

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI Iqrah (IQR1)
UTM: GJ222603 converted to coordinate: lat 21.3310664479884 long 59.1423928068744
VARIANT names: AI Iqrah (IQR1) ,

※ SOURCE for: AI Iqrah (IQR1):
« Shell scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.2
UTM: (0607984/2530944) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8829116777456 long 58.0527448739094
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.2 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.2:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 447

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.3
UTM: (0607832/2529992) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8743229619431 long 58.0511970055866
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.3 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.3:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 447

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.4
UTM: (0607803/2529110) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8663585460137 long 58.0508530489695
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.4 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.4:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 448

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.5
UTM: (068283/2529117) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8663908000481 long 58.0555319197825 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.5 ? ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.5:
[6 digit easting given in original UTM. On basis of other UTMs in AI-Fulayj group, assumed the easting as 060823 to obtain co-ordinates.]#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 449

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.5
UTM: (0608863/2531605) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8888248828805 long 58.0613596113282
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.5 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.5:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 446

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.6
UTM: (0608893/2529121) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8663873714758 long 58.0614776357175
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.6 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.6:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 449

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.7
UTM: (0609206/2530861) converted to coordinate: lat 22.882082708785 long 58.0646508294265
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.7 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.7:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 450

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.8
UTM: (0608822/2531696) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8896494642977 long 58.0609663245837
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.8 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.8:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 450

Arch. Site in OMN name: AI-Fulayj CS.1.9
UTM: (0609174/2532271) converted to coordinate: lat 22.8948199280394 long 58.0644382257983
VARIANT names: AI-Fulayj CS.1.9 ,

※ SOURCE for: AI-Fulayj CS.1.9:
#2804 Nasser Said Ali Al-Jahwari, Settlement Patterns, Development and Cultural Change in Northern Oman Peninsula: A multi-tiered approach to the analysis of longterm settlement trends, Durham theses, Durham University, 2008 2 vols: ~ vol. 2 p. 450

Place Name: Akbarabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052147 coordinate: lat 29.2464 long 52.7793
NIMA/GNS names: Akbar Abad Kawar , Akbarabad , Akbarabad-e Kavar , اکبر آباد ,
VARIANT names: Akbarabad ,


Place Name: Akhtar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052208 coordinate: lat 27.692537 long 52.229518
NIMA/GNS names: Achar , Akhiar , Akhtar , اچر , اختر ,
VARIANT names: Achar , Akhtar , Ras Auctoor , Uchtar ,

※ SOURCE for: Achar:
« Achar, situated about 4 miles north-westward of Tahiri, is a small village almost hidden in date groves but it has a large round conspicuous mosque in the middle of it. Anchorage, exposed to the kaus, may be obtained, in a depth of 11 fathoms (20ml), good holding ground, at a distance of about half a mile south-westward of the mosque. . » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p. 153


※ SOURCE for: Ras Auctoor:
« Ras Auctoor » in {map#1125 The Coast from Bushire to Basadore, in the Persian Gulf, G.B. Brucks and S.B. Haines, 1828, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3630/27, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Uchtar:
« Uchtar » in {map#1153 Sketch map showing the Route taken from Bushire following the coast line to the Port of Lingah, WH Colvill, 1865, Royal Geographical Society, London: Map Room, Iran S. 121}

Place Name: Al `Amarah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3102097 coordinate: lat 31.8452778 long 47.1752778
NIMA/GNS names: Al `Amarah , Amara , Amarah , Amare ,
VARIANT names: Al `Amarah ,

※ SOURCE for: Al `Amarah:
Amara, Qalat Salih, Turaba, Azair and Qurnah all match up with modern populated places in {map#1079 The Marshes, Thesiger, , #120 Thesiger, Wilfred P., The Marsh Arabs, Pengiun Books Ltd., London, 1967 ~}

Place Name: Al `Aqabah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786207 coordinate: lat 25.930444 long 56.417365
NIMA/GNS names: `Aqabah , Al `Aqabah , Al `Aqbah , العقبة ,
VARIANT names: Al `Aqabah ,

※ SOURCE for: Al `Aqabah:
« To The Council of State at Khasab. Your noble letter to us has arrived, and no news has here occurred to deserve bringing to your notice, and what you have informed us has been understood, particularly about our neutrality. We are, insha’allah, obeying the order. The tribesmen have all been informed, also the people of Limah, Aqabah, and whoever depends upon them not to succour. … {Signed) Salih bin Muhammad, Al Shihi Shaikh of Daba. » #22 Thomas, Bertram, Alarms and Excursions in Arabia, George Allen and Unwin:Bobbs-Merrill, 1931 ~ p. 252

Place Name: Al `Arabiyah
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3091357 coordinate: lat 27.7794444 long 50.1741667
NIMA/GNS names: Al `Arabiyah , Al-`Arabiyya , Arabi , Djazirat al- `Arabiyya , Jazirat `Arabi , Jazirat al `Arabiyah , Jazireh-ye `Arabi , Jezirat Arabi ,
VARIANT names: Al `Arabiyah , Araby , Cock , Kenn , Keyn ,


※ SOURCE for: Araby:
« ISLANDS in MIDDLE of GULF. Keyn, or Araby, is 6 leagues to E. by N. of the Bid- dulph Islands; in lat. 27° 47' N., lon. 50° 11' E.; and Zazarin, or Farsy, in lat. 27° 59' N, lon. 50° 10' E., stands about equi-distant from both Arabian and Persian coasts. They are both low and sandy, not to be seen above 3 leagues from the deck. Keyn, the 8. one, 3 ft. above water, is a round sand-bank, with a few shrubs on it; the E. point has rocks above water, and sunken rocks extend all round to the distance of 4 m., with over-falls from 20 to 14 fathoms, then to 5 and 3 fathoms, on which account this island should not be approached nearer than 30 fathoms. Faray, bearing nearly N. from Keyn, distant about 4 leagues, is rather larger than the other, and about 10 ft. above sea, having on the N. end a pile of stones, resembling a boat under sail, when first seen. This island should not be approached nearer than 32 fathoms, there being 25 fathoms about 1 m. from it on the N. side, and 22 fathoms very near it to the S. These isles are frequented by turtle and large birds. Ships seldom stand so far from the Persian shore as to see them, being dangerous to approach in the night. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1874 ~ p. 254

※ SOURCE for: Cock:
see source « Kenn » above

※ SOURCE for: Kenn:
« Kenn / Cock / Arabia » in {map#1142 No II Chart of the Gulph of Persia, , , #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1}

※ SOURCE for: Keyn:
see source « Araby »

Place Name: Al `Ashshar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLX UFI: -3102129 coordinate: lat 30.5183333 long 47.8402778
NIMA/GNS names: Al `Ashar , Al `Ashshar , Ashar , Askar ,
VARIANT names: Al `Ashshar , Al-Ubullah , Apologos , Obollah , Uballah , Ubulla ,


※ SOURCE for: Al-Ubullah:
#326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 p. 13

« Charax is transcribed as Karak Aspasin (KRK "SPSN") and identified as Karka de Meshan (KRK' DYMYµN) in Palmyrene inscriptions of the 1st and 2nd centuries. It was called Karkha dhe Mayshan in Syriac and Karkh Maysan in Arabic. Its site, formerly sought in the vicinity of Muhammara, has been convincingly identified by Hansman with modern Djabal Khayabir near the left bank of the Shatt al-'Arab. By Pliny's time, Charax was 193 km. from the coast although the tide went upstream far beyond it. The left bank of the lower Tigris was inhabited by Chaldaeans, the right bank by Arabian brigands called Attali beyond whom were nomadic Scenitae. T'iao-Tche is described in Han sources as a hot, low, densly populated, rice-growing region with lions, rhinoceroses, zebu, peacocks, ostriches, and clever jugglers. Strabo adds the production of barley, sesame oil, and dates. By the 1st century B.C., Charax was a major commercial centre where Indian ships met caravans from Petra and Palmyra. In the 1st century A.D., caravans from Petra arrived at the town of Forat 11 or 12 miles downstream from Charax. Its site was either near the modern town of al- Tanuma on the left bank of the Shatt al- 'Arab, or, according to Hansman, at Maghlub, 17.4 km. (10.8 miles) southeast of Djabal Khayabir. Apologos (al-Ubulla) also appears as an emporium on the right bank of the Shatt al-'Arab opposite Forat at 'Ashsharr, the modern port of al-Basra, in the 1st century. Copper, sandalwood, teak, ebony, spices and gems were imported from Barygaza in Gudjarat through Apologos, while Characene merchants exported|pearls, clothing, wine, purple, dates, gold and slaves. In the winter of 115-16, Trajan occupied Characene briefly, collecting tribute from Attembelos V, after which it returned to Arsacid rule. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 6 p. 919

※ SOURCE for: Apologos:
#326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 p. 138

« Islamic al-Ubulla was the classical Apologos, the port of the maritime merchant kingdom of Mesene or Characene [see MAYSAN], thus suggesting a continuity in the role played by the Shatt in long distance maritime and caravan trade. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 7 p. 67

also on maps #823 Warmington, E H, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India, Cambridge, 1928 and #824 Miller, J Innes, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire, 29 BC to AD 641, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1969

35. Apologus.-This was the city known as Obollah, which was an important port during Saracen times, and from which caravan-routes led in all directions. As "Ubulu, in the land of Bit-Yakin" it figures in many of the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. It was among the conquered places named in the Nimrud Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 B. C.) whose arms were carried from Bit-Yakin "as far as the river Uknu (Cynos, Wadi ed Dawasir?) on the coast of the Lower Sea," " and who received from Merodach- Baladan, of Yakin, king of the sea, a tribute of "gold-the dust of his land-precious stones, timber, striped clothing, spices of all kinds, cattle and sheep." The location of Obollah seems always to have given it importance as a commercial center. Under the Seleucidæ, and in the time of Strabo, Teredon was the leading port; while in the time of the Periplus Obollah had regained its former position. #487 W. H. Schoff, The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea ... Translated from the Greek and annotated by W. H. Schoff, Longmans Green and Co:Munshiram Manohardal Publishers Pvt Ltd, London:New Delhi, 1912:1995 ~ p. 149

« At the very head of this gulf there is a regular mart of commerce, called the city of Apologos, (1) situate near Pasinou-Kharax (2) and the river Euphrates. fn. 1 This place does not appear to be referred to in any of the other classical works, but it is frequently mentioned by Arabian writers under the name of Ubulla. As an emporium it took the place of Teredon or Diridotis (see pp. 33 and 41), just as Basra, under the second Caliphate, took the place of Ubulla itself' (McCrindle). » #187 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., The Persian Gulf, an Historical Sketch from the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1928 ~ p. 53

※ SOURCE for: Obollah:
see source « Apologos »


※ SOURCE for: Ubulla:
« The Sasanian/early Islamic town of Ubulla, near Basra, was reported to be a market for pearls from Bahrain (Naji 1993: 425). (3) fn. 3 Naji does not give a reference for this statement, and the exact date of this remains uncertain. Ubulla was a Sasanian foundation, identified with the port of Vanishtabadh Ardashir, and flourished until around the 13th c. CE (Bearman et al. 2000 Vol. X: 766; Williamson 1972: 98). » #2817 Robert Carter, The History and Prehistory of Pearling in the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 2005 vol. 48:no. 2:pp. 139-209 ~ p. 144

Place Name: Al Ain
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782123 coordinate: lat 24.199087 long 55.772022
NIMA/GNS names: `Ain , `Ain Dhawahir , `Ayn Zawahir , Al `Ayn , Al Ain , Al Ian , El Ain ,
VARIANT names: Al Ain ,


Place Name: Al Ashkharah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -785892 coordinate: lat 21.84728 long 59.571581
NIMA/GNS names: Al Ashkhara , Al Ashkharah , Al Ashkhirah , Lashkharah ,
VARIANT names: Al Ash Hara , Al Ashkharah , Al-Askhara , El Ganka ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Ash Hara:
« We anchored near Al Ash Hara, famous in the Beni boo Alii war of 1820, in consequence of the crew of an English ship having been murdered there. » #2631 Owen, W. F. W, Narrative of voyages to explore the shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar; performed in H.M. ships Leven and Barracouta, under the direction of Captain W.F.W. Owen, Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street, London, 1833 ~ vol1 p210

※ SOURCE for: Al Ashkharah:
« On her way to Al Ashkharah Mercury called at Muscat, where she took on the Shaikh of Ras al-Hadd who had volunteered to act as pilot. On 20 September Mercury arrived off Al Ashkharah. A high sea was running, making it impossible for the cruiser’s boat to get through the surf, so the shaikh volunteered to swim ashore with Thompson’s letter. » #12 Kelly, John Barrett, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880, Oxford University Press, London, 1968 ~ p.172

« Al-Ashkharah, a fishing town south-west of Ras al-Hadd (49mi/80km) was our next stop. The town lies among the sand hills a few miles from the beach. I saw one boatyard where a shufwas under construction. From my informants461 could gather that years ago the inhabitants used to spend some part of their year (about six months) in Al-Ashkharah, engaged in catching Aa/z'af (kingfish) with their sanbuqs, then selling the dried salted fish to ocean-going dhows on their way to East Africa or India (Mumbai) from the months of July to December. » #2620 Dionisius A. Agius, Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman People of the Dhow, Taylor and Francis, 2012 ~ p86

※ SOURCE for: Al-Askhara:
« Al-Askhara is near the beach and the houses, 486 Arabia, Eastern and South-Eastern, and a few of which are of stone, are much scattered ; it has two towers, and the people possess thirty badans, which are sheltered under a low reef of rocks. » #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994 ~ p. 485-6

※ SOURCE for: El Ganka:
« El Ganka » only appears in a few 18th and 19th century maps, its position varying but mainly in alignment with « Al Ashkharah ». There is no useful text to be found.

« El Ganka » is shown in (map [853] Partie, l'Arabie. Asie 92., Vandermaelen, Philippe, 1827, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 2212.124) which when overlaid in GE is some 22km from Al Ashkharah on a heading of 293° , Al Ashkharah proposed [PBR]

« El Ganka » and « Coutreki » in {map#853 Partie, l'Arabie. Asie 92., Vandermaelen, Philippe, 1827, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 2212.124} and also in {map#374 Carte de la Turquie, de l'Arabie et de la Perse, G. de l'Isle et Ph. Buache, 1780, }

In {map#901 Cart de la Turquie de l'Arabie et de la Perse, G. de l'Isle et Ph. Buache, 1780, }

« Ganka » in {map#854 Chart Intended as an Accompaniment to the Book of Directions for Navigating to, from, and in the East Indies. Engraved by John Bateman, Admiralty, 1830, British Library IOR/X/3630/14} and in {map#902 Arabia, G. Archibald, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1852, #2676 Andrew Crichton, History of Arabia and its people, T. Nelson and Sons, London, 1852 ~} but in 1877 « Ganka » appears to have been repaced by « Lashkhareh » {map#855 Africa, Sheet VI from the Juba Islands to Maskat with the Entrance to the Red Sea [1r] (1/2), Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen, Admiralty, 1877, British Library IOR/X/3828/598}

Place Name: Al Azair
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3102772 coordinate: lat 31.3352778 long 47.4213889
NIMA/GNS names: `Ozeir , `Uzayr , Al `Azir , Al `Uzayr , Al Azair , Al Uzair , El Ozair , Ozier , Qasabat al `Uzayr ,
VARIANT names: Al Azair ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Azair:
Amara, Qalat Salih, Turaba, Azair and Qurnah all match up with modern populated places in {map#1079 The Marshes, Thesiger, , #120 Thesiger, Wilfred P., The Marsh Arabs, Pengiun Books Ltd., London, 1967 ~}

Place Name: Al Basrah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3102179 coordinate: lat 30.4941667 long 47.8191667
NIMA/GNS names: Al Basrah , Basra , Basra , Basrah , Bassora , Bassorah , Bassorah , Bassra , Busra , Busrah , Bussora ,
VARIANT names: Al Basrah , Al-Basra , Baçorá , Basra , Basrah , Bassora , Bassorah , Basurate , Pi-ssi-lo ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Basrah:
« La conquista di Hormoz da parte degli Arabi risale alla seconda metà del VI1 secolo; già sotto il califfato di ‘Umar (634-644 A.D.), il Governatore di al-Basrah, Abu Musa ‘Abdallah ibn Qais al-Ashari, ed il Governatore di Oman e Bahrein, Uthman ibn Abi’As ath-Thaqafi, avevano attraversato il Golfo Persico servendosi di naviglio locale, ed avevano occupata alcuni caposaldi costieri nel Fars, penetrando nello Zagros. » #294 Piacentini, Valeria Fiorani, L'emporio ed il regno di Hormoz (VIII-fine XV sec. d. Cr.) : vicende storiche problemi ed aspetti di una civiltáa costiera del golfo persico, Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, Milano, 1975 ~ p. 37

※ SOURCE for: Al-Basra:
« Al-Basra’s hinterland was vast: merchants arrived from Aleppo, Damascus, Mausil, Bagdad and minor market centres (266). Therefore, Al-Basra could be affected by the Ottoman- Safavid struggle for eIraq-e ‘Arab despite its long independence from either of the two foes. Disruptions of trade occurred when warfare rendered traffic along connecting overland routes impossible (267). Along the sealanes, no serious obstructions of traffic bound for Al-Basra on the part of the Safavids were recorded after the 1620’s, although the covetous eye of individual Safavid port officials would occasionally fall on a richly laden vessel on its way to Al-Basra (268). More detrimental were the protracted wars prior to the eviction of Huseyn Pāšā: in 1665, he confiscated provisions and boat-loads of goods which travelled upstream from Al-Basra in order to feed his ill-prepared forces defending the province near Al-Qurna (269). fn. 266 ARA VOC 1210, fl.937rff.: J. Barra, Al-Basra, to Amsterdam, dated 20/10/1656. fn. 267 For the situation in the 1620’s see C. ROMER (1989), Die osmanische Belagerung Bagdads 1034-35/1625-26. Ein Augenzeugenbericht, Der Islam LXVI/1, 119-136. fn. 268 Somewhat surprisingly, the governor of Bandar-e Kong prevented an English ship from leaving for Al-Basra in spring 1640, after the peace of Zuhab, see EFI1 VI, 245f: W. Thurston et al., Al-Basra, to London, dated 22/6/1640. IOR G/36/102B, on the other hand, is mistaken in blaming Safavid-Ottoman hostilities for slackening trade, as suggested in D. Rizk KHOURY (1991), 63: except for an aborted expedition into Azarbalgan the two empires were at peace. On the other hand, the Afrasiyab-Ottoman struggle for the fortress Zakiya, the Cretan wars, and the Dutch blockade of Safavid ports in 1645 reduced the volume of trade in that season, Nevertheless, sufficient coins were exported to sustain the trading season in Sind, EFI1 VIII, 60f.: J. Spiller, Sindi road, to Surat, dated 8/12/1646. fn. 269 This episode is recorded both in Ottoman and Basran chronicles, see S. LONGRIGG (1925), 114, and archival sources. However, some of the latter specify that the merchants thus dispossessed on their way to Bagdad were Armenians, not Basran traders, see ARA VOC 1528ff.: J. Vogel, Al-Basra, to Amsterdam, dated 8/3/1666. » #2879 Rudiger KLEIN, Trade in the Safavid Port City Bandar Abbas and the Persian Gulf Area (ca. 1600-1680) A Study of Selected Aspects - Thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1993/4 ~ p. 118

※ SOURCE for: Baçorá:
« As galés turcas meteram-se pelo canal que há entre aquela ilha e o con tinente e daí soltaram rumo para Baçorá. Enquanto o galeão de Gonçalo Pereira Marramaque seguia para Ormuz a reboque de algumas fustas, » #2821 Monteiro, Armando da Silva Saturnino, Batalhas e combates da Marinha Portuguesa, 1992 ~ vol. 3 p. 161

« A 30 de Janeiro fui avizado de Ormuz como os Turcos, que estão de goarnição em Babilonia, desceram pelo Eufrates abaixo e tomarão huma terra que se chama Zaquia, onde fizerão huma fortaleza a borda do rio Eufrates, na terra da banda da Persia, obra de um dia e meyo de caminho da cidade de Baçora pelo rio acima. [On the 30th of January I was told from Hormuz how the Turks, who are in charge of Babylon, have gone down the Euphrates and will take a land called Zaquia, where they will build a fortress on the bank of the Euphrates River, in the land on the side of Persia, work a day and a half way upriver from the city of Baçora.] » #2545 Edic¸a~o cri´tica por Armando Cortesa~o e Lui´s de Albuquerque, Obras completas de D. Joa~o de Castro, Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa, Coimbra, 1968-1981 ~ vol. 3 p. 286

※ SOURCE for: Basra:
« ... free from interference by Omani ships, but a group which

« With much of their military energy absorbed on the European front, the Ottomans were ambivalent about protracted campaigning against Persia as well (Murphey, pp. 230-34, 247; Bacqué-Grammont, 1993a, p. 222). Yet it was the Ottomans who launched three campaigns against Persia (as opposed to ten in the Balkans) duringṬahmāsb’s reign. The first of these was the War of the Two Iraqs of 1533-34, which returned Baghdad to Ottoman control and gave them a tenuous hold over Basra. The invasion of Iraq came after the Safavid governor of Baghdad, Ḏu’l-Faqār Beyg, had embraced Sunnism and offered the keys to the city to the sultan. In 1546 a complicated tribal struggle that involved the Mošaʿšaʿ and the ruler of Zakiya, near Basra, caused the Ottoman to send an expedition to southern Iraq that resulted in renewed, firmer Ottoman control over the city (Posch, 2000, pp. 80-86; Bacqué-Grammont, 2004, pp. 13 f.) With much of their military energy absorbed on the European front, the Ottomans were ambivalent about protracted campaigning against Persia as well (Murphey, pp. 230-34, 247; Bacqué-Grammont, 1993a, p. 222). Yet it was the Ottomans who launched three campaigns against Persia (as opposed to ten in the Balkans) duringṬahmāsb’s reign. The first of these was the War of the Two Iraqs of 1533-34, which returned Baghdad to Ottoman control and gave them a tenuous hold over Basra. The invasion of Iraq came after the Safavid governor of Baghdad, Ḏu’l-Faqār Beyg, had embraced Sunnism and offered the keys to the city to the sultan. In 1546 a complicated tribal struggle that involved the Mošaʿšaʿ and the ruler of Zakiya, near Basra, caused the Ottoman to send an expedition to southern Iraq that resulted in renewed, firmer Ottoman control over the city (Posch, 2000, pp. 80-86; Bacqué-Grammont, 2004, pp. 13 f.) » at <www.iranicaonline.org/articles/iraq-iv-safavid-period> [Vol. XIII, Fasc. 5, pp. 556-560 and Vol. XIII, Fasc. 6, p. 561]

※ SOURCE for: Basrah:
suffered much were the Armenian merchants trading the Gulf. They were based at Julfar near Isfahan and for several years at the turn of the century were harrassed continuously. The Iman found it convenient to declare war against them - a device appearing to legalise the piracy it actually represented - and was particularly favoured by the location of Muscat in prosecuting this war. For example, in September 1700, hearing that an Armenian ship had left Bandar Abbas for Basrah, two ships were sent from Muscat to try to intercept it. This they failed to do but on reaching Basrah boarded it, took possession, and left with it whilst it was still laden with its cargo of corn and barley ... » #2816 Bathurst, Raymond Denis, The Ya’rubi dynasty of Oman, (unpublished thesis), University of Oxford, 1967 ~ p. 201

※ SOURCE for: Bassora:
« L'importance des liaisons commerciales entre Bassora et Ormuz et le fait qu'Ormuz fût l'escale obligée des marchandises venant de l'Inde, explique que Bassora (en dépit de la suzeraineté exercée par âah Isma'il depuis 1508)69 ait cherché à nouer rapidement des contacts avec les Portugais. fn. 69. Cf. Encyclopédie de l'islam. 1. Leyden, E. J. Brill, 1960, s. e. Basra, p. 1119. Sah Ismail succéda à cette date au dernier souverain aqqoyunhu réfugié à Bagdad, dont l'autorité sur le Bas-Irak était déjà toute nominale. [ The importance of commercial links between Bassora and Ormuz and the fact that Ormuz was the obligatory stopover for goods coming from India, explains why Bassora (despite the suzerainty exercised by âah Isma'il since 1508)69 sought to quickly establish contact with the Portuguese. fn. 69. See Encyclopedia of Islam. 1. Leyden, E.J. Brill, 1960, s. e. Basra, p. 1119. Sah Ismail succeeded on this date to the last Aqqoyunhu sovereign who took refuge in Baghdad, whose authority over Lower Iraq was already quite nominal. ] » #2953 Dejanirah Silva-Couto, L'expédition portugaise à Bassora en 1551 in Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 2002. 146? année,: N. 2:pp. 461-486 ~ p. #2953 Dejanirah Silva-Couto, L'expédition portugaise à Bassora en 1551 in Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 2002. 146? année,: N. 2:pp. 461-486 ~ p. 476

※ SOURCE for: Bassorah:
« In the time of Hossein Pasha, the son of Ali Pasha, both of them mentioned in the Travels of Pietro della Valle and Tavernier, the city of Bussorah was distant nearly two miles from the banks of the river, and Minawi was then a distinct village, serving as the port or landing-place. It was this Hossein who extended the walls of the former town down to the river, and enclosed the village of Minawi within it, by which means all the intermediate fields and gardens which had never before, nor have even since been built upon, became incorporated with the rest. The newly enclosed village was then fortified by a strong wall continued all around it, and formed nearly an eighth of the whole space enclosed within the walls of Bussorah, even when thus extended. » #1185 Buckingham, J. S., Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia, including a journey from Bagdad by Mount Zagros, to Hamadan, the ancient Ecbatana, researches in Ispahan and the ruins of Persepolis, and journey from thence by Shiraz and Shapoor to the sea-shore, Henry Colburn: Gregg International Publishers Limited, London: London, 1829:1971 ~ pp. 365-6

※ SOURCE for: Basurate:
« Basurate » in {map#1069 Carte française du Golfe Persique, anonyme, 1600-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18E PF 209 DIV 2 P 8 RES} see AHduGP map 66

※ SOURCE for: Pi-ssi-lo:
(#326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 pp. 117, 122 note 13)

Place Name: Al Duss
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 384926 coordinate: lat 25.905873 long 56.390165
NIMA/GNS names: Ad Duss , Al Duss , Dass , Dus , دص ,
VARIANT names: Al Duss , Lima Cadeinah , Lima Gadina , Lima Kaddimah , Lima Khodima , Lima Qadimah ,


※ SOURCE for: Lima Cadeinah:
« To the S.W. of Ras Lima lies the bay of Lima Cadeinah, extending 2 miles inland, with depths from 16 to 10 fathoms, open to easterly winds; and mid-way between Ras Huffar and Ras Lima, lies Dooat Sheriat, another bay, with from 14 to 4 fathoms water, and several other smaller inlets between Dooat Sheriat and Ras Huffar, all open to south-east winds. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ p. 380

※ SOURCE for: Lima Gadina:
only old map with both locations « Lyma, Lima Gadina » in {map#967 Chart of the Persian Gulf, Thomas Bowrey, 1685, Add.5222.15, British Library} see AHduGP map 86

« Lima caduuia » in {map#975 Côtes de la Mer d'Oman. 1 : 5 000 000, Anonymous, 1660, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE D-17166} see AHduGP map 63

« Lima Cadina » in {map#876 Kaart van een gedeelte van den Persische Golf, , 17th, Nationaal Archief, 4.VELH nr 219} see AHduGP map 47

※ SOURCE for: Lima Kaddimah:
« Lima Kaddimah » in {map#983 Entrance to the Persian Gulf, Guy, Brucks, Haines and Grieve, 1872, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3828/753, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Lima Khodima:
« Ras Summootee is the north point forming the Bay of Lima Khodima. It is in lat. 25° 54' 37" N., long. 56° 30' 36" E.; soundings near it twenty-seven to twenty-three fathoms. Within this, at the bottom of the bay, is Lima Khodima, at which place there is a little flat land, and a few date trees. The contrast from all the high and black rock before you come to it, and after leaving it, makes it appear a little Paradise in this rocky wilderness. In the bay are soundings twenty to eight fathoms, and rather better ground than in the other places. The bay is two and a, quarter miles deep, and about a mite to a mile and a half wide. Above this is a high, remarkable, peaked hill, usually called Lima Peak. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 521

※ SOURCE for: Lima Qadimah:
« At Lima, the Amir stated, On the historical side, I can tell you that about a hundred and ten years ago, the Shihuh fought Ras al-Khaimah, where the Saqr Hospital is now. This fighting was led by Lima, but all the Shihuh joined. Everyone went to Dibba Bai’ah, and went down that way, they didn’t come down the mountains directly into Ras al-Khaimah. The fighting had something to do with land, and I don’t really know what the outcome was. In 1902, ‘Ali bin Brayyim and Zaid Sinan Kumzari were the Shihhi leaders who helped the Sharqi drive the Qawasim out of Bithnah, and many Shihuh joined them in this. Much earlier than this, more than two hundred years ago, maybe four hundred years ago, Shihuh fought with Oman; contingents of Shihuh were active all the way down the Batinah coast as far as Masqat. At one time, Lima was bombarded by the Hollandiya, we had a fort at the bottom of Lima Qadimah, nearly on the beach. A lot of people had taken refuge in it, and there were defenders on the towers. The Dutch bombardment destroyed it, and everyone inside was killed when the building collapsed on top of them. At some time, we took three cannons; one of them is here at our old house, one is at our house in Salhad, and one is somewhere in Dibba Bai’ah. We don’t know when this was, or from whom we took the cannon, or where this happened. The list of the shuyukh of Lima is Bani Gulf coastal towns and places on the Shamailyya and Batinah coasts » #2813 William Lancaster, Fidelity Lancaster, Honour is in Contentment Life Before Oil in Ras Al-Khaimah (UAE) and Some Neighbouring Regions, De Gruyter, Berlin ; Boston, 2011 ~ pp. 490-1

« Mansur, Bani Shawkat, Bani Braiyyil/m, Bani ‘Ali; there is a document that dates the first Bani Mansur shaikh to c. 1795, but it is lost. One of his sons continued, Lima is very old. At the back of Lima is a built zigzag track into the mountains, called Tariq al-Khail, the horse track. We don’t know why horses would be going up and down, so its use must have stopped more than two hundred years ago. al-Alama is west of Lima bay and used to belong to the Haslamani, but it was bought forty years ago by Bani Hassun because they needed land. Haslamani were decreasing in numbers and they didn’t need it. There are two very old graveyards here, and in each of them the ruined masjid was built on an old mound, sanam. People stopped living at Lima Qadima a long time ago, except for a few who left forty years ago. » #2813 William Lancaster, Fidelity Lancaster, Honour is in Contentment Life Before Oil in Ras Al-Khaimah (UAE) and Some Neighbouring Regions, De Gruyter, Berlin ; Boston, 2011 ~ p. 491

Place Name: Al Farisiyah
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3062771 coordinate: lat 27.966667 long 50.183333
NIMA/GNS names: Al Farisiyah , Al-Farisiyya , Jazirat al-Farsi , Jazirat Farsi , Jazireh-e-Farsi , Jazireh-ye Farsi , Jezirat Farsi , جزيرۀ فارسی ,
VARIANT names: Al Farisiyah , Farsy , Zazarin , Zezarine ,


※ SOURCE for: Farsy:
« Islands in Middle of Gulf. Keyn, or Araby, is 6 leagues to E. by N. of the Biddulph Islands; in lat. 27° 47' N., lon. 50° 11' E.; and Zazarin, or Farsy, in lat. 27° 59' N, lon. 50° 10' E., stands about equi-distant from both Arabian and Persian coasts. They are both low and sandy, not to be seen above 3 leagues from the deck. Keyn, the 8. one, 3 ft. above water, is a round sand-bank, with a few shrubs on it; the E. point has rocks above water, and sunken rocks extend all round to the distance of 4 m., with over-falls from 20 to 14 fathoms, then to 5 and 3 fathoms, on which account this island should not be approached nearer than 30 fathoms. Faray, bearing nearly N. from Keyn, distant about 4 leagues, is rather larger than the other, and about 10 ft. above sea, having on the N. end a pile of stones, resembling a boat under sail, when first seen. This island should not be approached nearer than 32 fathoms, there being 25 fathoms about 1 m. from it on the N. side, and 22 fathoms very near it to the S. These isles are frequented by turtle and large birds. Ships seldom stand so far from the Persian shore as to see them, being dangerous to approach in the night. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1874 ~ p. 254

※ SOURCE for: Zazarin:
see source « Farsy »

※ SOURCE for: Zezarine:
« Zezarine / Perfia / Kierazin » in {map#1142 No II Chart of the Gulph of Persia, , , #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1}



Place Name: Al Fatk
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3182738 coordinate: lat 16.515544 long 52.692262
NIMA/GNS names: Al Fatk , الفتك ,
VARIANT names: Al Fatk , El Fatk ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Fatk:
« The Fartak Range, 609 to 914m high, extends W from Ras Fartak (15°38'N., 52°16'E.). Vertical cliffs rising to heights of about 580m extend 8 miles N from Ras Fartak and form the greatest escarpment on the SE coast of Arabia. The cliffs are barren except near the summits, where the vegetation is mainly on the W side. Jabal al Fatk, 609m high, extends W from a position about 55 miles NNE of Ras Fartak and joins the Fartak Range. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~ p.180

※ SOURCE for: El Fatk:
« fn.1 There are four routes from Dhofar to the Hadhramaut: (1) my route by Thamut; (2) Habarut, Shalhamit, Sarif (wadi Kadiut), Kadiut village, Minar (wadi Mohorat), Ej Jelt, Maksi (wadi Washa), Ed Dahil; (3) coast route: Rakhyiut, Jadib, Damqut, El Fatk, Yarub, El Ghaidha (Ghaila), Mahaifif, Harut, Dhobut; (4) coast route to El Ghaidha, then a ten days' direct route to the Hadhramaut by Dahal, Shaltan, Yahul through Mahra country. » #158 Thesiger, Wilfred P., A new journey in Southern Arabia, The Geographical Journal, London, 1947 (Apr.) 108:4-6:129-45 ~ p.139

Place Name: Al Ghaydah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3182788 coordinate: lat 16.207869 long 52.17605
NIMA/GNS names: Al Ghaydah , Al Ghayzah , Ash Shahid Nasir , Ghaidha , الشهيد ناصر , الغيضة , الغيظة ,
VARIANT names: Al Ghaydah , Ausara , Cubu , El Ja’izer , Ghaila , O Goubo , oguobo / ogobo ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Ghaydah:
« Al Ghaydah (16°12'N., 52°16'E.), the largest town on the shores of Ghubbat al Qamar, stands 14 miles NNE of the village of Hayrut and 2 miles inland. 9.22 From February to April, small craft with local knowledge anchor about 1 mile off this town, over a sandy bottom. 9.22 Qabr Qaylul (Abd Allah Gharib), a tomb with some date trees in its vicinity, stands close to the coast about 8 miles NNE of Al Ghaydah. The village of Airub (Jarub) stands 3 miles farther NNE. 9.22 An isolated shoal patch, with a depth of 32m, was reported (1999) to lie about 9.5 miles ENE of Qabr Qaylul. 9.22 Al Jawhari (16°29'N., 52°27'E.), a white tomb with a few huts nearby, stands 9 miles inland. The coast between Al Jawhari and Ras Sajr, 65 miles ENE, is backed by mountains. A wadi separates Jabal al Fatk from the Athub Range, which terminates in a dark bluff point. Overfalls are reported to occur in the vicinity of the 200m curve about 7 miles SE of the wadi’s mouth. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~ p. 190

※ SOURCE for: Ausara:
« D2 | Ausara | R | al-Ghayda? YEM | von Wissmann 1977, 13 » in #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ Map 4 Arabia-Azania directory p. 45

D.T. Potts, DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Ausara: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2020 link39301 [accessed: 13 March 2023] Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 16.33209, 52.098032

※ SOURCE for: Cubu:
« Cubu » in {map#897 Carte de l'Océan Indien, John Burston, 1665, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18E PF 213 DIV 3 P 4 RES}

※ SOURCE for: El Ja’izer:
« Immediately after passing the high land of Fartik, there is said to be a creek, having sufficient depth of water over the bar at high tide, to enable their bugalds to enter for safety during the southwest monsoons, with deeper water inside. The first town visible, close along shore, is El Ja’izer, a considerable place under the government of Sayyad ’Akib ibn Ahmed. It has cultivated ground in its vicinity, and is a place of some importance, situated about 7 miles from the sea. » #16 Haines, Stafford B., Memoir of the south-east coasts of Arabia. Part II, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1845 15:104-60 ~ p. 115

※ SOURCE for: Ghaila:
« fn.1 There are four routes from Dhofar to the Hadhramaut: (1) my route by Thamut; (2) Habarut, Shalhamit, Sarif (wadi Kadiut), Kadiut village, Minar (wadi Mohorat), Ej Jelt, Maksi (wadi Washa), Ed Dahil; (3) coast route: Rakhyiut, Jadib, Damqut, El Fatk, Yarub, El Ghaidha (Ghaila), Mahaifif, Harut, Dhobut; (4) coast route to El Ghaidha, then a ten days' direct route to the Hadhramaut by Dahal, Shaltan, Yahul through Mahra country. » #158 Thesiger, Wilfred P., A new journey in Southern Arabia, The Geographical Journal, London, 1947 (Apr.) 108:4-6:129-45 ~ p.139

※ SOURCE for: O Goubo:
« O GOUBO, porto de - AI-Ghaidtha, em 16° 12' lat. N. e 52° 15' long. E., no litoraI do Hadramaute. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. O-Z p. 4

in {map#918 f. 16r: A map of the eastern coast of Africa, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, …, Diogo Homem, 1555-1559, British Library,The Queen Mary Atlas, Add MS 5415 A}

« mocola, xael, caixem, c. de fartaque, curafate, O guobo, costacham, dofar, marabate, curia muria, as duas pontas, c. de maraca, » See also note « André Homem79 79 PMC2, pp. 67-70. » #2741 ed. Giovanni Pedrini, Imago Orientis Venezia e gli Orienti geografi e dell’Asia, Grafiche Leoni, 2020 ~ p.76

« curafate, O guobo, costacham, dofar » {map#937 Planisphere [Universa ac navigabilis to…], Andreas Homem, 1559, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE CC-2719 (RES)} see PMC vol.2 EST 188 and EST 189E

※ SOURCE for: oguobo / ogobo:
« Bartolomeu Velho, atlante, carta della penisola arabica; San Marino (California), Huntington Library, HM 44, f. 7r; » « caixem, c. de fartaq/ue, curafate, oguobo / ogobo, Camagas?, dofar, p[on]ta de murobate, murobate?, p[on]ta de curiamuria, J. de curia muria, as duas pontas, praçel, c. de maraca, emseada das baxas, » See also note « 80 PMC2, pp. 89-92; Biedermann, p. 129; AHGP, n. 26. » #2741 ed. Giovanni Pedrini, Imago Orientis Venezia e gli Orienti geografi e dell’Asia, Grafiche Leoni, 2020 ~ p.78

« c: d[.?] fartaque, curafate, ogobo, dofar » {map#885 f. 7r, India, Arabia, and portion of eastern Africa., Velho, Bartolomeu, 1550-1599, The Huntingdon Library mssHM 44}

« La penisola arabica in una carta di un atlante anonimo annesso al Livro da marinharia di João de Lisboa; Lisboa, Arquivo Torre do Tombo, CF 166, f. » « c. De fartaque, qulufate, oguobo, camguer, dofar, p. de murubate, murubate, p. de curia maria, ilhas de curia maria, as duas pontas, c. ce matraca » See also note « 15v 81 PMC1, pp. 173-176; AHGP, n. 25. » #2741 ed. Giovanni Pedrini, Imago Orientis Venezia e gli Orienti geografi e dell’Asia, Grafiche Leoni, 2020 ~ p. 78

« qu[t?]ufata, oguobo, camguer, dofa[t?] » {map#576 15ª carta: Mar Vermelho e Golfo Pérsico, Livro De Marinharia, de João de Lisboa, anonymous, 1560, Arquivo Nacional, Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Colecção Cartográfica, n.º 166} see PMC vol. 1 EST 96

« Vaz Dourado è particolarmente evidente nell’atlante di San Marino,89 » « xaell, p. furada, xarma, cirique, caxem, c. fartaque, callufate, oguobo, caniger, doffar, murubate, p. de curiamuria, J. de curiamuria, as duas po[n]tas, c. de matraqua, emseada de s.a p.o, » See also note « 89 PMC3, pp. 13-16; Biedermann, p. 129; AHGP, n. 34 » #2741 ed. Giovanni Pedrini, Imago Orientis Venezia e gli Orienti geografi e dell’Asia, Grafiche Leoni, 2020 ~ p.80

« xarma, cirique, caxem, c. fartaque, callufate, oguobo, caniger, doffar » {map#834 Eastern Africa, Arabia, and India, Fernão Vaz Dourado, 1550-1575, The Huntington Library HM41 fol11} see PMC vol. 3 EST 269

« pta furada, cuiane, caixem, c. de fartaq, curafate, oguobo, Camagas (?), dofar, pta de murobate, murobate (?), pta de curiamuria, I. de curia muria, as duas pontas, praçel, C. de matraca, emseada das baxas, I. de maceida, emseada de s.pº, os palheiros, C. Rasalgate » #1118 Cortesão, Armando F. and Teixeira Da Mota, Avelino, Portugaliae Monumenta Cartographica, Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, Lisboa, 1960: 1987 ~ vol. 2 p. 100

Place Name: Al Haffah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -785965 coordinate: lat 17.008288 long 54.107643
NIMA/GNS names: Al Hafah , Al Hafah , Al Haffah , Hafa , Hafah , الحافة ,
VARIANT names: Al Haffah , Haffer , Harfut ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Al Haffah FOR Hormanus River [von Wissmann],

※ SOURCE for: Al Haffah:
« The next village near the sea-shore, S. E. of Sallalah, is Haffer, in 16" 57' 30" N. and 54" 11' 00" E., about 1½ mile distant, containing a population of about 100 men. Two miles and a half E.N.E. of Haffer, there is a fresh-water lake, formed by a copious spring, near which there are extensive ruins. This lake is deep and thickly covered with bullrushes, where we here found abundance of wild-fowl. About 1½ mile inland, and 2½ to the N.E. of Haffer, is the village and white mosque of Robit, with a population of 100 or 200 souls. » #16 Haines, Stafford B., Memoir of the south-east coasts of Arabia. Part II, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1845 15:104-60 ~ p. 118

※ SOURCE for: Haffer:
« The next village near the sea-shore, S. E. of Sallalah, is Haffer, in 16" 57' 30" N. and 54" 11' 00" E., about 1½ mile distant, containing a population of about 100 men. Two miles and a half E.N.E. of Haffer, there is a fresh-water lake, formed by a copious spring, near which there are extensive ruins. This lake is deep and thickly covered with bullrushes, where we here found abundance of wild-fowl. About 1½ mile inland, and 2½ to the N.E. of Haffer, is the village and white mosque of Robit, with a population of 100 or 200 souls. » #16 Haines, Stafford B., Memoir of the south-east coasts of Arabia. Part II, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1845 15:104-60 ~ p. 118

※ SOURCE for: Harfut:
« I assume that the karst spring of Harfut is meant (10), at the foot of the Qamar mountains. fn. 10 See also the German Sailing Handbook and Captain Haines (Memoirs of the South and East Coast of Arabia II, Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. London 15, 1845). » #2719 Hermann von Wissmann, Walter W. Mu¨ller, Das Weihrauchland Sa’kalan, Samarum und Moscha (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch - Historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte), Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1977 ~ p. 13

Place Name: Al Hajar
NIMA/GNS feature: MTS UFI: -785967 coordinate: lat 23.703724 long 56.672041
NIMA/GNS names: Al Hajar , Al Hajar al Gharbi , Al Hajar al Gharbi , Hajar , Western Hajar , الحجر الغربي ,
VARIANT names: Al Hajar , Western Hajar ,


※ SOURCE for: Western Hajar:
NIMA data

Place Name: Al Harqus
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3095386 coordinate: lat 27.9391667 long 49.6827778
NIMA/GNS names: Al Harqus , Al Hurqus , Harqus , Jazirat al Harqus , Jazirat al Hurqus , Jazirat Harqus , Jezirat Harkus ,
VARIANT names: Al Harqus , Hargooz ,


※ SOURCE for: Hargooz:
« BIDDULPH ISLANDS are distant about 10 leagues to the E.N.E. of Ras-el-Ghar, and consist of three low sandy islands, surrounded by reefs. Two of them bear nearly N. and S. of each other, distant 4 m.; the S. one, called El-Kran, or El-Kuran, 2 ft. high, is in lat. 27° 39' N., lon. 49° 50' E., and the other called El-Kraing, or El-Kurayin, 5 ft. high, is in lat. 27° 43' N. The third, and most N., is called Hargooz, and bears N.N.W. 5 leagues from El-Kraing. There is from 9 to 14 fathoms water between El Kran and El-Kraing, and 28 to 30 fathoms a little to the E. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1874 ~ p. 254

Place Name: Al Hasikiya
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -785985 coordinate: lat 17.478087 long 55.602575
NIMA/GNS names: Al Hasikiya , Al Hasikiyah , Al-Hasikiyya , Hasikiya , Hasikiya Island , Haski , Haskiyah , الحاسكية ,
VARIANT names: Al Hasikiya , azequy ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Hasikiya:
« Azequy [Portuguese name] al-Ḥäsikiya [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 ~ p. 99

※ SOURCE for: azequy:
{map#931 Chart of the Indian Ocean, Jorge (?) Reinel, 1510, Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, Cod. Guelf. 98 Aug. 2º} to south and small bay [azequy] shows opposite Kuria Muria islands [cste illya herhamada / [cu?]riamurya]

in #2588 Jorge Reinel; Lopo Homem; Anto´nio de Holanda, Atlas miller, M. Moleiro, Barcelona, 2003 ~ pp 306-307 and {map#823 Nautical Atlas of the World, Folio 3 Recto, Northern Indian Ocean with Arabia and India, Reinel, Pedro, Reinel, Jorge and de Holanda, António, 1519, Collection Marcel Destombes, Rés. Ge. DD. 683 Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris}

« Azequy [Portuguese name] al-Häsikiya [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 ~ p.99

« xer, fataca, diufar, marbato, ambez, azequy, ylhas de cariamuria » See also note « atlas miller 52 PMC1, pp. 55-61; AHGP, n. 10. » #2741 ed. Giovanni Pedrini, Imago Orientis Venezia e gli Orienti geografi e dell’Asia, Grafiche Leoni, 2020 ~ p.67 {map#823 “Atlas Miller", [Feuille 3 r° : Océan Indien Nord avec l'Arabie et l'Inde], Lopo Homem, 1519, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, Res. Ge. DD 683} see PMC vol. 1 EST 19

Arch. Site in OMN name: Al Hayli 41
UTM: FA 865 029 converted to coordinate: lat 22.62278 long 58.81462
VARIANT names: Al Hayli 41 ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Hayli 41:
« Triliths, cairn tombs, tombs (3 skin wall) » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 47 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Al Husain 68
UTM: FV 622 950 converted to coordinate: lat 22.55394 long 58.57745
VARIANT names: Al Husain 68 ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Husain 68:
« Graves, walled area » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 56 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Al Jadi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786031 coordinate: lat 26.163577 long 56.170964
NIMA/GNS names: Al Jadi , Jaal , Jadi , Jadl , الجادي ,
VARIANT names: Al Jadi ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Jadi:
Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

Place Name: Al Jirri
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786044 coordinate: lat 26.216757 long 56.184949
NIMA/GNS names: Al Jari , Al Jari , Al Jiri , Al Jirri , Jiri , Jirri , Jivi , الجري ,
VARIANT names: Al Jirri ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Jirri:
Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

Place Name: Al Jubayl
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3091973 coordinate: lat 25.4 long 49.65
NIMA/GNS names: Al Jubayl , Al-Jubail ,
VARIANT names: Al Jubayl ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Al Jubayl FOR Gerrha [Potts],

※ SOURCE for: Al Jubayl:
Potts lists the possibilities for the location of Gerrha including Qatif, Hofuf, al Uqayr and Salwa then says « that Thaj and al-Jubayl are the sites of the inland town of Gerrha and its coastal port » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ pp. 85-97 and p. 90

Place Name: Al Junaynah
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -783251 coordinate: lat 24.207222 long 53.405278
NIMA/GNS names: Al Djunaina , Al Junaina , Al Junaynah , Janana , Jananah , Junanah , Juneina ,
VARIANT names: Al Junaina , Al Junaynah , El Djunaina , Jenahney ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Junaina:
« Al Junaina » in {map#1033 Asia. Persian Gulf [173r], Guy, Brucks, Constable, Stiffe, 1933, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3924, f 173, in Qatar Digital Library}


※ SOURCE for: El Djunaina:
« El Djunaina » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}

※ SOURCE for: Jenahney:
« Jenahney » in {map#910 Map of Arabia, Published by J. Walker, Geographer to the Honble East India Company, 1849, British Library, IOR/X/3206}

Place Name: Al Kamil
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786050 coordinate: lat 22.21684 long 59.200928
NIMA/GNS names: Al Kamil ,
VARIANT names: Al Kamil ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Kamil:
« In October 2021, an amphora stored in the Ministry of Heritage and Tourism in al-Khuwair was recorded that reportedly came to light in 2013 (Figure 3). The intermediary, Saʿid Muḥammed al-Harsusi from Haymā', received the vessel from Thabit al- Musharithi of Jaʿalān, who evidently salvaged the vessel while tending his goats at Jabal Qahwān, southern Sharqiyya governorate, c. 17 km eastsouth- east of al-Kamil (findspot: 22°09’30.8”N, 59°20’45.7”E). » #2810 Paul A. Yule, An ʿAqaba/Ayla-type amphora in the sultanate of Oman, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2022 ~ p. 5

Arch. Site in OMN name: Al Kamil 38
UTM: GV 260 570 converted to coordinate: lat 22.20361 long 59.19224
VARIANT names: Al Kamil 38 ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Kamil 38:
« Mudbrick structure, aqueduct » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 47 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Al Khadhra
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786057 coordinate: lat 23.857103 long 57.327591
NIMA/GNS names: Al Khadhra , Al Khadra' , Khadhr , Khadhra , Khadra' , Khadra' Al Sa`ad , Khadra' Al Sa`ad , خضراء آل سعد ,
VARIANT names: Al Khadhra , Kaderrah ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Khadhra:
« al Khadhra » in {map#1009 Chart 2837a. Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet, Constable, Stiffe, Guy, Brucks, 1860, 'Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet' [?1r] (1/2), British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3828/2837a, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Kaderrah:
« Kaderrah is a village of about one hundred inhabitants, in lat. 23° 53' N., long. 57° 29' 45" E. The usual supplies may be obtained here, and it is under the Chief of Suik.» #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 626

Place Name: Al Khaluf
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -787634 coordinate: lat 20.470315 long 58.062431
NIMA/GNS names: Al Khalaf , Al Khaluf , Khaluf , الخلوف ,
VARIANT names: Al Khaluf ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Khaluf:
« Low sand dunes are present along the east coast and patches of mangrove thrive near Filim in the Ghubbat Hashish bay on the western flank of the peninsula. South of the small fishing village of Al Khaluf a magnificent deserted sandy beach with white sugary dunes behind stretches for nearly 20 km along the Indian Ocean coast. » #2586 Mike Searle, Geology of the Oman Mountains, Eastern Arabia, Springer International Publishing, 2019 ~ p. 391

Place Name: Al Khidr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLL UFI: 99381 coordinate: lat 29.4644444 long 48.2883333
NIMA/GNS names: Al Khidr ,
VARIANT names: Al Khidr ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Khidr:
«The site of al-Khidr, in the northern part of Failaka, was prospected by the Kuwait National Museum a few years ago. There should be other sites of the Dilmun period on the island, since in some places where recent work has taken place, Bronze age sherds were found on the ground. » #2921 Yves Calvet, Failaka and the northern part of Dilmun, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1989 vol. 19:pp. 5-11 ~ p. 8

Place Name: Al Khubar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3092086 coordinate: lat 26.2794444 long 50.2083333
NIMA/GNS names: Al Khobar , Al Khubar , Khobar ,
VARIANT names: Al Khubar , Bore , Khobar ,


※ SOURCE for: Bore:
« On the Arabian peninsula, Mecca ("La mecha") is depicted with the Kaaba, the building at the center of Islam's most sacred mosque, Al-Masjid al-Haram, clearly visible, and, further south, "Adden" (Aden) can be found. Other place names include "Mascati" (Muscat), "Zarar" (Sohar) and "Cauo de Mada" (Musandam Peninsula), "Culfal" (Qatar). and "Bore" (Khobar). » #2214 Daniel Crouch Rare Books, The Vesconte Maggiolo Planisphere of 1531, Oct 19, 2016 ~ p. 42

※ SOURCE for: Khobar:
« Since Achaemenid times, Persians had settled around the town of Gerrha, not far from known qanats sites at Qatif, Khobar, and Bahrain. Gerrha had thrived on the various trade routes which con- verged in the region (Salibi, 1980: 37; Fig. 3). Caravans plying these routes carried spices and other commodities from India, along with frankincense and myrrh (aromatic resins from scrubby trees of the same names) from South Arabia. One route to Gerrha ran from south-west Arabia, across the Najd plateau, between the eastern and western periph- eries of the Peninsula. While this route was important to the incense and exotic goods trade from south-west Arabia, it cannot account for the diffusion of qanats, because qanat technology was rather late in coming to south-west Arabia, or Yemen (see next section) (Lightfoot, 2000). Historical data suggest that qanats had been implanted around Qatif and Bahrain before, or at the same time as the ganats in western Yemen. Another route to Gerrha ran along the Gulf coast from Oman. » #849 Lightfoot, Dale R., The origin and diffusion of qanats in arabia: New evidence from the northern and southern peninsula, The Geographical Journal, London, 2000 (Sep.) 166:3: ~ p. 219

« Stone divers' weights are reported to have been recovered from oyster shell middens found "along the shore a mile south of al-Khobar" (Le Baron Bowen 1951: 176). This approximately matches the location of a string of Ubaid-related sites at Ain As-Sayh (McClure and Al-Shaikh 1993; » #2817 Robert Carter, The History and Prehistory of Pearling in the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 2005 vol. 48:no. 2:pp. 139-209 ~ p. 164

Place Name: Al Kumait
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3107759 coordinate: lat 32.0336111 long 46.8775
NIMA/GNS names: Al Kumait , Kumayt , Markaz Nahiyat Kumayt ,
VARIANT names: Al Kumait , Qumait ,


※ SOURCE for: Qumait:
« The Prince of Basrah had long warning. He had strenghtened the fortifications of his capital and of Qurnah, and built an outpost at Qumait. For months past he had been expelling from Basrah all useless members of the population. » #2955 Stephen Hemsley Longrigg, Four Centuries of Modern Iraq, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1925 ~ p. 113

Arch. Site in IRN name: Al Kunar Lamzam
UTM: 5453, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 54.8833333333333
VARIANT names: Al Kunar Lamzam ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Kunar Lamzam:
« Other variants: Kunardon Details: Kenar-e means ‘next to something’, this should therefore be ‘the place next to Lemazan', where there is indeed a cluster of ruins marked (TPC Sheet H- 7D). No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Al Kurain Island
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3096679 coordinate: lat 27.6494444 long 49.8225
NIMA/GNS names: Al Kurain Island , Al Quraiyin , Al Qurayn , Al Qurayyin , Jazirat al Quraiyin , Jazirat al Qurayn , Jazirat Kurayn , Jezirat al Kurain , Kraine , Kurain , Kuraiyin , Kurayn , Qraiyin Island , Qraiyn , Quraiyin Island ,
VARIANT names: Al Kurain Island ,


Place Name: Al Kuwait
NIMA/GNS feature: PCLI UFI: -789772 coordinate: lat 29.5 long 47.75
NIMA/GNS names: Al Kuwait , Al Kuwayt , Al Kuwayt , Al Kuweit , Dawlat al- Kuwait , Dawlat al Kuwayt , Dowlat al Kuwait , Koweit , Kuwait , Kuwait , Kuweit , Shaikhdom of Kuwait , Sheikhdom of Kuwait , State of Kuwait , دولة الكويت ,
VARIANT names: Al Kuwait , Koueit , Koweit , Kuweit ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Kuwayt FOR Sacer Bay [Groom],


※ SOURCE for: Koueit:
« Koueit » in {map#1035 Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A)} see AHduGP map 102

※ SOURCE for: Koweit:
« contains a group of sheikhdoms and emirates, the boundaries of which are not usually clearly defined, and includes Koweit, Hasa, El-Katr (Gattar), Trucial Oman, and a considerable part of the Sultanate of Oman, all of which maintain special relations with the British Government » #2927 George Walter Prothero, Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section, Peace Handbooks: Persian Gulf : French and Portuguese possessions, no. 76-81, H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1920 ~ p. 3

※ SOURCE for: Kuweit:
« KUWEIT,(1) on the gulf a little south of the river delta, will in all probability- before long, rise in importance and be as well known as Suez or Port Said. fn. 1 Kuweit is the Arabic diminutive of Kut a walled-village: the place is called Grane on some maps evidently a corruption of Kurein or "little horn," a name given to an island in the harbor. » #1816 Zwemer, Samuel Marinus, Arabia: The Cradle of Islam, Fleming H. Revell Company, New York, 1900 ~ p. 128

Place Name: Al Liwa'
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786079 coordinate: lat 24.530774 long 56.563001
NIMA/GNS names: Al Liwa' , Hillat al Hisn , Liwa , Liwa' , Liwa' , لوى ,
VARIANT names: Al Liwa' , Lua , Luar , Luwa , Portus Leupas ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Liwa':
Map "The Sultanate of Oman", Oman Newspaper House, 1985, Bartholomew Maps 1:1,300,000

« Liwa had become a gathering place for the Imam's enemies driven out of central Oman and after dispute amongst the Jibur there the Hilali malik, Hammad ibn Jufayr, had been killed. The confusion gave the Iman's force a good opportunity to intervene when they surrounded the Fort, now held by the deceased malik's son Sayf, his brothers and supporters took refuge with the Portuguese at Suhar. For six months a siege was maintained during which the besieged were kept supplied by supporters at Suhar, who included the Portuguese, and who also attacked the besieging force at night. » #2816 Bathurst, Raymond Denis, The Ya’rubi dynasty of Oman, (unpublished thesis), University of Oxford, 1967 ~ p. 79

※ SOURCE for: Lua:
A little above the Sohar isles, the sea-port of Lua answers, apparently, to his [Pliny] Portus Leupas ;#365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Darf Punlishers Limited, London, 1846 ~ vol. 2 p. 230

※ SOURCE for: Luar:
« Luar is a large fort, with a town two miles inland, in lat. 24° 30' 53' N., long. 56° 9' 48" E. It is a place of some importance, and the nominal revenue of it, and the places attached to it, is about seven thousand German crowns but it is a very small portion that goes to the Imaum:» #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p.625

※ SOURCE for: Luwa:
« Luwa » in {map#919 Map of Oman Routes of Wellsted and Whitelock, J. R. Wellsted Royal Geographical Society, 1837, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Rare 416-c Oman B-1837}

※ SOURCE for: Portus Leupas:
« A little above the Sohar isles, the sea-port of Lua answers, apparently, to his [Pliny] Portus Leupas ; » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Darf Punlishers Limited, London, 1846 ~ vol. 2 p. 230

« Alternative Names: Al Liwa', Al Liwā’, Hillat al Hisn, Liwa, Liwa', Liwa’, Liwá, Liwā’, lwy, لوى, Ḩillat al Ḩisn » www.mindat.org/feature-289174.html

Place Name: Al Manama
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLC UFI: -784833 coordinate: lat 26.2361111 long 50.5830556
NIMA/GNS names: Al Manama , Al Manamah , Manama , Manameh , Menama ,
VARIANT names: Al Manama ,


Place Name: Al Mukalla
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3183737 coordinate: lat 14.542481 long 49.124244
NIMA/GNS names: Al Mukalla , Mukalla , المكلا ,
VARIANT names: Al Mukalla , Trētē , Tretos ,


※ SOURCE for: Trētē:
in Fig. 1. Explanations. The names of the Ptol. Map #899 Pauly, August Friedrich von and Wissowa, Georg, Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementband XI, Abragila–Zengisa (1968), Stuttgart, 1925 ~ cols. 1353-4

※ SOURCE for: Tretos:
in Fig. 1. Explanations. The names of the Ptol. Map #899 Pauly, August Friedrich von and Wissowa, Georg, Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementband XI, Abragila–Zengisa (1968), Stuttgart, 1925 ~ cols. 1353-4

D.T. Potts, DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Tretos: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2014 at <pleiades.stoa.org/places/39434> (accessed: 14 Mar 2023) Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 14.534337, 49.123406

Place Name: Al Murair
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786105 coordinate: lat 24.929989 long 56.388158
NIMA/GNS names: Al Murair , Al Murayr , Murair , Murayr , Murayr al Matarish , Murayr al Matarish , مرير المطاريش ,
VARIANT names: Al Murair , Murair-al-Kabirah , Murair-as-Saghirah ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Murair:
« The exact boundary with the Qasimi district of Shamailiyah beyond Murair is marked at the present time by a stone wall which runs seawards for a quarter of a mile from the extremity of the hills and through a gap in which the road from Murair to Ghallah passes.(1) fn. 1 See plan No. 1363 in the Foreign Department Library, Simla. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 283



※ SOURCE for: Murair-al-Kabirah:
« At mile 15, Murair, the port for Wadi-al-Qor; it consists of two parts, Murair-al-Kabirah and Murair-as-Saghirah, aggregating 270 houses, 33 baqarahs and battils, 45 camels, 45 donkeys, 75 cattle, 450 sheep and goats, and 7,000 date palms; scanty ordinary cultivation. Here Route No. 48, Sharjah-Murair, and Route No. 49, Hamriyah-Murair, join in. » #2851 'Routes in Arabia', British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/3, in Qatar Digital Library, 1915 ~ p. 201

« Murair-al-Kabirah مرير الكبيرة [name] 200 houses of Matarish. [Houses and inhabitants.] There are 3,000 date palms and ordinary cultivation; tobacco also is grown. Animals are 25 camels, 25 donkeys, 40 cattle and 200 sheep and goats. 18 Baqarahs belong to this port. [remarks] » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1811

※ SOURCE for: Murair-as-Saghirah:
« At mile 15, Murair, the port for Wadi-al-Qor; it consists of two parts, Murair-al-Kabirah and Murair-as-Saghirah, aggregating 270 houses, 33 baqarahs and battils, 45 camels, 45 donkeys, 75 cattle, 450 sheep and goats, and 7,000 date palms; scanty ordinary cultivation. Here Route No. 48, Sharjah-Murair, and Route No. 49, Hamriyah-Murair, join in. » #2851 'Routes in Arabia', British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/3, in Qatar Digital Library, 1915 ~ p. 201

« Murair-as-Saghirah مرير الصغيرة [name] 70 houses of Daramikah. [Houses and inhabitants.] Murair serves as a port for Wadi- al-Qor: 15 Baqarahs and Batils belonging to the place run to Masqat Town and the Persian Gulf. The inhabitants have 4,000 date palms, 20 camels, 20 donkeys, 35 cattle and 250 sheep and goats. [remarks] » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1811

Place Name: Al Qamar Bay
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -3190560 coordinate: lat 15.965124 long 52.164106
NIMA/GNS names: Al Qamar Bay , Ghubbat al Qamar , Ghubbat Qamr , Ghubbet Qamar ,
VARIANT names: Al Qamar Bay , al-Qamar (Moon) Bay , Sachalites Sinus ,


※ SOURCE for: al-Qamar (Moon) Bay:
« Der Name Zaxaλitys xóλros für die große Bucht zwischen Räs Fartak und Ras Mirbat, die aus der al-Qamar-(Mond-)Bucht und der Bucht von Zufär¹ besteht fn. 1 1 Zufar oder Dufar, heute oft Dhofar genannt » [The name Zaxaλitys xóλros [Sakhalin gulf] for the large bay between Ras Fartak and Ras Mirbat, consisting of al-Qamar (Moon) Bay and the Bay of Zufär¹, fn. 1 1 Zufar or Dufar, now often called Dhofar] #2719 Hermann von Wissmann, Walter W. Mu¨ller, Das Weihrauchland Sa’kalan, Samarum und Moscha (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch - Historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte), Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1977 ~ p. 5

※ SOURCE for: Sachalites Sinus:
« D2 | Sachalites Sinus | R | Qamr bay | Beeston 1981, 357 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory, Map 4 Arabia-Azania, p. 48

D.T. Potts, Sean Gillies, Perry Scalfano, R. Talbert, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Sachalites Sinus: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2021 at <pleiades.stoa.org/places/39419> (accessed: 10 Mar 2023) Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 15.9270015, 52.2093989

Place Name: Al Qasbiyah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLS UFI: -786127 coordinate: lat 24.0166667 long 57.0833333
NIMA/GNS names: Al Qasabiyat , Al Qasbiyah , Al Qasbiyat , Qasabiyat , Qasbiya ,
VARIANT names: Al Qasbiyah , Gassbeyher ,


※ SOURCE for: Gassbeyher:
« Gassbeyher is a village in lat..24° 2' 20" N., long. 57° 12' 54" E. Four miles to the SSE. is the village of Khoohoor, and between it and Kaderrah, Ahassa and three other villages, at all of which cattle may be procured. The country continues the same as to appearance and cul-tivation. The soundings off the coast are regular. . » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 626

Place Name: Al Qatar
NIMA/GNS feature: PEN UFI: -785514 coordinate: lat 25.5 long 51.25
NIMA/GNS names: Al Qatar , Al Qatar , Bar al Qatar , Barr-al-Qartar , Dawlat Qatar , Gatar , Katar , Katar , Qatar , Qatar , Qatar , Qatar , Qatar Peninsula , Shaikhdom Qatar , Sheikhdom of Qatar , State of Qatar , دولة قطر , قطر ,
VARIANT names: Al Qatar , Catar , Catara , Cattara , Culfal , El-Katr , Gattar ,


※ SOURCE for: Catar:
« CATAR, península de - Bar Al Qatar, em 25° 30' lat. N. e 51° 15' longo E., no litoral árabe do golfo Perslco. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 203

※ SOURCE for: Catara:
« Catara » in map #2655 Francois Valentyn, Oud en nieuw Oost-Indien vervattende een naaukeurige en uitvoerige verhandelinge van Nederlands mogentheyd in die gewesten, benevens eene wydlustige beschryvinge der Moluccos ...,, Joannes van Braam, 1726 ~ after p. 284

« Catara » in Fig. 17. South-eastern Arabia according to Cl. Ptolemy. After Groom 1994: 200.#1592 ed. Ibrahim al Abed, Peter Hellyer, United Arab Emirates a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 54

※ SOURCE for: Cattara:
« Cattara » in {map#967 Chart of the Persian Gulf, Thomas Bowrey, 1685, British Library, Add.5222.15} see AHduGP map 86

※ SOURCE for: Culfal:
« On the Arabian peninsula, Mecca ("La mecha") is depicted with the Kaaba, the building at the center of Islam's most sacred mosque, Al-Masjid al-Haram, clearly visible, and, further south, "Adden" (Aden) can be found. Other place names include "Mascati" (Muscat), "Zarar" (Sohar) and "Cauo de Mada" (Musandam Peninsula), "Culfal" (Qatar). and "Bore" (Khobar). » #2214 Daniel Crouch Rare Books, The Vesconte Maggiolo Planisphere of 1531, Oct 19, 2016 ~ p. 42

※ SOURCE for: El-Katr:
« contains a group of sheikhdoms and emirates, the boundaries of which are not usually clearly defined, and includes Koweit, Hasa, El-Katr (Gattar), Trucial Oman, and a considerable part of the Sultanate of Oman, all of which maintain special relations with the British Government » #2927 George Walter Prothero, Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section, Peace Handbooks: Persian Gulf : French and Portuguese possessions, no. 76-81, H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1920 ~ p. 3

※ SOURCE for: Gattar:
« contains a group of sheikhdoms and emirates, the boundaries of which are not usually clearly defined, and includes Koweit, Hasa, El-Katr (Gattar), Trucial Oman, and a considerable part of the Sultanate of Oman, all of which maintain special relations with the British Government » #2927 George Walter Prothero, Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section, Peace Handbooks: Persian Gulf : French and Portuguese possessions, no. 76-81, H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1920 ~ p. 3

Place Name: Al Qatif
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3092484 coordinate: lat 26.52 long 50.0247222
NIMA/GNS names: Al Qatif , El Katif , Qatif ,
VARIANT names: Al Qatif , Al-Katif , catifa , Catifaa , Catife , El Katif , El-Catif , Katif ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Al Qatif FOR Istriana [Forster], POSSIBLE LOCATION at Al Qatif FOR Bilbana [James], POSSIBLE LOCATION at Al Qatif FOR Bilbana [Cornwall],

※ SOURCE for: Al Qatif:
« Between 1229-1230 and 1244, thanks to the backing "Shaykh of Qays powerful fleet, Abü Bakr ibn Sa'd ibn Zanji, having gained full control over this maritime domain, of Hind managed to extend his sovereignty, both direct and indirect, over the Arabian coast as well: Bahrain, al-Qatif, al-Hasa and the fortresses of Tarût and Lahsa were from the stormed and incorporated. » #2026 Piacentini, Valeria Fiorani, The mercantile empire of theṬibis: economic predominance, political power, military subordination, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 2004 vol. 34:pp. 251-260 ~ p. 254

※ SOURCE for: Al-Katif:
« AL-KATIF, a large oasis in Saudi Arabia on the southern shore of the Persian Gulf. 1. Geography and demography. The oasis fronts on Tårut Bay, named after the island facing its centre. Although al-Katif was for centuries a sea- port of considerable importance, it is now, due to the shallowness of its waters, used only by small craft. Most of the maritime traffic had been diverted to the oil-shipping port of Ra's Tannura (Ras Tanura) on the narrow peninsula which forms the north side of the bay and to the commercial port of al-Dammam [q.v.] at the southern extremity of the bay. The oasis stretches about 22 km. from north to south along the coast of the bay. In the far north the town of Safwa and its girdle of date palms are cut off from the bay by Sabkhat Djawan (sabkha = "salt flat"), from the main body of the oasis by Sabkhat Safwa and the sands of al-Diabdjüb, and from the inland village of Umm al-Sabik by the sands of al- Dawaghir. In the centre of the oasis is the town of al-Katif proper, popularly called al-Kal'a after the old Ottoman (not Portuguese) fort razed in recent times. The more important villages in its vicinity are al-Kudayh and al-Awwamiyya to the north, and al-Diärüdiyya, Umm al-Khamam, al-Diishsh, and 'Anik to the south. Separated from the rest of the oasis by the sands of al-Badrani is the interior village of al-Adjām (pronounced lodjam). The oasis ends in the south with the flourishing town of Sayhät on the coast. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 4 p.763

※ SOURCE for: catifa:
« catifa » in {map#885 f. 7r, India, Arabia, and portion of eastern Africa., Velho, Bartolomeu, 1550-1599, The Huntingdon Library mssHM 44} see PMC vol. 2 EST 227-236 and AHduGP map 26

« CATIFA, lugar de-El Katiff, em 26° 31' lat. N. e 50° long. E., na costa da Ará- bia. Fernão Lopes de Castanheda esclarece que a fortaleza de Catifa distava dez léguas da ilha Baarem ou Bahrein. [João de Barros - Da Asia].[ CATIFA, Place de-El Katiff, at 26° 31' lat. N. and 50° long. E., on the coast of Arabia. Fernão Lopes de Castanheda clarifies that the fortress of Catifa was ten leagues from the island of Baarem or Bahrain. [João de Barros - From Asia].] » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 204

※ SOURCE for: Catifaa:
« CATIFAA, lugar de-v. Catifa, lugar de. [Afonso de Albuquerque - Cartas de]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 204

※ SOURCE for: Catife:
« CATIFE, lugar de-v. Catifa, lugar de. [João de Barros - Da Ásia]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 204

※ SOURCE for: El Katif:
« A notable instance of the intervention of the latter in behalf of their tributaries is recorded by Faria y Sousa, A.D. 1521, when being themselves masters of Hormuz they joined the "king" of that place in an expedition against Mukrim, his vassal of "Lasah," (el-Hasa,) to oblige him to pay his usual tribute for the island of el-Bahrein and el-Katif on the mainland. See Kerr's Voyages and Travels, vol. vi. pp. 188-90. » #482 Razik, Salil-Ibn, History of the Imâms and Seyyids of ’Omân ... from A.D. 661-1856. Translated from the original Arabic and edited, with notes, appendices, and an introduction, continuing the history down to 1870, by G. P. Badger, Darf Publishers Limited, London, 1871/1986 ~ p. 46 fn. 2

※ SOURCE for: El-Catif:
« El-Catif » in {map#362 Carte du Golfe Persique depuis Bassora jusqu'au Cap Rasalgate, Guillaume Nicolas Delahaye D'apres De Mannevillette, 1775, Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek (Collectie Bodel Nijenhuis, Portf. 175, n° 108)} see AHduGP map 57

※ SOURCE for: Katif:
« After Basra, Katif played a very important part in the conflict with the Portuguese. It was a second base on the coast of the Persian Gulf. Katif was included among the sanjaks of the beylerbeylik of Lahsa. At first the Ottoman governor of Lahsa held the rank of a sanjakbey (42). A document dating from the year 967/1555 reveals that sometime previously the sanjakbey of Lahsa had been raised to the status of Mir-i Miran, i.e., of beylerbey (43). The eyalet of Lahsa. which extended as far as Qatar, consisted of the sanjaks of Katif, Hama, Mubarriz, Jesha, Saffa, Jabrayn, Koban, Tahammiyya and Uyun (44). fn. 42Istanbul Topkapi Sarayi Kütüphanesi, MS. no. Koguslar 888, fol. 102 r. A certain Mehmed Bey held the appointment this time. fn. 43 C. Orhonlu, "1559 Bahreyn Seferine Aid Bir Rapor", in TD, XVII/22, (Istanbul, 1967), p. 6; quoting from MD, II, p. 167. fn. 44 Cf. Ruus 238, p. 146 (dated 6 Sevval 988/14 November 1580). See also J. S. Mandaville, "The Ottoman Province of al-Hasa in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries", in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90/3, (1970), p. 488. » #377 Ozbaran, Salih, The Ottoman response to European expansion, Studies on Ottoman-Portuguese Relations in the Indian Ocean and Ottoman Administration in the Arab Lands during the Sixteenth Century, Isis Press, Istanbul, 1994 ~ p. 129

Place Name: Al Qiran
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3096287 coordinate: lat 27.7166667 long 49.8261111
NIMA/GNS names: Al Qiran , Jazirat al Qiran , Jazirat Karan , Karan , Kiran , Kran , Qran Islet ,
VARIANT names: Al Qiran ,


Place Name: Al Sharjah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782371 coordinate: lat 25.337374 long 55.412056
NIMA/GNS names: Al Sharjah , Ash 'Mariqah , Ash Shariqa , Ash Shariqah , Sharga , Sharijah , Shariqah , Sharja , Sharjah , الشارقة ,
VARIANT names: Al Sharjah ,


Place Name: Al 'Uqayr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3092587 coordinate: lat 25.6430556 long 50.2144444
NIMA/GNS names: `Ojair , `Uqair , Al `Oqair , Al `Uqayr , Al Awqair , Al Awqayr , Oqair ,
VARIANT names: `Uqair , Al 'Uqayr , al-‘Uqayr , Ogair , Ojeir ,

※ SOURCE for: `Uqair:
« Uqair is pronounced Ogair, which was close enough to the Greek name to be convincing. Admittedly it was known that a walled city had been built at Uqair in Islamic times, but this was believed to lie on the offshore island where the present Uqair village stands. In any case, we knew of other sites not so far away where Islamic cities lay beside or above cities of Seleucid or earlier date. » #306 Bibby, Geoffrey, Looking For Dilmun, Pengiun Books Ltd., London, 1984 ~ p. 318-9

※ SOURCE for: Al 'Uqayr:
Potts lists the possibilities for the location of Gerrha including Qatif, Hofuf, al Uqayr and Salwa then says « that Thaj and al-Jubayl are the sites of the inland town of Gerrha and its coastal port » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ pp. 85-97 and p. 90

[owtrad web file OWTRAD Dataset tmcIRa0100 last updated 3may01 gives « Gerrha, 50.214443, 25.643057, SA, nkn, exact, 11, tmcIRa0100_051a » which places it at al Uqayr and not Jubayl. PBR]

located south west off the southern tip of Bahrain at Ra's al Barr

※ SOURCE for: al-‘Uqayr:
« Teredon seems to have been the trading post of the Gerrhaeans. This leads to the problem of the location of Gerrha, which has already been so substantially debated that it would be superfluous to go into detail over the arguments here. In effect there are now two schools of thought: first, the original view, which the writer has upheld elsewhere, that it centred on the Hasā oasis with a port not far from al-‘Uqayr (7) ; second, the view, strongly argued recently by Dr Potts and others, that the city was Thāj and the port was al-Jubayl (8) . fn. 7 Groom, 1984. fn. 8 Potts, 1984a. » #197 Groom, Nigel, Eastern Arabia in Ptolemy's map, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1986 ~ p. 68

※ SOURCE for: Ogair:
« Ogair liks opposite to the island of Bahrein, and may be esteemed the chief seaport of the Wahabees. A custom house, at which all imports direct for Lahsa and Dareyah are landed, is established at this place, as their conveyance .to their several destinations by land is thus greatly shortened. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 18

※ SOURCE for: Ojeir:
« Until recently, a port like Uqair, that served the Hofuf oasis, Riyadh and part of the Nejd, was practically uninhabited: it consisted of a customs office, a khan and three shops (Anonymous 1915: 308). We have a description by Leachman: ‘‘a small place, little more than a custom house, an old Arab fort, and a few buildings surrounded by the desert.... There is a considerable caravan trade with the interior’’ (1914: 520). S.M. Zwemer, who visited Uqair twice, in 1893 and 1905, wrote, ‘‘Ojeir, although it has neither a bazaar nor a settled population, has a fair harbour, a mud-fort, and an imposing Custom-house, and is therefore the landing- place for the immense quantity of Indian rice and Manchester piece-goods shipped by way of Bahrein into the interior of Arabia. Caravans of 500 or 1,000 camels leave every fortnight’’ » #2928 Michel Mouton, The settlement patterns of north-eastern and south-eastern Arabia in late antiquity, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2009 vol. 20:pp.185–207 ~ p. 186

Place Name: Al Yamama
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3092677 coordinate: lat 24.1941667 long 47.3736111
NIMA/GNS names: Al Yamama , Al Yamamah , Yamama , Yamamah ,
VARIANT names: Al Yamama ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Yamama:
« Al-Yamama (Arabic: اليَمامَة, romanized: al-Yamāma) is a historical region in the southeastern Najd in modern-day Saudi Arabia, or sometimes more specifically, the now-extinct ancient village of Jaww al-Yamamah, near al-Kharj, after which the rest of the region was named. » wikipedia

« It was they who had to control the “Mahra” marchlands separating the two Arabian imamates as well as having to look after the “Bahrayn” front.(13) fn. 13 Throughout this article “Bahrayn” refers to the area so designated in the classical Arab writers, that is the “functional” region (in the geographical sense) of Eastern Arabia focusing on the oases of the Hasa province: inland from it lay at-Yamama. Its coastal front extended from al-Kazima, on the confines of classical al-‘Iraq, to the frontierlands of ‘Uman in al- Baynuna (that is, from modem Kuwait to western Abu Dhabi. » #1234 Wilkinson, John C., Oman and East Africa: New Light on Early Kilwan History from the Omani Sources, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Boston, 1981, 14:2:272-305 ~ p. 278

Place Name: A'law Dowlat
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052240 coordinate: lat 29.3929 long 52.8971
NIMA/GNS names: `Ala' Dowlat , `Ala Dowleh , `Ala od Doleh , A`la Dowlat , A'law Dowlat , اعلی دولت ,
VARIANT names: A'law Dowlat , Allahu Daulah ,


※ SOURCE for: Allahu Daulah:
« Allahu Daulah » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Al-Baleed
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN UFI: -785926 coordinate: lat 17.006535 long 54.136146
NIMA/GNS names: Al Baleed , Al Balid , Al Bilad , Bulayd , البليد ,
VARIANT names: Al Bilad , Al-Baleed , Zafār ,

※ SOURCE for: Al Bilad:
Juris Zarins, “Aspects of recent archaeological work at al-Balid (Zafār), Sultanate of Oman,” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 37 (2007): 319

※ SOURCE for: Al-Baleed:
« The site of al-Baleed, ancient Zafar, is a medieval Islamic period port. The site has evidence for trade and interaction with China, SE Asia and East Africa from at least the 10th century CE. Al- Baleed is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has been developed as an archaeological park. » #2755 Lynne S. Newton, Shrines in Dhofar, Society for Arabian Studies Monographs, Archaeopress, Oxford, 2010 ~ p.334

※ SOURCE for: Zafār:
« The region of Dhofar takes its name from the medieval town Zafar, which is currently known as Al-Baleed. To distinguish Zafar in southern Oman from a similarly named city in the highlands of Yemen, the medieval Arab historians and geographers used the term Zafar Al-Habudhi, which presumably included Al-Baleed, Al-Robat and the wider vicinity of the medieval city. Substantial ruins of a portion of the medieval city enclosed by a formal wall and located by the seashore are today called Al-Baleed/Balid. » #2668 Lynne S. Newton and Juris Zarins, Dhofar through the Ages An Ecological, Archaeological and Historical Landscape, Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, Oxford, 2019 ~ p. xiii

Place Name: Alexander's' altars
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 25.6422222 long 57.7722222 † see notes (u, d)
VARIANT names: Alexander's' altars ? , Arae Alexandri ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Alexander's' altars AT Jask lat 25.645335 long 57.775524 [Tarn],

※ SOURCE for: Alexander's' altars:
« capita toto corpore hirti coriisque piscium vestiti. ab horum tractu Indiam versus Cascandrus deserta insula in oceano I p. traditur, iuxtaque eam freto interfluente Stoidis quaestuosa margaritis. a pro- munturio Carmanis iunguntur Harmozaei; quidam interponunt Arbios, CCCCXXI p. toto litore. ibi Portus Macedonum et Arae Alexandri in promunturio, amnes Siccanas, dein Dratinus et Salsum. ab eo promunturium Themisteas; insula Aphrodisias habitatur. inde Persidis initium ad flumen Oratin contra Persidem insulae » #2669 H. Rackham, Pliny Natural History, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1942 ~ vol. 2 p. 422

« Ptolemy VI, 18 adds little; native names apart, he gives three towns in Carmania-Alexandria, Carmania Metropolis (certainly Kerman), and Harmouza (? Harmozia); this last is doubtless Pliny's Portus Macedonum among the Harmozaei, and, as will presently appear, it was probably Omana. Ptolemy's Harmouza is the Harmoza Regia of the Ravennate geographer; this ought to mean that it was once somebody's capital. Of course neither Harmozia nor Portus Macedonum (p. 13) was its official name. We have then in Pliny bits of some Hellenistic account of a settlement about the Amanis (Minab) river country reaching roughly from Alexandria- Gulashkird to the sea, with a harbour town on the Gulf of Ormuz which did a large trade. There seems to be no other place along the Carmanian coast where a settlement on any scale could be made; and this district, not Kerman, was the essential 'Carmania'. 'Alexander's' altars on C. Jask are like 'Alexander's' attempt to establish agriculture in Gedrosia (p. 260): » #229 Tarn, W. W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1951 ~ p. 482

« Here are the Port of the Macedonians (Portus Macedonum) and the Altars of Alexander situated on a promontory” (trans. Rackham). W. W. Tarn suggested that Portus Macedonum could be identified with Harmouza, which is mentioned by Ptolemy (6.8.5; 8.22.21).1 The latter he identified with Armoza Regia, which is recorded by the Ravenna Geographer (52.10, ed. Pinder and Parthey = 18.10, ed. Schnetz). » #2858 Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2013 ~ chap.V, sect. Portus Macedonum

« 3. Location. Tarn (GBI2 481–82 and map 1 at end) identified Portus Macedonum with Omana, which he located on the Strait of Hormuz, and ALTARS OF ALEXAND ER with Cape Jask, just beyond the Strait (map I at end of GBI2). Note, however, that Omana was most probably located beyond the Strait, somewhere on the Iranian coast; see J.-F. Salles, PSAS 10 (1980) 103–4 (Sadij); Boucharlat and Salles, PSAS 11 (1981) 67–68 (Tiz); Casson, Periplus 180–81 (Chah Bahar, Tiz, or Gwadar West Bay). Boucharlat and Salles (PSAS 11 [1981] 67–68) suggested—as a hypothetical possibility—that Portus Macedonum and ALTARS OF ALEXAND ER were places “inhabited by the Harmozei, neighbours of the Carmani, and they are situated on a cape from which we can easily reach another cape and the desert island of Aphrodisias, generally recognised as Kish Island. One must admit the existence of a coastal site on the Iranian side of the Hurmuz strait, which was known by Pliny but ignored by the Periplus and by Ptolemy and which must be different from Ommana and from Armouzon; the foundation of this site should be linked with the expeditions of Alexander.” Eggermont’s (Sind and Baluchistan 136; and ARBIS in India, n. 3) suggested identification Portus Macedonum = Alexander’s Harbor = Barbarikon = Barke is not convincing. It would appear that we should not search for Portus Macedonum in the area of the Indus delta. For suggestions regarding the possible location—in the Indus delta—of Alexander’s Harbor see ARBIS, n. 3. » #2858 Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2013 ~ chap.V, sect. Portus Macedonum p. 191

※ SOURCE for: Arae Alexandri:
« capita toto corpore hirti coriisque piscium vestiti. ab horum tractu Indiam versus Cascandrus deserta insula in oceano I p. traditur, iuxtaque eam freto interfluente Stoidis quaestuosa margaritis. a pro- munturio Carmanis iunguntur Harmozaei; quidam interponunt Arbios, CCCCXXI p. toto litore. ibi Portus Macedonum et Arae Alexandri in promunturio, amnes Siccanas, dein Dratinus et Salsum. ab eo promunturium Themisteas; insula Aphrodisias habitatur. inde Persidis initium ad flumen Oratin contra Persidem insulae » #2669 H. Rackham, Pliny Natural History, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1942 ~ vol. 2 p. 422

« Ptolemy VI, 18 adds little; native names apart, he gives three towns in Carmania-Alexandria, Carmania Metropolis (certainly Kerman), and Harmouza (? Harmozia); this last is doubtless Pliny's Portus Macedonum among the Harmozaei, and, as will presently appear, it was probably Omana. Ptolemy's Harmouza is the Harmoza Regia of the Ravennate geographer; this ought to mean that it was once somebody's capital. Of course neither Harmozia nor Portus Macedonum (p. 13) was its official name. We have then in Pliny bits of some Hellenistic account of a settlement about the Amanis (Minab) river country reaching roughly from Alexandria- Gulashkird to the sea, with a harbour town on the Gulf of Ormuz which did a large trade. There seems to be no other place along the Carmanian coast where a settlement on any scale could be made; and this district, not Kerman, was the essential 'Carmania'. 'Alexander's' altars on C. Jask are like 'Alexander's' attempt to establish agriculture in Gedrosia (p. 260): » #229 Tarn, W. W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1951 ~ p. 482

Place Name: Ali-ye Shomali
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052655 coordinate: lat 27.8404 long 51.8897
NIMA/GNS names: `Ali Bozorg , `Ali Bozorg , Ali-ye Shomali , Uli Bozorg , الی شمالی , عالی بزرگ , علی بزرگ , ولی بزرگ ,
VARIANT names: Ali-ye Shomali ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Aulî FOR Nageiram [Tomaschek],


Place Name: al-Shaba
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 23.67027 long 58.189106 † see notes (u, d)
VARIANT names: al-Shaba ? , Shaba (or Shabba) ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of al-Shaba AT Seeb lat 23.67027 long 58.189106 [Gibb],

※ SOURCE for: al-Shaba:
« On the Arabian coast, Ibn Battuta states that the power of the lord of Hormuz in Oman comprised Qalhat and Sur (the extreme south-western points of his domain) and Tiwi (another village near Qalhat), and from here - inland from the Batina, at the foot of the western slope of the Jabal al-Akhdar - it extended to Nizwa; then, following the coast northwards from the south, it stretched as far as Izki, Qurayat, al-Shaba, Kalba, Khaur Fakkan and Suhar. In the Gulf, the islands of Qais and Bahrain, and the port of Qatif, were part of the direct possessions of the Malik of Hormuz, and it seems that even the bandar of Basra paid tribute to Hormuz at certain times. We know that Siraf still existed during this period, for it was a small village, mainly inhabited by fishermen, which was nevertheless renowned for its shipyard and its skilled craftsmen.(26) fn. 26 Ibn Battuta, The Travels, vol. II, p. 399; see also Duarte Barbosa, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, vol. I, pp. 68-74. Pedro Teixeira, The Travels of Pedro Teixeira, W.Sinclair and D. Ferguson (eds.), (The Hakluyt Society Publications, 2nd series, no. 9, London, 1902), pp. 168-9. » #626 Piacentini, Valeria Fiorani, Siraf and Hormuz between East and West: Merchants and Merchandise in the Gulf, ~ p. 15

※ SOURCE for: Shaba (or Shabba):
« Among the cities of 'Oman is the city of Zaki (114) - I did not enter it, but according to what was told me it is a large city- and al-Qurayyat, Shabā, Kalbā, Khawr Fakkan, and Suhar,(115) all of them with streams, groves, and palm trees. Most of this country is under the government of Hurmuz. fn. 114 More commonly known as Azki or Izki, 30 miles east of Nazwa. fn. 115 These are all townships on the coast, roughly from south to north: al-Qurayyat is a group of villages 25 miles south-east of Masqat; Suhar is 125 miles north-west of Masqat: Kalba and Khör Fakkan (or Fukkan) are 60 and 75 miles north of Suhar. No place called Shaba (or Shabba) has been identified in 'Omän. From its order in this list it seems to correspond to Sib, 25 miles west of Masqat, the mediaeval name of which is uncertain (see Kashf al-Ghumma, ed. H. Klein (Hamburg, 1938), 62). Masqat is omitted in this list, but is mentioned on his return journey in 1347 (vol. IV, p. 310, Arabic). » #357 Ibn Baṭūṭah, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh, The Travels of Ibn Battuta translated with revisions and notes, from the Arabic text edited by C. Defre´mery and B. R. Sanguinetti, by H. A. R. Gibb., Hakluyt Society:Munshiram Manohardal Publishers Pvt Ltd, Cambridge:New Delhi, 1958- :1993 ~ vol. 2 p. 399

Place Name: Al-Shuaiba
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -789624 coordinate: lat 29.0411111 long 48.1375
NIMA/GNS names: Al-Shuaiba , As Shu`aiba , Ash Shu`aiba , Ash Shu`aybah , Shaab , Shaabah , Sha'iba , Shauiba , Shi'aibah , Shu`aybah , Shuaiba , Shua'ibah ,
VARIANT names: Al-Shuaiba ,


Place Name: Alt Karghun
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.926341 long 56.94231 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Alt Karghun ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Alt Karghun:
coordinates from GE overlay of {map#1010 Ancient Hormoz, Carls, Hans-Georg, 1982, #302 Carls, Hans-Georg, Alt-Hormoz, ein historischer Hafen an der Strasse von Hormoz (Iran) : Retrospekt und Prospekt zu einem ungelosten archaologischen, geographischen und orientalischen Problem, Minerva Publikation, Munich, 1982 ~ map p. 130}

Place Name: Al-'Udaid
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782284 coordinate: lat 24.6166667 long 51.4
NIMA/GNS names: Al `Udayd , Al Odeid , Al-`Udeid , Al-'Udaid , 'Odaid ,
VARIANT names: Al-'Udaid , Cadara , Goda , Gode , Godo , guoda , Kadara , Zubara ,


※ SOURCE for: Cadara:
« CADARA, a town of the Borgodi, Arahia, on Persicus sin., s.s. of Catara. Godo. » #682 Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Whittaker and Co., 1851 ~ p. 84

※ SOURCE for: Goda:
« Goda » in {map#1090 Caart van D'INDISCHE ZEE van Cabo de goede Hoop, Johannes van Keulen II, 1753, Leen Helmink Antique Maps stock no. 19233} see AHduGP map 50

※ SOURCE for: Gode:
« Gode » in {map#1088 Indie Orientalie Penisola di qua del gange Larabia el´imperio del Gran Mogol / descritta secondo le relationi pui moderne, Nicolo de Fer, 1717, Biblioteca National de Portugal, Lisboa} see AHduGP map 70

※ SOURCE for: Godo:
« GODO, a town of Arabia, in the prov. of Lahsa, on the S coast of the Persian gult~ HO m. W of Tulfar. » #2685 ed. Member of the RGS, A Gazetteer of the World, or Dictionary of Geographical Knowledge Vol. III Derrygate-Hensall, A. Fullarton, Edinburgh, 1856 ~ p. 640

« Godo » in {map#837 Deliniantur in hac tabula, Orae maritimae Abexiae, freti Mecani: al. Maris Rubri: Arabiae Freti Mecani: al Maris Rubri: Arabiae, Ormi, Persiae, Supra Sindam usque . . ., Jan Huygen Van Linschoten, 1596, Barry Lawrence Ruderman stock# 81979} see AHduGP map 37

« Godo » in {map#963 221 Kaart van een gedeelte van den Persische Golf, van Mascate tot Bassora en van den Euphraat tot Rio Tanqueloca, Anoniem / Anonymous, 17th c, Nationaal Archief, 4.VELH nr 221} see AHduGP map 46

« Godo » in {map#1092 A draught of the gulf of Persia from cape Rosulgatt to Busero river, Anonymous English, 1721, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE SH 18 PF 209 DIV 2 P 11 D} see AHduGP map 91

※ SOURCE for: guoda:
« guoda » in {map#884 Atlas de Lázaro Luís FOL. 5V., Lazaro Luis, 1563, Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, atlas de dez folhas} see PMC vol. 2 EST 216 and AHduGP map 31

※ SOURCE for: Kadara:
« But, on its southern coast, we recover specific token of a Kedarite settlement, in the town of Kadara (now Godo) mentioned by Ptolemy, in the territory of the Ægæi, a palpable corruption for Agrcei, or Hagarites. » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Duncan and Malcolm; Darf Publishers Limited, 1846; 1984 ~ vol. 1 p. 264

※ SOURCE for: Zubara:
« The coastal stretch of Qatif opposite Bahrain is the area where most of these places mentioned in European sources are situated. In the same area, a small town called Zubara was founded by members of the Utub tribe migrating from Kuwait in the second half of the eighteenth century. Godo on Dutch nautical charts of the seventeenth century is almost certainly either Khor Dawn or Khor al Udayd on the border between Qatar and the Emirates.(125) fn. 125 Niebuhr, Beschreibung, tab X1X;Kniphausen report fol. llv(=Floor, ’Description’, p. 177). Ferayhin is also mentioned in an Ottoman document of 1701: Aba Hussain, ‘Study‘, p. 102. Godo on ARA VEL 220 and Linschoten, Itineran‘o, map opposite p. 10. » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 36

Arch. Site in OMN name: Amdhurra 46
UTM: FA 750 146 converted to coordinate: lat 22.72966 long 58.70407
VARIANT names: Amdhurra 46 ,

※ SOURCE for: Amdhurra 46:
« stones » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Aminabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 153066 coordinate: lat 28.8272 long 52.5183
NIMA/GNS names: Aminabad , امین آباد ,
VARIANT names: Aminabad ,

※ SOURCE for: Aminabad:
« Partis de Firūzābād, nous nous dirigeons vers la haute chaîne de Après la traversée du village d'Aminābād, nous passons à gué une large rivière, le Rüd-i Karikhlah; ensuite, longeant des champs cultivés ou laissés en friche, nous dépassons, à droite, les villages de Mushkün et de Naudaran. [Leaving Firūzābād, we head towards the high range of After crossing the village of Aminābād, we ford a wide river, the Rüd-i Karikhlah; then, skirting cultivated or fallow fields, we pass, on the right, the villages of Mushkūn and Naudaran.] » #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: pp.163-198 ~ p. 165

Place Name: Amithoscuta
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLC independent coordinate: lat 23.613874 long 58.5922 † see notes (d)
VARIANT names: Amithoscuta ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Amithoscuta AT east Africa lat long [v. Wissman, Potts], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Amithoscuta AT Muscat lat 23.613874 long 58.5922 [Miles], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Amithoscuta AT Muscat lat 23.613874 long 58.5922 [Forster],

※ SOURCE for: Amithoscuta:
« Amithoscuta is Muscat, as is also the Cryptus Portus of Ptolemy, an identification too generally admitted to require demonstration. » #807 Miles, Samuel Barrett, Note on Pliny's Geography of the East Coast of Arabia, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London, 157-172 ~ p. 169

« The next passage, beginning with the 'regio Amithoscatta', appears to be a list of toponyms in east Africa. Amithoscatta was identified by Miles with Muscat,(211) although this was later questioned by K. Vollers.(212) Von Wissmann has since convincingly, associated the entire group of 'Amithoscatta, Damnia, Mizi maiores et mmores, Drimati' with east Africa, locating Amithoscatta in northern Madagascar, Damnia on the modern island of Damuni, Mizi at Wa-Mizi, a small island off the coast south of Kilwa, and Drimati on the mainland.(213) fn. 211 Miles, 'Note on Pliny's Geography', 169. fn. 212 Vollers, review of Reinhardt, Ein arabischer Dialekt gesprochen In 'Oman, 485: 'unsicher ist die Vergleichung mit dem Amithoscuta des Plinius'. fn. 213 Von Wissmann, 'Die Siidgrenze', 319 H., map 1; cf. id., 'Zangenae', 1340-5 and the map at 1343-4. » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ vol. 2 pp. 312-3

« The Sabæan emporium of Acilla (in his day the central point, on this coast, of Indian navigation *) is placed by Pliny in juxtaposition with the regio Amithoscuta. But the name of Acilla answers to Al Ceti, and that of Amithoscuta to Al Muscat, neighbouring seaports of Oman, between the Moiesur and Sib rivers, parted from each other by the narrow interval of only between two and three miles. This double coincidence decides the identity of Amithoscuta with Muscat ; which has long superseded Al Ceti, as the mart of Indian commerce. » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Duncan and Malcolm; Darf Publishers Limited, 1846; 1984 ~ vol. 2 p. 231

Place Name: Amri
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3052912 coordinate: lat 30.164844 long 50.183714
NIMA/GNS names: `Ameri , Ameri , Amri , عامری ,
VARIANT names: Amri ,


Arch. Site in OMN name: An Niba' 47a
UTM: FA 742 162 converted to coordinate: lat 22.74419 long 58.69646
VARIANT names: An Niba' 47a ,

※ SOURCE for: An Niba' 47a:
« Habitation site, rectangular walling, tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: An Niba' 47b
UTM: FA 742 165 converted to coordinate: lat 22.7469 long 58.6965
VARIANT names: An Niba' 47b ,

※ SOURCE for: An Niba' 47b:
« Habitation site, rectangular walling, tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: An Niba' 49
UTM: FA 720 147 converted to coordinate: lat 22.73087 long 58.67488
VARIANT names: An Niba' 49 ,

※ SOURCE for: An Niba' 49:
« Tombs (3 skin wall), beehive tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 49 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: An Nuqdah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 336156 coordinate: lat 20.850018 long 58.717889
NIMA/GNS names: An Najdah , An Nuqdah , النجدة ,
VARIANT names: al-Nuqdah , An Nuqdah ,

※ SOURCE for: al-Nuqdah:
the site « al-Nuqdah » in the (map [863] A map showing the Arabian Sea coast from Ras al-Hadd to Bar al-Hikman., Hélène David, 2012, in #2647 Vincent Charpentier, Jean-François Berger, Rémy Crassard, Marc Lacaze and Gourguen Davtian, Prehistory and palaeo-geography of the coastal fringes of the Wahiba Sands and Bar al-Hikman, Sultanate of Oman, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 2012 vol. 42:pp. 57-78 ~)


Place Name: Anar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3053128 coordinate: lat 30.870659 long 55.270247
NIMA/GNS names: Anar , انار ,
VARIANT names: Anar ,

※ SOURCE for: Anar:
« 22. For this group Ist., 161, gives Unās, K.rdakan, and Bimand. Under § 29, 44., too, Anar stands in our text for Ist.'s Unās (but cf. Tās in § 5, 11.). The name Bimand (Mimand) is firmly attested in numerous Muslim writers; our کوتميذن may be a compound * Kut-Mimand or * Kūh-Mimand. Maq., 464, particularly speaks of the strong position of Mimand. » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937, ~ p. 376

Travellers and caravans now always go by the eastern road viâ Anár and Bahrámábád. Before the Sefavíehs (i.e. before A.D. 1500) the Anár road was hardly, if ever, used; travellers always took the Báfk road. The country from Yazd to Anár, 97 miles, seems to have been totally uninhabited before the Sefavíehs. Anár, as late as A.D. 1340, is mentioned as the frontier place of Kermán to the north, on the confines of the Yazd desert. When Sháh Abbás had caravanserais built at three places between Yazd and Anár (Zein ud-dín, Kermán-sháhán, and Shamsh), the eastern road began to be neglected." (Cf. Major Sykes' _Persia_, ch. xxiii.)--H. C.]

Place Name: Angali
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3053218 coordinate: lat 29.2783 long 50.9628
NIMA/GNS names: Angali , انگالی ,
VARIANT names: Angali ,


Stream in grp 00AC01 name: Angali canal
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 29.196374 long 51.038207 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Angali canal ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Angali canal:
[ « Angali canal » coordinate lat 29.205495° long 51.037137° is appoximate midway position from Ship at coordinate lat 29.07127°, long 50.89956° at a bearing of 41.8 degrees to lat 29.330922°, long 51.164521° some 40 kms (25 miles) as detailed in {map#1122 Fig. B - The hinterland of Bushire with the Angali canal., , 1987, #3000 Donald Whitcomb, Bushire and the Angali Canal, Mesopotamia, 1987 22:pp. 311-36 ~}. PBR]

« The so-called Angali Canal was investigated during the 2004 survey and found not to exist. The features observed by Whitcomb relate to a road and rail system used to supply the Bushehr Peninsula, which channelled goods from the hinterland down to the small port of Shif and thence to the peninsula (see below). This route may have had earlier origins. ... The putative Sasanian routeway across the Angali Plain to Shif was used as a route to Bushehr in recent centuries, as noted in the introduction. It is visible as a linear feature on CORONA satellite images from the 1960s, and is the basis for Whitcomb’s “Angali Canal” (Whitcomb 1987). The feature was examined on the ground at several locations during the 2004 season. The lack of any traces of a canal along the linear feature, in the form of ditches, hydraulic works or linear upcast mounds argues against his interpretation, as does the absence of any sign of an aqueduct to take the water from Shif across the tidal flats to Bushehr, not to mention the difficulty in raising sufficient quantities of water 12 m. up from the deeply cut bed of the Dalaki to the surrounding land surface. There are other objections which can be raised against Whitcomb’s hypothesis.(19) fn. 19 These include the lack of textual evidence: there is no reason to assume that Arrian’s text is corrupt (contra Whitcomb 1987: 331). Whitcomb did not consider other possible origins of the linear feature, such as ancient and recent trackways to Shif, and the early 20th century railway. » #2872 Carter, R.A., K. Challis, S.M.N. Priestman, H. Tofighian, The Bushehr Hinterland: Results of the First Season of the Iranian-British Archaeological Survey of Bushehr Province, November- December 2004, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 44:pp. 63-103 ~ pp. 2 and 34

Place Name: Anveh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3053322 coordinate: lat 27.395318 long 54.286871
NIMA/GNS names: Anveh , Naveh , Sheykh `Ali , انوه , شیخ علی , نوه ,
VARIANT names: Anveh ,


Place Name: Apostana
NIMA/GNS feature: none UFI: -3087332 coordinate: lat 27.233401 long 52.803245 † see notes (d)
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Tabin , Bandar-e Teben , Bandar-e-Teben , Bundar Tibben , Taban , Tabin , Teben , Tibin , Tibin , بندر تبن , بندر تبين , تبن , تبن , تبين , تيبين ,
VARIANT names: Apostana ? , Apóstani ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Apostana AT Bundar Tibben lat 27.233401 long 52.803245 [Gossellin],

※ SOURCE for: Apostana:
« APOSTANA, a maritime town of Persis, bet. Areon ft. and Bagrada fl. » #682 Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Whittaker and Co., 1851, ~ p. 41

« LE PORT Apostana où Néarque parvint après 450 stades, est le Bender Tibben de Niebuhr (2) ; et quoique Tibben ne soit plus aujourd'hui qu'un village, la qualification de Bender ou de port qu'il conserve, annonce que c'est un lieu de relâche, où les vaisseaux se trouvent en sûreté. [THE PORT Apostana, where Nearchus reached after 450 stadia, is the Bender Tibben of Niebuhr (2); and though Tibben is no longer today that a village, the qualification of Bender or port that it keeps, announces that it is a place of rest, where the ships find safe.] fn. (2) Niebuhr, Descr, de l'Arabie, p. 272. » #2703 P.-F.-J. Gossellin, Recherches sur la géographie systématique et positive des anciens. Tome 3 / ; pour servir de base à l'histoire de la géographie ancienne., Impr. de la République, 1798-1813, ~ vol. 3 p. 78

※ SOURCE for: Apóstani:
« This same chart, which marks a village here, marks a second without a name half way between the Darabin and Cape Nabon; and this second is the place called Shevoo by Captain Simmons (204). “About half way from hence [the Darabin] to Cape Nabon is Shevoo (205), where good water may be got.” These are his own words, and here, unless Shevoo (206) is misapplied, we get a situation from Harvey, and a name from Simmons. The posi tion of this village, be its name what it may, answers to the Apóstani of Arrian, and the facility of obtaining good water here, is a sufficient reason for finding it frequented by the country vessels in the age of Nearchus, or at the present hour. fn. 204 Ives, p. 205. mentions Shewee previous to Nabon, as a small fishing-town. His account is not distinct. fn. 205 See Dalrymple's Preface, p. 13, note. 305 fn. 206 The reason for supposing Shevoo may be misapplicd is its resemblance to Sherouw and Chetow. At Sherouw below Darabin, Van Keulen writes, -hier is water van kuylen, in pits or tanks. » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 pp 381-2

Place Name: Arabian Gulf
NIMA/GNS feature: SEA UFI: -786220 coordinate: lat 20 long 65
NIMA/GNS names: Arabian Sea , Arabian Sea , Arabian Sea , Arabian Sea , Arabian Sea , Arabian Sea , Arabian Sea , Bahr al `Arab , Bahr al `Arab , Bahr al `Arab , Bahr al `Arab , Bahr al `Arab , Bahr al `Arab , Darya-ye `Arab , Mare Arabico , Mare Arabico , Mare Arabico , Mare Arabico , Mare Arabico , Mare Arabico , Mer d' Arabie , Mer d' Arabie , Mer d' Arabie , Mer d' Arabie , Mer d' Arabie , Mer d' Arabie ,
VARIANT names: Arabian Gulf , Bahr Faris , Persian Gulf ,


※ SOURCE for: Bahr Faris:
« BAHR FARIS, the Persian Gulf, in which MasudI includes the Gulf of Uman; Istakhri and Ibn Hawkal apply the name to the whole Indian Ocean (Bahr al-Hind) ». #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill, Leiden, 1986 ~ vol. 1, p. 927

※ SOURCE for: Persian Gulf:
« BAHR FARIS, the Persian Gulf, in which MasudI includes the Gulf of Uman; Istakhri and Ibn Hawkal apply the name to the whole Indian Ocean (Bahr al-Hind) ». #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill, Leiden, 1986 ~ vol. 1, p. 927 The Arabs simplified cosmography by dividing the Indian Ocean into seven seas. They called the first (their own sea, the Persian Gulf) Bahr Faris, in which lay five ports of great fame : Busra, Bahrain, Siraf, Sohar, and Muscat. #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994 ~ p.366 « The Persian Gulf itself is described in considerable detail. At the outset, Mas‘udi states that in shape it is a triangle, with the apex at Ubulla; it is 1,400 miles long, and at its widest point is 500 miles across, narrowing to 150 miles. The Straits of Hormuz are actually only 29 miles across, and it is hard to imagine where he got these exaggerated figures from, unless that of 1,400 miles relates to the distance between Ubulla and the mouth of the Indus, extending right through what we now know as the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and the Arabian Sea.

Place Name: Arad Fort
NIMA/GNS feature: FT UFI: -785019 coordinate: lat 26.2525 long 50.6269444
NIMA/GNS names: Arad Fort , Qal`at `Arad ,
VARIANT names: Arad Fort ,

※ SOURCE for: Arad Fort:
« By about the fifteenth/sixteenth centuries, Qal'at al-Bahrain had ceased to be regarded as the only position of strategic value in the immediate area: another fort had been constructed on the island of Muharraq, the fort of Arad, the ancient name of the island, fig. 161. This construction took place at a particularly dramatic period in the history of Bahrain, when the Ottomans, Persians and Portuguese were contesting control of the Island, at that time held by the Banu Djaber. It became important to have a base from which to reconquer Bahrain and its fortress, and Arad was chosen, as it was accessible to deepwater shipping. The fortress, as shown on Portuguese miniatures, is depicted as having a double enceinte: traces were found a few years ago under the present Arad Fort.(11) This present fort, which dates from the very beginning of the last century, was no more than a reconstruction of the inner enceinte of the old fort. fig. 159 The Arad fortress 11.Those soundings, carried out in 1978 by the Museum of Bahrain and the French Expedition will be published soon. » #2924 ed. Shaikha Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Rice, Bahrain Through the Ages The Archaeology, Routledge, London, 1986, ~ pp. 466 and 468

« 'Arad [Name.] In the middle of a promontory from the south side of the island between. the bays of Faki- kah and 'Arad. [Position.] 100 huts of Baharinah who are date. growers, fishermen and pearl divers. [Nature.] There are three date plantations, estimated to contain over 12,000 trees, and a ruined rectangular fort with sides about 90 feet long; the latter is at the eastern point of 'Arad bay. 'Arad was formerly the name of the whole of Muharraq Island. [Remarks] » #2726 Gazetteer of Arabia, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/2/2, 1917 ~ p. 1261

« The tell of Qala’at al-Bahrain, the ancient capital of Bahrain, is today dominated by a sixteenth-century fort, but closer to the coast lie the plundered remains of another fortress which was partly excavated by a Danish mission in 1955–57 and 1970 (1), and then completely uncovered by a French mission in 1978– 1986 (2). The dating of this fortress has been the source of a long-standing debate between archaeologists working in Bahrain. » #2925 Flemming Højlund, The dating of the Coastal Fortress at Qala'at al-Bahrain: Sasanian or Islamic?, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2006 ~ p. 238

Stream in grp 08AB05 name: Aram Rud
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 28.869581 long 51.24166
VARIANT names: Aram Rud ,

※ SOURCE for: Aram Rud:
« Aram Rud » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} Siraz 444-C

Place Name: Arbes
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.9175 long 56.1680556 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Arbes ? , Arbez ? , Carbes ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Arbes AT Khurbiz lat 26.9175 long 56.1680556 [PBR],

※ SOURCE for: Arbes:
« na Ilha de Queixome (que era mais perto) fe não podia já tomar fem força de gente, pela muita que o Rey ali tinha mandado depois do desbarato, com tudo determinou de ir lá, e primeiro que partiffe, quis faber dos Mouros, que tomára em Arbes, onde fe alojavam os Capitães, e gente, que o Rey ali tinha em guarda dos poços. Os Mouros lhe differam, que toda eftava apofenta- da em hum lugar grande, que fe chamava Queixome, e dali fe proviam todalas outras povoacões. Afonfo Dalboquerque com eta [on the Ilha de Queixome (which was closer) he could no longer take the force of people, due to the many orders the King had sent there after the rout, with everything he determined to go there, and the first to leave, he wanted to fight for the Moors, who he had taken it at Arbes, where the Captains lodged, and people, that the King had there in guard of the wells. The Moors differed from him, in that they all lived in a large place, which was called Queixome, and from there all the other villages supplied. Afonfo Dalboquerque with eta] » #2640 Affonso de Albuquerque, Commentarios, Regia Officina typografica, 1774 ~ vol.1 p. 256

« Notwithstanding all these differences which the great Afonso Dalboquerque had every day with the captains, and which cause,,d- him much pains, yet he did not cease to seek a remedy by which to obtain water for his fleet, of which there was great need; and although in the Island of Queixome, which was close at hand, he could no longer obtain it without force of arms, because of the numerous forces which the king had sent there after the mutiny, for all this he had made Dp his mind to go there, and, before he set out, desired to be informed by the Moors, whom he had captured in Arbes, in what place the captains and men lodged whom the king had sent to keep guard over the wells. The Moors· told him that the headquarters were in a large town called Queixome, and from it' all the other settlements were supplied. » #41 Albuquerque, Afonso de ed. W. de G. Birch., The Commentaries of the Great Affonso De Albuquerque - 1500-1580 The Second Viceroy of India. Translated from the Portuguese edition of 1774, with notes and an introduction, by W. de G. Birch., Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1875-94:2000 ~ vol. 1 ch. LI p. 189

« ARBÉS, lugar de - Local do interior da ilha de Queixome ou KishmJ à entrada do golfo Pérsico. [Brás de Albuquerque - Comentários do grande Afonso de Albuquerque) . [ARBÉS, place of - Place in the interior of the island of Queixome or KishmJ at the entrance to the Persian Gulf. [Brás de Albuquerque - Comments of the great Afonso de Albuquerque)] » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 43

※ SOURCE for: Arbez:
« e tornou has capitanias, e hos leuou cosigo sobre hû lugar da ilha de Queixome q fe chama Arbez, õde mattou ho capitam, q alli estaua por elRei có xxx de cauallo, e duzētos frécheiros, [and he took the captaincies, and took them with him to a place on the island of Queixome which is called Arbez, where he was killed by the captain, who was there by the King with xxx of cauallo, and two frecheiros, and he took the captaincies, and took them with him to a place on the island of Queixome which is called Arbez, where he was killed by the captain, who was there by the King with xxx of cauallo, and two frecheiros,] » #2892 GOIS, Damião de, Crónica do felicissimo Rei D. Manuel, Imprensa da Universidade, Coimbra, 1926 4 vols.: ~ vol. 2 ch. 35 pp. 110

« The Iſle of Queixome, or Queixume, or Quezeme, otherwife called Kechmiche, and by the Inhabitants Brokt, lies clofe to the Continent of Perfia, being feparated from it only by a fmall branch of the Sea: It has about two Leagues in Circuit, and is three Leagues diftant from Ormus. Its two chief Places are Arbez and Homeal, where the King of Ormus at the time when Albuquerque firit appeared hereabouts, had ftrong Garrifons. The other Places of Note are, Lapht, the beſt Harbours of this Ifland, Darbaga not far from the Lapht, Chau, and Sirmion or Sermion. It bears plenty of Corn, but efpecially Barly, without which, the Inhabitants of Ormus, who are fupplied from hence with it for their Horfes, could Scarce fubfift there. Here is alfo a moft Excellent Spring of Freſh Water; to fecure which, the Perfians had Erected a Fort hard by, for fear of the Portugueſes, who were then as yet Mafters of Ormus. » #1933 Nieuhof, Johannes, Voyages and travels, into Brasil, and the East-Indies: containing, an exact description of the Dutch Brasil, and divers parts of the East-Indies; … ~ p. 244 « It has several ports within and without, but mostly very shallow. The best within are Dargahon, Lapht, Chau, and Sermion.(4) The point of Queixome on the outside (6) has plenty of palm orchards, gardens, and wells of good water; whence Harmuz is cemmonly provided, though not thence alone. There also are Karuez and Angan,(6) which last, a little distinct island used as a port, forms in its sound a very safe haven, fit to hold many and very great ships. This isle (Queixome) is very fertile fn. 4 The three first are on our charts yet. Sermion must have been where our own queer little possession of Basidu or Bassadore now exists. fn. 5 Extant and prosperous, on the E. point of the isle. fn. 6 Karvez is not now identifiable; Angan is Henjam Island. » #258 Teixeira, Pedro, The Travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his Kings of Harmuz, and extracts from his Kings of Persia. Translated and annotated by W. F. Sinclair ... With further notes and an introduction by D. Ferguson., Hakluyt Society:Kraus Reprint, 1902:1991 ~ p.19

※ SOURCE for: Carbes:
« Qishm, à sa pointe orientale, n'était plus au XVIe siècle qu'une petite localité (luga- rete) (144), avec un palais royal assez vétuste (145) qui, tout comme celui de Djaroun, tenait lieu de forteresse (146). Laft, au Xe siècle ville flo- rissante (147), restait la deuxième agglomération. Le bourg de Bruht, au milieu des terres (148), s'était élevé au premier rang, d'où le nom, parfois employé d'« île de Qishm et de Bruht (149), ou simplement d' ile de Bruht » (150). Bruht avait un palais royal (151). [Qishm, at its eastern tip, in the 16th century was no more than a small locality (lugarete) (144), with a fairly dilapidated royal palace (145) which, like that of Djaroun, served as a fortress ( 146). Laft, a flourishing town in the 10th century (147), remained the second agglomeration. The town of Bruht, in the middle of the land (148), had risen to the first rank, hence the name, sometimes used of "island of Qishm and Bruht (149), or simply of island of Bruht" (150). Bruht had a royal palace (151).] fn. 144 Les Comentários (1/51, p. 187) disent Qishm hum lugar grande. Le Titolo das remdas, qui le qualifie de lugarete, et le Remdimento de Oromuz le mettent au dernier rang: Bruht [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Broct 1.000 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Broquete 600 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Laft [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Laft 610 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Llafete 400 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Harbiz ( ?) [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Carbes 200 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Garpez 130 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Qishm [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Queixome 130 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Queixa 130 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Harbiz, non attesté dans FG, est mentionné par Sadidussaltana, p. 128; Brás, I/49, p. 182: Arbes; Teixeira, II, p. 65: Karuèz; cf. Balbi Cerbil (p. 117) ? Carte de l'agglomération de Qishm et de ses alentours dans J. de Morgan, II, p. 292. fn. 145 Brás, I/37, p. 137. fn. 146 Cast., II/72, p. 378. fn. 147 Hudud al-'alam, trad. Minorsky, Londres 1937, p. 57-58. fn. 148 Le site de Bruht, au centre de l'ile (Ibn Mägid, 70a), à quatre lieues de Qishm (Nimdihi, 839), est à chercher à l'emplacement de l'actuel village de Gūša (FG, VIII, p- 368), où existe une mosquédit « de Burh » (Sadidnssaltana, p. 676-679; Eqtedâri, p. 794-801, avec localisation fautive sur sa carte, p. 748). Le nom de Bruht est attesté dès le Xe siècle (nom d'origine d'un capitaine de navire zoroastrien de Siraf; cf. Livre des Merveilles de l'Inde, tr. Sauvaget, dans Mémorial Jean Sauvaget, I, p. 201, 207, 216, lu « al-Barkhati » pour « al-Brukhti »). fn. 149 Nimdihi, 820 (Qism va Bruht); Samarqandi, p. 695 (jazira-yi Kism va Bruht): Ga fari (Qism va *Bruht); Ibn Magid, 70a (gazira Burhut (sic) wa'l-*Qism; Tibbetts traduit à tort, p. 222, « Burkhut or al-Qism »). fn. 150 Teixeira, II, p. 9: l'ile de Broct que les Portugais appellent Queixome (avec la coutumière altération des noms indigènes par attraction d'un mot portugais familier, en l'espèce queixume, a plaintes). Balbi, p. 118 (ile de « Boreche », « Boroche »?). fn. 151 Nimdihi, 839. Sur le jardin royal, Titolo das remdas, p. 224. » #898 Aubin, Jean, Le royaume d'Ormuz au début du XVIe siècle, Mare Luso-Indicum, Geneva, 1973 2:IV/5:77-237 ~ p. 102

Place Name: Ardakan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3053574 coordinate: lat 30.302436 long 51.988106
NIMA/GNS names: Ardakan , اردکان ,
VARIANT names: Ardakan ,


Arch. Site in IRN name: Ardashir Khwarrah
UTM: none, coordinates given coordinate: lat 28.851167 long 52.532667
VARIANT names: Ardashir Khwarrah , Shahr-e Gūr ,

※ SOURCE for: Ardashir Khwarrah:
« The most significant Sassanian archaeological site in the Firuzabad Plain is the city of Ardashir Ardashir Khwarrah (The Glory of Ardashir). Concerning the city’s foundation date, it seems that the archaeological remains provide compelling evidence – and confirmṬabari’s account – for the construction of the city before Ardashir’s decisive victory over Ardavan’s army in A.D. 224. » at <irangazetteer.humspace.ucla.edu/catalogue/firuzabad-shahr-e-gur-ardashir-khwarra-%d9%81%db%8c%d8%b1%d9%88%d8%b2%d8%a7%d8%a8%d8%a7%d8%af-%d8%b4%d9%87%d8%b1%da%af%d9%88%d8%b1-%d8%a7%d8%b1%d8%af%d8%b4%db%8c%d8%b1-%d8%ae%d9%88%d8%b1%d9%87/>

※ SOURCE for: Shahr-e Gūr:
« The most significant Sassanian archaeological site in the Firuzabad Plain is the city of Ardashir Ardashir Khwarrah (The Glory of Ardashir). Concerning the city’s foundation date, it seems that the archaeological remains provide compelling evidence – and confirmṬabari’s account – for the construction of the city before Ardashir’s decisive victory over Ardavan’s army in A.D. 224. » <irangazetteer.humspace.ucla.edu/catalogue/firuzabad-shahr-e-gur-ardashir-khwarra-%d9%81%db%8c%d8%b1%d9%88%d8%b2%d8%a7%d8%a8%d8%a7%d8%af-%d8%b4%d9%87%d8%b1%da%af%d9%88%d8%b1-%d8%a7%d8%b1%d8%af%d8%b4%db%8c%d8%b1-%d8%ae%d9%88%d8%b1%d9%87/>

Stream in grp 10B02 name: Areon
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 27.847699 long 51.977004 † see notes (d)
VARIANT names: Areo ? , Areon ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Areon AT Bushire lat 28.9684 long 50.8385 [Kempthorne], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Areon AT Rudkhaneh-ye Bardestan lat 27.840951 long 51.974918 [Forbiger],

※ SOURCE for: Areo:
« Die neuen Berichte wissen nichts von einem hier mündenden Giessbach; James duke of Hamilton (Pinkerton VIII, 295) sagt, Congûn liege südlich von einer bedeutenden Wasserader, meint aber wahrscheinlich den nahen Khôr von Bardistân: das wäre Άρεώυ Nearchs, Hyperis bei Plinius. [The new reports know nothing about a torrent flowing here; James duke of Hamilton (Pinkerton VIII, 295) says that Congûn lies south of an important waterway, but probably means the nearby Khôr of Bardistân: that would be Areo Nearchs, Hyperis in Pliny.] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890, vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 58

※ SOURCE for: Areon:
« AREON, I. a r. of Persis, falling into Persicus sin. bet. Gogana and Apostana. H. a town of Cappadocia. » #682 Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Whittaker and Co., 1851, ~ p. 47

« Thence Nearchus, with his fleet, passed on six hundred stadia farther, and arrived at Gogana, a country well inhabited. He anchored the fleet at the mouth of a small creek,(5) called Areon, a station dangerous enough; its entrance being extremely narrow and almost choked with sand. Nearchus informs us that hereabouts the country produced a great quantity of palms and other fruit~ bearing trees, as good and abundant (1) as in Greece; and this port is now the noted Bushire, (2) one of the principal sea-ports in the whole of the Persian empire. fn. 5 Arrian says (p. 354) " a torrent." fn. 1 Merely" such fruit-trees as grow in Greece." fn. 2 Properly Abu Shehr. » #253 Kempthorne, Lieut. G. B., Notes made on a Survey along the Eastern Shores of the Persian Gulf in 1828, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1835, ~ pp. 282-3

« ... die Stadt Gogana [j . Kongun] am Flusse Areon , die Flüsse Sitakos [j . Sita ] (p . 32. ) ... [... the city of Gogana [j . Kongun] on the Areon River , the Sitakos [j . Sita] (p. 32.) ...] » #2718 Albert Forbiger, Handbuch Der Alten Geographie, Mayer und Wigand, Leipzig, 1842-4, ~ vol. 1 p. 142

« Areon » in #2678 Alexander George Findlay, A classical atlas to illustrate ancient geography, W. Tegg and Company, 1847, ~ plate XXIV Imperium Persicum

Place Name: Arrajān
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN UFI: -3053640 coordinate: lat 30.643 long 50.2586
NIMA/GNS names: Arghan , Arghun , Arjan , Arqan , Arragan , Arrajan , ارغون ,
VARIANT names: Argoun , Arjan , Arragān , Arrajān , Arrhegian ,

※ SOURCE for: Argoun:
see source for « Arjan »

※ SOURCE for: Arjan:
«It rises between the borders of Pars and Spahaun, according to Ebn Haukal, and flows down to Arjan (345) [Argoun or Arrhegian], whence it is called Ab-Argoun; and as it approaches the sea, Nehr Tab; the name it takes in our modern charts is Endian (346), from a town upon its banks, a few miles distant from the sea. fn. 345 Arjan or Argan is one merilch, or thirty miles from the sea. Ebn Haukal, p. 105. fn. 346 Niebuhr writes it Hindian. » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 p. 418

※ SOURCE for: Arragān:
« 16. ARAGHAN (Arragān, Arrajān), a large and flourishing town with much wealth, abounding in amenities and enjoying a good climate. In its district (rusta) there is a well of water of which no one in the world knows the depth (ki zarfi-yi än ba-hama jihän natavanand danist); from it comes a water to turn one mill (miqdar-i yak asiyab) and spreads over the soil. This town produces good grape-syrup (dushab). » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937 ~ p. 127

※ SOURCE for: Arrajān:
« the important Sasanian-Early Islamic city of Arrajān » #1121 Ball, Warwick, Some rock-cut monuments in Southern Iran, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1986 ~ p. 107

« 16. ARAGHAN (Arragān, Arrajān), a large and flourishing town with much wealth, abounding in amenities and enjoying a good climate. In its district (rusta) there is a well of water of which no one in the world knows the depth (ki zarfi-yi än ba-hama jihän natavanand danist); from it comes a water to turn one mill (miqdar-i yak asiyab) and spreads over the soil. This town produces good grape-syrup (dushab). » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937 ~ p. 127

see source « Arragan »

※ SOURCE for: Arrhegian:
see source for « Arjan »

Place Name: Arzanah
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -782360 coordinate: lat 24.793889 long 52.561667
NIMA/GNS names: Arzana , Arzanah , Jazirat `Ardanah ,
VARIANT names: Arzanah , Arzernie ,

※ SOURCE for: Arzanah:
« The insular possessions of the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi are the islands of Arzanah, Daiyinah, Dalmah, Das, Qarnain, Salali, Yas and Zirko » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 p. 406

※ SOURCE for: Arzernie:
« Arzernie » in {map#1096 Persia with a part of Cabul and the adjacent countries, Arrowsmith, Aaron Jr., 1828, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 0035.027}

Place Name: as duas pontas
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 18.05 long 56.44 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: as duas pontas ? , C. de due ponte ? ,

※ SOURCE for: as duas pontas:
refers to the two adjacent headlands Ras Qarwas and Ras Sukra

« as duas pontas » written against “W” shaped headlands in {map#824 Livro de Marinharia, de João de Lisboa, João de Lisboa, 1560, PT/TT/CRT/166, Arquivo Nacional, Lisbon} and located north of the Curia Muria Islands 126 « Ilhas de curia muria »

« DUAS POMTAS - v. Duas Pontas. DUAS PONTAS – Os cabos Karwao e Sharbitat, no extremo nordeste da baía Cúria Múria ou Khorya Morya, no litoral do Hadramaute. » [TWO POMTES - v. Two Points. TWO POINTS – Capes Karwao and Sharbitat, in the extreme northeast of the bay Curia Muria or Khorya Morya, on the coast of Hadhramaut. »] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 29

« The coast from Ras Sharbitat trends north-eastward for 12 miles, as far as Ras Sukra, presenting a noble limestone cliff-about 600 feet in height, precipitous to the water's edge, and tabular at the summit. It is bold to approach, there being 20 fathoms water close to the cliff. The soundings along this part of the coast are regular. At a distance of 26 miles, E. by S., from Ras Sukra, is a coral bank of from 21 to 27 fathoms. Ras Sukra is a prominent bluff cape, rising 600 feet above the sea, and forms the south-western extreme of Sukra bay. From the north-eastward Ras Sukra appears a perfect bluff; northward of it is Funnel or Tower hill, which at first appears separated, but on a nearer approach is found to be situated on the summit of the adjacent table land. The whole line of coast, when the sun shines on it, has the appearance of clay cliffs. From the barnshaped hill the table land takes a more easterly direction, and gradually approaches the shore at the eastern extremity of the bay. » #2345 William James Lloyd Wharton, John Phillips, The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot: Containing Descriptions of the Suez Canal, the Gulfs of Suez, Printed for the Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1900 ~ ed. 3 1887 p. 136

« as duas pontas [Portuguese name] R. Sauqirah? [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 ~ p.99

※ SOURCE for: C. de due ponte:
« C. de due ponte » in {map#929 L Disegno della seconda parte dell' Asia, Giacomo Gastaldo, 1571 (book), #2701 Cosmografia Universale, Bertelli, Fernando, 1571 ~}

Arch. Site in IRN name: AS Pol Angur
UTM: 5552, 2714 converted to coordinate: lat 27.2333333333333 long 55.8666666666667
VARIANT names: AS Pol Angur ,

※ SOURCE for: AS Pol Angur:
« Other variants: See A3 Details: See A3. No. of sherds: 9 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: As Suwayb
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3103170 coordinate: lat 30.9616667 long 47.4944444
NIMA/GNS names: As Suwayb , As Suwayyib , Ash Shuwayyib , Qaryat as Suwayyib , Shuwaiyib , Suwaib , Suwayb ,
VARIANT names: As Suwayb ,

※ SOURCE for: As Suwayb:
« The identification of Jabel Khayabir as Charax Spasinou was further confirmed when the writer enquired of the Arab inhabitants at the nearby village of AI-Suwayb if these artificial embankments were known by any other name. The villagers were unanimous in answering that the site was also called Naisan, most certainly a later modification of the early Islamic name for Charax, Maisan. » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 vol. 7:pp. 21-58 ~ p. 42

Arch. Site in OMN name: As Suwayh 1 (SWY1)
UTM: GK785463 converted to coordinate: lat 22.0994134050346 long 59.6992633775304
VARIANT names: As Suwayh 1 (SWY1) ,

※ SOURCE for: As Suwayh 1 (SWY1):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Arch. Site in OMN name: As Suwayh 2 (SWY2)
UTM: GK813503 converted to coordinate: lat 22.1350596080946 long 59.7270726848252
VARIANT names: As Suwayh 2 (SWY2) ,

※ SOURCE for: As Suwayh 2 (SWY2):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Arch. Site in OMN name: As Suwayh 4 (SWY4)
UTM: GK785463 converted to coordinate: lat 22.0994134050346 long 59.6992633775304
VARIANT names: As Suwayh 4 (SWY4) ,

※ SOURCE for: As Suwayh 4 (SWY4):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Place Name: Asalu
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3053811 coordinate: lat 27.4761 long 52.6074
NIMA/GNS names: `Asaluyeh , Asalu , Bandar-e `Asalu , Bandar-e `Asaluyeh , بندر عسلو , بندر عسلویه , عسلويه ,
VARIANT names: Asalu , Asaluyeh , Aslu , Asselo , Bandar 'Aselûh , Tsaloo ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Asalu FOR Ausinza [Gossellin],

※ SOURCE for: Asalu:
« En 1590 Gasparo Balbi mentionne « Silaù » sans le décrire. Les auteurs plus récents ne donnent Shilàu que comme un simple hâvre, marquant ainsi qu’ un nouveau degré de sa déchéance avait été franchi. I1 le fut sans doute vers la fin du XVIe siècle. L’expédition safavide qui, sous la conduite d’un ra’is Fàli partit à la conquête de Bahrain au début du XVIIe siècle, embarqua non pas à Shiliiu mais à « Bandar ‘Asalü ».[In 1590 Gasparo Balbi mentions “Silaù” without describing it. More recent authors give Shilàu only as a simple haven, thus marking that a new degree of its decline had been crossed. It was probably around the end of the 16th century. The Safavid expedition which, under the leadership of a ra’is Fàli set out to conquer Bahrain at the beginning of the 17th century, embarked not at Shiliiu but at “Bandar ‘Asalü”.] » #893 Aubin, Jean, La Survie de Shilāu et la route du Khunj-o-Fāl, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1969 7:21-37 ~ pp. 36-7

« Asalu.-Anchorage. This village is situated about one mile north-westward of the northern entrance point of Naband bay and 40 extends along the coast for a distance of about half a mile; there is a large date grove behind the village and a conspicuous though partially destroyed round tower stands on a small hillock some distance north-westward of it. Some of the inhabitants are employed in pearl fishing. A reef extends over half a mile offshore for a distance of about 3 miles north-westward of the northern entrance point of Naband bay; there are depths of 5 and 6 fathoms (9m1 and 11m0) close outside the reef which should not be approached into a depth less than 7 fathoms (12m8). Boats pass over the reef and shelter close to the village in depths rather greater than those on the reef. Anchorage off the village is open to the shamál; the holding ground is poor, and it is necessary to approach with caution as the shore reef is very steep-to. » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p.151

« Some boats were also taken and destroyed at the ports of Lingeh, Mughu, Asalu and Kangun for which compensation had later to be paid, as Bruce could produce no definite proof of piracy by the people of these places. (64) fn. 64. Lorimer, op. cit., p. 669. » #6 Hawley, Donald, The Trucial States, Allen and Unwin, London, 1970 ~ p. 114

« Beyond Cape Naband is the territory of a tribe called Al Haram, who were active pearl divers. The Al Haram acquired the island of Bahrain during the first half of the eighteenth century. In the eighteenth century, their westernmost village was Shilau, while Asalu was their most important settlement. The name Asalu is already mentioned in a Dutch document of 1632 as the name of a pearlbank. On a manuscript nautical chart of the Dutch East India Company of the late seventeenth century it is mentioned as a place, together with another place of the Al Haram, Nabon. Asalu was visited in 1672 by the French traveler Carre, who gives a description of the place.(60) fn. 60 Kniphausen’s report fol. 4-4v (=Floor, ‘Description’, pp. 168-169). Niebuhr, Beschreibung, p. 314, is very summary but on pp. 330-331 some interesting but probably not completely reliable details about the history of the A1 Haram rule over Bahrain. Carre, Travels, vol. 3, p. 832 is the most detailed early text on Asalu. VOC vol. 1113, fol. 225v. mentions Asalu as a centre of pearldivers, already in 1632. It figures on early Dutch maps: ARA VEL 220. The important place ‘Chilau’ on early Portuguese maps probably is not Shilau but Nakhilu. » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 20

« Having settled at Nakhilu this Arab group at the same time acquired their Portuguese name, for Niquelus means, "those of Nakhilu.' Portuguese authors, of course, wrote this name in various ways such as Niquelus, Naquilus, Nihhelus, Nuqueluzes and Niquelas. The name that this Arab group gave to themselves has not been reported. It is my contention that they were part of a larger migratory movement of Arabs coming from Oman to the Persian littoral. In the 17 century this same group of Arabs was known as Hula or Hawala Arabs, meaning 'migrant Arabs'. The reason for this supposition is that in one case the Niquelus are referred to in official corre- spondence as "the Nequeluz [and those of] Asalu." As 'Asalu is a minor port on the Persian littoral and is not synonymous with Nakhilu it means that "those of Asalu" were clearly identified with the Niquelus. A similar situation existed in the 17th and 18 century when the Arabs of Asalu, were identified as Hulas and considered to be part of those of Nakhilu". » #1812 ed. Dejanirah Couto and Rui M. Loureiro, Revisiting Hormuz: Portuguese Interactions in the Persian Gulf Region in the Early Modern Period, Harrassowitz, 2008 ~ p. 93

※ SOURCE for: Asaluyeh:
« In the 19th century, Kangin flourished. It was ruled by Arab shaikhs of the al-Nusür. The first member of the family to hold power at Kangān was Muhammad. He was succeeded by his son Hätim Khan and he in turn by his son Jabbirah Khän. Jabbarah's son Hasan Khân gained control of Gāvbandi, on the coast of Läristan. The road between Kangan and Gävbandi ran through the bulk of Maliki, the centre of which was Asalüych. The al-Nusür had a long-standing feud with the shaikhs of 'Asaliyeh, who belonged to the al-Haram. In 1283/1866-7 Hasan Khan was travelling from Kangān to Givbandi and stopped near ?Asalūyeh to perform his evening prayers. Here he was seized by Ibrahim, the shaikh of ?Asalūyeh, taken into the town and killed. Hasan was succeeded as ruler of Kangin and Gavbandi by his younger brother, Shaikh Madhkür. In 1284/1867-8 Madhkür assembled a force from Kangin, Galehdar and Gavbandi and, together with government troops and artillery, besieged ?Asalūyeh. The town was taken and destroyed. Shaikh Ibrahim and many of his family were killed. With the destruction of ?Asalūyeh Madhkür controlled the entire coast from Kangān to Gāvbandi -which are 120 km. apart and began to ignore instructions from the Qajar government. fn. 2 Fasai, Hajji Mirza Hasan, Tarikh-i Färsnämeh-i Nasiri, Tehran 1312-14/1894-6, Vol. II, p. 261. » #3018 Nicholas Lowick, Siraf XV: The Coins and Monumental Inscriptions, British Institute of Persian Studies, 1985 ~ p.8

※ SOURCE for: Aslu:
« Aslu ('Asalu), 1 mile northwestward of the north point of Naband Bay, is an independent town with a population of about 1,000 men of Al Haram Tribe; it extends mile along the coast, and there is a large date grove behind. The people possess many small boats, and take part in the pearl fishery. A conspicuous round tower, now partially destroyed, stands on 2 small hillock about midway between Aslu and Nakhl Takki. Ves- sels should approach both these villages with caution, on account of the reef which here extends from the shore, as mentioned in the Pilot. A reef extends over mile off the coast for 3 miles northwest- ward of the north point of Naband Bay, and there are depths of 5 and 6 fathoms close outside it. Boats pass over the reef and shelter close to Aslu town, in rather more water than there is on the reef. Anchorage off the town is open to shamals. » #2772 United States Hydrographic Office, Persian Gulf Pilot: Comprising the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Omán and the Makran Coast, Hydrographic Office Publication No. 158, The Persian Gulf Pilot, Washington, 1920 ~ p. 250

※ SOURCE for: Asselo:
« Friday, 29 July. My Arabs were half dead [with fright] and believed themselves lost; so, to please them, I came nearer the coast, and about ten o'clock in the morning we passed near Asselo³, of which I will speak in another place [vol. ?, ch. vi]. fn. 3 ‘Asselo’ is ‘Asalu on the north of the Naband Bay. References to it will be found in Stein, p. 200; the Persian Gulf Pilot, p 207, and Bom. Govt. Sel., XXIV, 592. » #385 ed. Fawcett, The Travels of the Abbe Carre in India and the near east 1672 to 1674, Hakluyt Society, London, 1947 ~ vol.1 pp. 95

※ SOURCE for: Bandar 'Aselûh:
« Weiter folgt Bandar 'Aselûh, eine Araberveste mit Palmen und zahlreichen Booten für Perl- fischerei, und Nakhl-Taki am Fusse der Landmarke Sir-i-Yafal 4870 [Next comes Bandar 'Aselûh, an Arab vestment with palm trees and numerous boats for pearl fishing, and Nakhl-Taki at the foot of the Sir-i-Yafal 4870 landmark. ] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890 vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 57

※ SOURCE for: Tsaloo:
« Tsaloo » in {map#1125 The Coast from Bushire to Basadore, in the Persian Gulf, G.B. Brucks and S.B. Haines, 1828, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3630/27, in Qatar Digital Library}

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 1 (GAS1)
UTM: GL304277 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8412563276754 long 59.245188446309
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 1 (GAS1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 1 (GAS1):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 2 (GAS2)
UTM: GL295289 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8522117743327 long 59.2366005586777
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 2 (GAS2) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 2 (GAS2):
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 3 (GAS3)
UTM: GL294288 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8513227921171 long 59.2356118105273
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 3 (GAS3) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 3 (GAS3):
« Cairns » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 4 (GAS4)
UTM: GL295291 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8540171140959 long 59.2366301062521
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 4 (GAS4) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 4 (GAS4):
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 5 (GAS5)
UTM: GL294295 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8576414843228 long 59.2357151899382
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 5 (GAS5) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 5 (GAS5):
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 6 (GAS6)
UTM: GL288315 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8757769597241 long 59.2301658521094
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 6 (GAS6) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 6 (GAS6):
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ash Shab 7 (GAS7)
UTM: GL291290 converted to coordinate: lat 22.8531691646954 long 59.232719374312
VARIANT names: Ash Shab 7 (GAS7) ,

※ SOURCE for: Ash Shab 7 (GAS7):
« Cairns » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Place Name: Ash Shihr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3789620 coordinate: lat 14.760258 long 49.60537
NIMA/GNS names: Al-Shihr , Ash Shahar , Ash Shihr , Shihr , الشحر ,
VARIANT names: Ash Shihr , Esher , Shehr , Shi-ho , Soer , xaell , Xeher , Xer ,


※ SOURCE for: Esher:
« 12) Shi-ho is Shehr, another port on the Hadramaut coast, of considerable importance in mediaeval times; it is the Esher (or Soer) of Marco Polo, sec Yule's, Marco Polo (2ª edit.), II, 324, 429 and Heyd, Hist. du Commerce, II, 500. See also infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXV. » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 p.121 fn.12

※ SOURCE for: Shehr:
« 12) Shi-ho is Shehr, another port on the Hadramaut coast, of considerable importance in mediaeval times; it is the Esher (or Soer) of Marco Polo, sec Yule's, Marco Polo (2ª edit.), II, 324, 429 and Heyd, Hist. du Commerce, II, 500. See also infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXV. » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 p.121 fn.12

« Shihr, or Shehr, with the article Es-Shehr, still exists on the Arabian Coast as a town and district about 330 miles east of Aden. * * The hills of the Sheor and Dhafar districts were the great source of produce of the Arabian frankincense. (Vide pp. 378, 379, Yule’s Marco Polo.) » #1041 Sirḥān ibn Sa'id, al-'Alawi, Annals of 'Omān. by Sirhān-bin Sa'id-bin Sirhān of the Benu¯ 'Ali tribe of 'Omā¯n trans. and annotated by E. C. Ross, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1874 ~ p.77

※ SOURCE for: Shi-ho:
#326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 p. 116 and 121

※ SOURCE for: Soer:
« 12) Shi-ho is Shehr, another port on the Hadramaut coast, of considerable importance in mediaeval times; it is the Esher (or Soer) of Marco Polo, sec Yule's, Marco Polo (2ª edit.), II, 324, 429 and Heyd, Hist. du Commerce, II, 500. See also infra, Pt. II, Ch. XXV. » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 p.121 fn.12

※ SOURCE for: xaell:
in {map#576 15ª carta: Mar Vermelho e Golfo Pérsico, Livro De Marinharia, de João de Lisboa, anonymous, 1560, Colecção Cartográfica, n.º 166} and PMC vol. 1 EST 96A

in {map#834 Eastern Africa, Arabia, and India, Fernão Vaz Dourado, 1550-1575, The Huntington Library HM41 fol11} and PMC vol. 3 EST 269

« Xer, Xaell [Portuguese name] al-Shiḥr [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 99

※ SOURCE for: Xeher:
« XEHER.3 Further on from this place, in the direction of the same wind, at xx leagues off, along the same coast, is another town of the Moors, called Xeher; it also belongs to the kingdom of Fartach, and is very large; it has a large trade in the stuffs, which the Moors of Cambay, Chaul, Dabul, and Baticala, and the country of Malabar, bring in their ships to this port and town of Xeher fn.3 Shehir, one of the chief sea-ports of Hadramant. Zeher, Ortelius » #2616 Duarte Barbosa, A Description of the Coasts of East Africa And Malabar in the beginning of the sixteenth century , by Duarte Barbosa, A Portuguese . Translated from an early Spanish Manuscript in the Barcelona Library with Notes and a Preface byThe Hon. Henry E. J. Stanley, printed for the Hakluyt Society, London, 1866 ~ pp.30-1.

※ SOURCE for: Xer:
« Xer, Xaell [Portuguese name] al-Shiḥr [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 99

Place Name: Ashpaigan
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN independent coordinate: lat 29.2462137186483 long 51.9828062840264
VARIANT names: Ashpaigan ,

※ SOURCE for: Ashpaigan:
given as historical landmark in google maps « بافت قدیم اشپایگان » translated as « Espaigan »other names associated with site but not verified « Ashfaghan or Ashpaigan »

Place Name: Asiab-e Kamud
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3193686 coordinate: lat 28.966667 long 52.05
NIMA/GNS names: Asia Kamul , Asiab-e Kamud , آسياب كامود ,
VARIANT names: Asiab-e Kamud , Asiab-i-Kamur ,


※ SOURCE for: Asiab-i-Kamur:
« Asiab-i-Kamur » #3080 Simla Drawing Office, General Staff, India, Mobilisation Routes In Persia (Vol. IV, Part II) (Fars, Laristan, Kerman And Yazd) British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, in Qatar Digital Library, ~ p. 311

Place Name: Asmangird
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3053839 coordinate: lat 28.909 long 53.3032
NIMA/GNS names: Aseman Jerd , Asmangird , آسمان جرد ,
VARIANT names: Asemungerd , Asmangird , Asmankard , Assun-Dscherd ? , Aximunjird ,

※ SOURCE for: Asemungerd:
« Karavanserail Asemungerd (Aseman Gerd) (Taf. 22,2-4) (Abb. 5; 187) (129) Lage: 27 km südöstlich des Karavanserails Aliabad, 30 km nordwestlich von Mokhak, in + 1180 m ü.N.N., an der alten Hauptstraße von Shiraz über Djahrom und Lar nach Bandar-e Abbas. Südöstlich neben dem Karavanserail ist die Zisterne in die Erde eingetieft. Sie hat 12,70 x 8,40m Außenmaße, ohne das vorspringende Treppenhaus (Abb. 187). Ihre Höhe beträgt etwa 5 m.Typ: Hofkaravanserail mit vier Iwanen, einem rück wärtigen Stall und zwei kleinen Stallabteilungen in den vor deren Gebäudeecken, wobei der südwestliche Stall durch ei nen Anbau auf der westlichen Seite des Gebäudes erweitert wurde. Der Eingangstrakt ist breit gelagert und über dem Portal ist ein Schiefstand eingerichtet.Abmessungen: Außenmaße ( einschließlich Portaltrakt und des westlichen Anbaus) 45,50 x 36,50 m, Hofabmes- sungen 20,30 × 19,50 m (Abb. 188), Höhe der Hoffassaden 5,20 m, Gebäudehöhe über dem Portal 7,10 m (Abb. 189).Baumaterial: Bruchstein, verputzt.Bauliche Besonderheiten und Zustand: Gut erhalten, wird landwirtschaftlich genutzt.Inschriften: Inschriftennische über dem Eingang, In- schriftentafel ist verloren.Datierung: Qadjarisch, 19. Jahrhundert.fn. 129 Das Karavanserail Asemungerd wurde am 28. 2. 1977 vermessen. [Karavanserail Asemungerd (Aseman Gerd) (Plate 22.2-4) (Fig. 5; 187) (129) Location: 27 km southeast of the Aliabad caravanserail, 30 km northwest of Mokhak, at + 1180 m above sea level, on the old main road from Shiraz via Djahrom and Lar to Bandar-e Abbas. The cistern is sunk into the earth to the southeast next to the Karavanserail. It has external dimensions of 12.70 x 8.40 m, without the projecting staircase (Fig. 187). Its height is about 5 m.Type: Court caravanserail with four iwans, a rear stable and two small stable departments in the front corners of the building, with the southwestern stable being expanded by an extension on the western side of the building. The entrance wing is wide and there is an incline above the portal.Dimensions: External dimensions (including the portal wing and the western extension) 45.50 x 36.50 m, courtyard dimensions 20.30 × 19.50 m (Fig. 188), height of the courtyard facades 5.20 m, building height above the portal 7 .10 m (Fig. 189).Building material: quarry stone, plastered.Structural features and condition: Well preserved, used for agricultural purposes.Inscriptions: Inscription niche above the entrance, inscription panel is lost.Dating: Qajar, 19th century.fn. 129 The Asemungerd caravanserail was surveyed on February 28, 1977.] » #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ pp. 104-6

※ SOURCE for: Asmangird:
« Rivadaneyra continuing his journey from Firūzābād to Darab crossed the river by a ford between the villages of Tadwān and "Assun-Dscherd" (Asmängird?). He also admires the pleasant and flourishing aspect of Khafr. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 6 p. 384

※ SOURCE for: Asmankard:
« some travellers either stopped at the karavansaray of Asmankard,(84) fn. 84 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p. 113 (Asmugir); Valentijn, vol. V. p. 262, 285 (karavansaray of Asmongeert; Asmonger); LeBrun, vol. II, p. 312 (Asmongeer). » p. 76 #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 76

※ SOURCE for: Assun-Dscherd:
« Rivadaneyra continuing his journey from Firūzābād to Darab crossed the river by a ford between the villages of Tadwān and "Assun-Dscherd" (Asmängird?). He also admires the pleasant and flourishing aspect of Khafr. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 6 p. 384

※ SOURCE for: Aximunjird:
« Aximunjird » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: At Tawi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 110421 coordinate: lat 26.177721 long 56.218435
NIMA/GNS names: At Tawi , At Tawi , Tawi , Tawj , الطوي ,
VARIANT names: At Tawi ,


Place Name: Ateshkadeh
NIMA/GNS feature: ANS UFI: -3076056 coordinate: lat 28.898 long 52.5392
NIMA/GNS names: Ateshkadeh , Murdastan-e Atashkadeh , Murdestan , آتشکده ,
VARIANT names: Ateshkadeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Ateshkadeh:
« The Palace of Ardashir Pāpakan (in Persian: کاخ اردشير پاپکان, Kākh-e Ardashir-e Pāpakān), also known as the Atash-kadeh آتشکده, is a castle located on the slopes of the mountain on which Dezh Dokhtar is situated. Built in AD 224 by King Ardashir I of the Sassanian Empire, it is located two kilometers (1.2 miles) north of the ancient city of Gor, i.e. the old city of Artakhsher Khwarah/Khor Adashir/Gor Adesheer (Glory of [king] Ardasher) in Pars, in ancient Persia (Iran). The ancient city where the palace is located, was renamed "Peroz" (lit. victorious) after Ardashir established the Sassanian Empire by overthrowing Ardavan, the last Parthian king. After the Arabian conquest, Peroz was called Firuz, and the name remained. The modern city of Firuzabad is hence, of important significance in Persian history. » at <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Ardashir#Description>

Place Name: Ausinza
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.4761 long 52.6074 † see notes (d)
VARIANT names: Ausinza ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Ausinza AT Asalu lat 27.4761 long 52.6074 [Gossellin],

※ SOURCE for: Ausinza:
« Ausinza [Positions Anciennes, selon Ptolémée] | 93. 0. 29. 20. [Graduation de Ptolémée] | 35. 0. | 35. 0. | 292. | 15. 45. [Plus Grande Distance] | Aslo? [Positions Modernes] » #2703 P.-F.-J. Gossellin, Recherches sur la géographie systématique et positive des anciens. Tome 3 / ; pour servir de base à l'histoire de la géographie ancienne., Impr. de la République, 1798-1813, ~ vol. 3 p. 126 Tableau N.° II. Côtes Orientales Du Golfe Persique.

« Ausinza » in #2678 Alexander George Findlay, A classical atlas to illustrate ancient geography, W. Tegg and Company, 1847, ~ Plate XXIV, Imperium Persicum

« Ausinza » in #2959 Karl Müller, Tabula in Geographi graeci minores, Firmin-Didot et sociis, Paris, 1882, ~ plate XV

« An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 94 unlocated Ausinza/Sausinda » A. Hausleiter, M. Roaf, R. Wenke, P. Flensted Jensen, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, and S. Gillies, 'Ausinza/Sausinda: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2012 at <pleiades.stoa.org/places/930167> (accessed: 13 Sep 2023)

Place Name: Ayahat
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3087623 coordinate: lat 27.729439 long 52.177302
NIMA/GNS names: `Ayanat , Ayahat , Ayhat , Tombak , Tonbak , Tumbak , اياهات , ايهات , تمبک , تنبك , عيانات ,
VARIANT names: Ayahat , 'Ayánát , Ayenat , 'Ayyenât , Iyayaraat , Tumbak ,


※ SOURCE for: 'Ayánát:
« Ayenat ('Ayánát), about 9 miles northwestward of Tahiri, is a village, with a few trees interspersed among the houses; there is a small square tower and also date groves at either end, and a large square house at the western end. There is anchorage off it in 10 fathoms, which is said to be tolerably good in shamals; a small reef of rocks off the village forms a boat harbor. About miles north- westward of Ayenat is Mayalu (Miyalu), a little village. » #2772 United States Hydrographic Office, Persian Gulf Pilot: Comprising the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Omán and the Makran Coast, Hydrographic Office Publication No. 158, The Persian Gulf Pilot, Washington, 1920 ~ p. 250

« Ayánát, situated about 3 miles north-westward of Achar, is a village, that is also known as Tumbak, with a few trees interspersed amongst the houses, and date groves at either end of it. A tower stands at the western end of the village. See view facing page 145. Anchorage, open but said to be tolerably good during a shamál, may be obtained off 'Ayánát in a depth of 10 fathoms (18m3).Two reefs, marked by breakers, lie one on each side of 'Ayánát and form a boat harbour; they extend parallel with the coast at from one-half to three-quarters of a mile offshore; the western reef is about 1 miles in length and the eastern reef one mile. The channel hout half a mile wide. The landing is good. » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p.153

※ SOURCE for: Ayenat:
« Ayenat ('Ayánát), about 9 miles northwestward of Tahiri, is a village, with a few trees interspersed among the houses; there is a small square tower and also date groves at either end, and a large square house at the western end. There is anchorage off it in 10 fathoms, which is said to be tolerably good in shamals; a small reef of rocks off the village forms a boat harbor. About miles north- westward of Ayenat is Mayalu (Miyalu), a little village. » #2772 United States Hydrographic Office, Persian Gulf Pilot: Comprising the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Omán and the Makran Coast, Hydrographic Office Publication No. 158, The Persian Gulf Pilot, Washington, 1920 ~ p. 250

※ SOURCE for: 'Ayyenât:
« Bald hinter Šilâh erreicht man den Ankerplatz der,Quellen 'Ayyenât mit einer 5 Miles landeinwärts zu 4660' sich erhebenden Landmarke; [Soon after Šilâh one reaches the anchorage of the 'Ayyenât Springs' with a landmark rising 5 miles inland to 4660'; » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890, vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 58

※ SOURCE for: Iyayaraat:
« Iyayaraat » in {map#1125 The Coast from Bushire to Basadore, in the Persian Gulf, G.B. Brucks and S.B. Haines, 1828, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3630/27, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Tumbak:
« Tumbak » in {map#1153 Sketch map showing the Route taken from Bushire following the coast line to the Port of Lingah, WH Colvill, 1865, Royal Geographical Society, London: Map Room, Iran S. 121}

Arch. Site in OMN name: Az Zahir 40a
UTM: FV 870 978 converted to coordinate: lat 22.57685 long 58.80332
VARIANT names: Az Zahir 40a ,

※ SOURCE for: Az Zahir 40a:
« Cairns » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 47 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Az Zahir 40b
UTM: FA 854 006 converted to coordinate: lat 22.60214 long 58.80365
VARIANT names: Az Zahir 40b ,

※ SOURCE for: Az Zahir 40b:
« Cairns » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 47 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Az Zubarah
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN UFI: -785362 coordinate: lat 25.9833333 long 51.0333333
NIMA/GNS names: Al-Zubara , Az Zubara , Az Zubarah , Zubara , Zubarah ,
VARIANT names: Az Zubarah ,

※ SOURCE for: Az Zubarah:
« AI-Huwailah is described (Lorimer, IIA, 754) as being the chief town of Qatar before the rise of Doha and al-Zubarah and it appears on the D'Anville/ Niebuhr map of 1765 as Huali (Johnstone and Wilkinson, 1960, 442). » #2856 Edi: Beatrice De Cardi, Qatar Archaeological Report Excavations 1973, Published For The Qatar National Museum by Oxford University Press, 1978 ~ p. 191

Place Name: Az Zubayr
NIMA/GNS feature: none UFI: 14704387 coordinate: lat 30.39606 long 47.7083
NIMA/GNS names: Az Zubayr , Ma`had al Mu`allimat al Masa'i al Markazi - Az Zubayr , الزبير , معهد المعلمات المسائي المركزي - الزبير ,
VARIANT names: al-Zubayr , Az Zubayr , old Basra ,

※ SOURCE for: al-Zubayr:
« and beginning our measurement from old Basra (the present al-Zubayr), we proceed 12 miles = 19.32 km (4 farsakh) to the Shatt aI-Arab. From here to the modern town of Muhayrij set between the former confluence of Tigris Channels I and 2, » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 vol. 7:pp. 21-58 ~ p. 51

※ SOURCE for: Az Zubayr:
#Error

※ SOURCE for: old Basra:
« in fig. 70 » #2979 ed. Hennann Gasche, The Persian Gulf shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach. A Joint Belgo-Iranian Project. First Progress Report – Part 3, Akkadica, Brussels, 2007 vol. 128:pp. 1-72 ~ p. 23

« Old Basra, the ruins of which lie about 8 mile south-west by west of the modern town, and extend for about 3 miles in the same direction up to the walls of Zobeir, was founded by the Caliph Omar in A. D. 638. In the Middle Ages Old Basra was famous as a seat of learning, and as the port for the sea-borne commerce between the flourishing Mesopotamia of the Caliphate and the countries of the further East. » #2726 Gazetteer of Arabia, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/2/2, 1917, ~ vol. 1 p. 395

Arch. Site in IRN name: B11 Moghu
UTM: 5431, 2636 converted to coordinate: lat 26.6 long 54.5166666666667
VARIANT names: B11 Moghu ,

※ SOURCE for: B11 Moghu:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Moghu is given by Adamec (1989: 553). No. of sherds: 16 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B12 Bandar Hosseineh
UTM: 5422, 2639 converted to coordinate: lat 26.65 long 54.3666666666667
VARIANT names: B12 Bandar Hosseineh ,

※ SOURCE for: B12 Bandar Hosseineh:
« Other variants: Bandar-e Hasineh Details: More than one location is listed for an equivalent version of the place name, Bandar-e Hasineh, but only one of these falls within the relevant region. The location of this is given (USBGN: 59). No. of sherds: 46 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B13 Charek
UTM: 5416, 2643 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7166666666667 long 54.2666666666667
VARIANT names: B13 Charek ,

※ SOURCE for: B13 Charek:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Charek is given by Adamec (1989: 165). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B14 Charek
UTM: 5416, 2643 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7166666666667 long 54.2666666666667
VARIANT names: B14 Charek ,

※ SOURCE for: B14 Charek:
« Other variants: none Details: See B14. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B15 Tavuneh
UTM: 5400, 2646 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7666666666667 long 54
VARIANT names: B15 Tavuneh ,

※ SOURCE for: B15 Tavuneh:
« Other variants: Tahuneh Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Tahuneh, is listed and the location of this is given (Adamec, 1989: 752). The location also corresponds with the position of the site, which is marked on an annotated map in the Collection Archive marked ‘Type 2 Londo Ware’. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B16 Tavuneh
UTM: 5412, 2643 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7166666666667 long 54.2
VARIANT names: B16 Tavuneh ,

※ SOURCE for: B16 Tavuneh:
« Other variants: See B15 Details: See B15. No. of sherds: 24 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B17 T. Muveh
UTM: 5358, 2646 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7666666666667 long 53.9666666666667
VARIANT names: B17 T. Muveh ,

※ SOURCE for: B17 T. Muveh:
« Other variants: none Details: The toponym could not be identified, however the site location is given by Rougeulle (199 1b: fig. 1). What source she based her identification on is not clear. The precise position of the site has been given where a group of ruins are marked (TPC Sheet H-7D). No. of sherds: 45 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B18 Gurzeh
UTM: 5358, 2644 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7333333333333 long 53.9666666666667
VARIANT names: B18 Gurzeh ,

※ SOURCE for: B18 Gurzeh:
« Other variants: Bandar-e Korzeh Details: Equivalent versions of the place name, including Gurzeh and Bandar-e Korzeh, are listed and their location is given (USBGN: 59). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B19 Gurzeh
UTM: 5358, 2644 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7333333333333 long 53.9666666666667
VARIANT names: B19 Gurzeh ,

※ SOURCE for: B19 Gurzeh:
« Other variants: See B18 Details: See B18. No. of sherds: 26 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B2 Jisheh
UTM: 5452, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 54.8666666666667
VARIANT names: B2 Jisheh ,

※ SOURCE for: B2 Jisheh:
« Other variants: Yisheh, Gasheh, Ras Khargu Details: Yisheh, Gasheh or Ras Khargu are listed as equivalent versions of the same place name and their location is given (Adamec, 1989: 353). The Site Card for B2 also contains the sub- heading Shiu 1, but the reason for the second toponym is not clear. No. of sherds: 8 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B20 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman
UTM: 5337, 2646 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7666666666667 long 53.6166666666667
VARIANT names: B20 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman ,

※ SOURCE for: B20 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman:
« Other variants: none Details: The toponym could not be identified, however the site location is given by Rougeulle (199 1b: fig. 1). What source she based her identification on is not clear. The precise position of the site has been given where a ruined fort is marked (TPC Sheet H-7D). No. of sherds: 124 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B21 Kal'at ‘Abd al-Rahman
UTM: 5337, 2646 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7666666666667 long 53.6166666666667
VARIANT names: B21 Kal'at ‘Abd al-Rahman ,

※ SOURCE for: B21 Kal'at ‘Abd al-Rahman:
« Other variants: none Details: See B20. No. of sherds: 24 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B22 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman
UTM: 5337, 2646 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7666666666667 long 53.6166666666667
VARIANT names: B22 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman ,

※ SOURCE for: B22 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman:
« Other variants: none Details: See B20. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B23 Tavuneh
UTM: 5412, 2643 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7166666666667 long 54.2
VARIANT names: B23 Tavuneh ,

※ SOURCE for: B23 Tavuneh:
« Other variants: Tahuneh Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Tahuneh, is listed and the location o f this is given (Adamec, 1989: 752). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B24 Ruvan
UTM: 5435, 2635 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5833333333333 long 54.5833333333333
VARIANT names: B24 Ruvan ,

※ SOURCE for: B24 Ruvan:
« Other variants: Ruvvan, Details: Equivalent versions of the place name, including Ruvvan and Bandar-e Divan are listed and their location is given (USBGN: 59). No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B25 Tavuneh
UTM: 5412, 2643 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7166666666667 long 54.2
VARIANT names: B25 Tavuneh ,

※ SOURCE for: B25 Tavuneh:
« Other variants: Bandar-e Details: See B23. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B29 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman
UTM: 5337, 2646 converted to coordinate: lat 26.7666666666667 long 53.6166666666667
VARIANT names: B29 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman ,

※ SOURCE for: B29 Kal'at 'Abd al-Rahman:
« Other variants: Divan Details: See B20. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B3 Jisheh
UTM: 5452, 2632 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5333333333333 long 54.8666666666667
VARIANT names: B3 Jisheh ,

※ SOURCE for: B3 Jisheh:
« Other variants: Yisheh, Gasheh, Ras Khargu Details: Yisheh, Gasheh or Ras Khargu are listed as equivalent versions of the same place name and their location is given (Adamec, 1989: 353). No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B4 Shenas
UTM: 5448, 2631 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5166666666667 long 54.8
VARIANT names: B4 Shenas ,

※ SOURCE for: B4 Shenas:
« Other variants: Shias Details: A n equivalent version o f the place name, Shias, is listed and the location of this is given (Adamec iii. 1989: 672). No. of sherds: 69 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B6 Shenas
UTM: 5448, 2631 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5166666666667 long 54.8
VARIANT names: B6 Shenas ,

※ SOURCE for: B6 Shenas:
« Other variants: See B5 Details: See B5. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B7 Millu
UTM: 5444, 2631 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5166666666667 long 54.7333333333333
VARIANT names: B7 Millu ,

※ SOURCE for: B7 Millu:
« Other variants: Milu, Details: Two equivalent versions of the place No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B8 Bostaneh
UTM: 5439, 2631 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5166666666667 long 54.65
VARIANT names: B8 Bostaneh ,

※ SOURCE for: B8 Bostaneh:
« Other variants: Molu Details: name, Milu and Molu, are listed and No. of sherds: 30 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: B9 Bostaneh
UTM: 5439, 2631 converted to coordinate: lat 26.5166666666667 long 54.65
VARIANT names: B9 Bostaneh ,

※ SOURCE for: B9 Bostaneh:
« Other variants: none Details: their location is given (USBGN: 354). No. of sherds: 46 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Bab Mukhaylif
NIMA/GNS feature: STRT UFI: 153550 coordinate: lat 26.37517 long 56.41335
NIMA/GNS names: Bab Mikhaylif , Bab Mukhaylif , باب مخيليف ,
VARIANT names: Bab Mukhaylif ,

※ SOURCE for: Bab Mukhaylif:
HMSO, Series K6611, Sheet NG 40-6E, Edition 2-GSGS

Place Name: Baba Haji
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054244 coordinate: lat 29.3679 long 52.6568
NIMA/GNS names: Baba Haji , Baba Hajji , Gardaneh-ye Baba Hajji , گردنه بابا حاجی ,
VARIANT names: Baba Hadji , Baba Haji , Bäwärji-Sarai ,

※ SOURCE for: Baba Hadji:
« Je m'arrête à l'étang d'eau douce de Baba Hadji, où, à ma première visite en 1935, j'avais trouvé une multitude énorme d'oiseaux et où l'eau semblait fourmiller de poissons, de reptiles et de batraciens. Cette fois-ci, il n'y a là pas le moindre oiseau et dans l'eau claire je n'aperçois aucune faune macroscopique, mais les jolis nénufars sont en fleurs et ma récolte de Crustacés, péniblement exécutée avec un seul bras, est des plus fructueuses (83, p. 259). [I stop at the fresh water pond of Baba Hadji, where, on my first visit in 1935, I found an enormous multitude of birds and where the water seemed to teem with fish, reptiles and amphibians. This time, there is not the slightest bird there and in the clear water I don't see any macroscopic fauna, but the pretty water lilies are in flower and my harvest of crustaceans, painfully carried out with a single arm, is most fruitful (83, p. 259).] »#3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p.180

※ SOURCE for: Baba Haji:
« The Mahalu mountains were still on our left. Seven miles from Deh-i-Nau, they throw out a low spur, which divides the plain of Shiraz from that of Kavar. It is crossed by a road called Baba Haji's Pass 4 (gardana i Baba Haji), and there is also an easier road which turns the point of the spur, and which is used by the Qawam's carriage, when he takes his drives abroad. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 77

« BABA HAJI-LAT. 29° 21' N.; LONG. 52° 40' E.; ELEV . A village in Färs, 15 miles from Shiraz, on the road to Firūzabad, from which it is distant 51 miles. A few supplies are procurable here from the nomads, and there is generally some grain stored in the village. Water is derived from a spring. The climate here in summer is said to be cool and refreshing. These distances differ from those given in routes. St. John and Ross describe it as only a caravanserai, 20 miles from Shiraz. There is fruit procurable, Grazing reported good. Supplies easily obtainable in limited quantity from numerous villages in the neighbourhood. A mule track diverges to Sarvistán valley (Wilson-Pelly.) »#2878 Gazetteer of Persia vol. III., Government of India Press, Simla, 1924, ~ p. 177

« Every traveller, with the exception of Hedges, considered Baba Hajji a poor karavansaray. It was situated at the end of the Shiraz plain, which is about twelve leagues in length and, in some places, two leagues in width. Water was not good here. The karavansaray was rather large, but partly dilapidated. It stood alone, was badly constructed of freestone and, in one word was "wretched". It had been named after its founder who was buried close by. It had no good water, though a little beyond the karavansaray there was some to be found. The karavansaray was close to a cluster of seven villages, of which the most populous one contained the karavansaray. In 1717 this last was old, though still a reasonable place for staying the night. According to Hedges, Baba Hajji was situated in a fine, well-watered plain and was wellstored with provisions. (79) fn. 78 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p. 111 (Pylli Pessa); Speelman, pp. 83-4 (Ousjouael); Fryer, vol. II, p. 209 (the Beggards- Garden called Udgewally); Valentijn, vol. V, p. 284 (Oesiwat; Osiwar); KA 1793, fol. 999 (Oudsjou alla); de Silva y Figueroa, p. 105 (Ochiar). The lake refers to the Darya-i Mahalu, a salt lake, where there was also a karavansaray, p. 351. Jean Aubin (ed. and tr.). L'Ambassade de Gregorio Pereira Fidalgo à la cour de Chah Soltan Hosseyn 1696-1692 (Lisbon, 1971), pp. 42-3 (Uxuan).fn. 79 Stodart, p. 79 (Bobohogi); Thevenot, vol. II. p.127 (Baba- Adgi); Valentijn, vol. V. p. 262 (Babaghasi); Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p. 111 (Baba Haddji); Speelman, p. 83 (Babe Hasy); Herbert, p. 107 (Bobbaw-hodgee); Fryer, vol. II, p. 208 (Bobba Hodge); Strauszens, p. 193 (Dobba); Hedges, p. 207 (Bobba Hadgee); KA 1793, fol. 998b (Bha Bha Hadje); Tavernier, p. 310 (Babaadgi); Winninx, 22 July (Babba Hasi); Chardin, vol. VIII, pp. 461-2 (Babahaagi); LeBrun, vol. II, p. 312 (Babba hadjie); Carmelites, loc. cit. » #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p.75

※ SOURCE for: Bäwärji-Sarai:
[This could be a corruption of Baba Haji. PBR]

Place Name: Babylon
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN UFI: -3103534 coordinate: lat 32.5408333 long 44.4241667
NIMA/GNS names: Athar Babil , Atlal Babil , Babil , Babylon ,
VARIANT names: Babylon ,

※ SOURCE for: Babylon:
« A trinta de Janeiro fui avizado de Ormuz como os Turcos que estam de goarniçam em Babilonia (1) dece- ram pelo Eufrates abaixo, e tomaram huma terra que se chamava Zaquia onde faziam huma Fortaleza a borda do rio Eufrates, na terra da banda da Persia (obra) de hum dia e meyo de caminho da cidade de Baçora, pelo Rio assima. Tanto que isto soube, escrevi a El Rey de Baçorá aconselhando-lhe que nam consentisse a par de si tam ruins vizinhos, e que logo lhe fizesse a guerra e os tirasse daquella ladroeira, oferecendo-lhe ajuda e ar- mada pera isso. O que me parece desta novidade he que- rerem os Turcos tomar Baçorá e passar ahi a Armada que tem em Sues, porque desta maneira nos poderam melhor fazer a guerra por caso de estarem vizinhos Dor- muz e terem nas Ilhas de Barem e Jolfar (2) grande copia fn. (1) Por ser perto do sítio onde existiu a antiga Babilónia, dava-se muitas vezes este nome à cidade de Bagdad. Babylonia, que se chama agora Bagda, escreve o Padre Gaspar Barzeo, de Ormuz em 1549. (Documentação para a História das Missões, 4. vol., p. 376). fn. (2) Grupos de ilhas no Golfo Pérsico. [On the thirtieth of January I was informed from Ormuz how the Turks who are in Babylon (1) descended down the Euphrates, and took a land called Zaquia where they built a fortress on the bank of the Eufrates river, in the land of Persia (work) a day and a half way from the city of Baçora, by the river assima. As soon as I found out about this, I wrote to El Rey de Baçorá advising him not to consent to such bad neighbors, and that he immediately wage war on him and take them away from that thief, offering him help and armament for that. What I think of this novelty is that the Turks want to take Baçorá and move the Armada they have in Sues there, because this way they can better wage war on us in case they are neighboring Dormuz and have a large copy on the Islands of Barem and Jolfar (2). fn. (1) Because it is close to the site of ancient Babylon, the city of Bagdad was often given this name. Babilónia, which is now called Bagda, writes Father Gaspar Barzeo, from Ormuz in 1549. (Documentation for the History of the Missions, 4. vol., p. 376). fn. (2) Groups of islands in the Persian Gulf.] » #2556 Elaine Sanceau, Cartas de D. João de Castro, Geral do Ultramar, 1954 ~ p. 223

Place Name: Baçidô fort
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.648607 long 55.29659 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Baçidô fort ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Baçidô fort:
« At the northwest end 26° 39' 12" N. 55° 16' 15" 0. lies Bâs-i-dûh, the formerly Portuguese fortaleza Baçidô or Basadore, Basidon near Balbi; the spring tide rises here to 8'; a long and wide bank, the flat, stretches southwards, at low tide only 2 to 2½ , fathoms deep, with turbid water; » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890 ~ p. 50

« Nineteenth-century writers, including the East India Company employees Horsburgh, Kempthorne and Whitelock, refer to the ruins of a Portuguese fort and town at ‘Bassadore or Basidu Point’(28) and such reports probably led Wilhelm Tomaschek to state that Basidu was the site of a Portuguese fortaleza (29). To my knowledge this has not been confirmed (30) fn. 28 Horsburgh, India Directory, p. 258; Kempthorne, ‘Notes made on a survey’, p. 279; Whitelock, ‘Descriptive Sketch’, p. 121. fn. 29 Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung, p. 50; cf. Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, p. 412. fn. 30 According to d’Anville, ‘Recherches géographiques sur le golfe Persique’, p. 152, Duarte Barbosa named Baçido as one of the towns controlled by the king of Hormuz. I cannot find any reference in Dames’ edition of The Book of Duarte Barbosa. However, as there are still over a dozen unpublished manuscripts of Barbosa’s work extant, it is entirely possible that d’Anville had access to one in which Baçido was mentioned (my thanks to Jorge Flores for bringing this important point to my attention). The Carta Universal en que se contiene todo lo que del mundo se ha descubierto of 1529 by Diogo Ribeiro does, however, show bacido. See Dejanirah Couto, J.-L. Bacqué-Grammont and M. Taleghani, Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles) / Historical Atlas of the Persian Gulf (Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), p. 105; Cf. the discussion in Duarte Barbosa, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, ed. M. L. Dames, 2 vols. (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1918-1921) vol. 1, p. 78, n. 1. #2885 D. T. Potts, The Portuguese on Qeshm, in: ed. Rudi Matthee and Jorge Flores, Portugal, the Persian Gulf and Safavid Persia, Peeters, Brussels, 2011, pp. 99-118 ~ p. 104

« BASSADORE, (1) OR BASIDU POINT, the N. W. extremity of Kishm, in lat. 26° 38' N., bears North from the S. W. point, distant 6 or 7 miles, having within it the ruins of the once flourishing Portuguese Town of that name. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817 ~ vol. 1 p. 258

« Bassadore is situated at the western extremity of the island, and is the principal station for the vessels of the Indian navy, when employed in the Persian Gulf, under the orders of the British resident at Bushire. The commander of the squadron resides here, and hoists his flag on board a small vessel of twelve guns, which lies as guard-ship. There is no town, but there are a few scattered huts and a small bazar which provides the seamen of the different vessels with the articles they chiefly require: the only good houses in the place were built by officers belonging to the Bombay army, who were stationed here when the expedition was sent up the Gulf against Ras-al-Khaymah and other piratical forts … The Portuguese had also once possession of Bassadore, and the remains of their fort and town are still visible. » #253 Kempthorne, Lieut. G. B., Notes made on a Survey along the Eastern Shores of the Persian Gulf in 1828, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1835 ~ p. 278-9

the island, was formerly in the possession of the Portuguese, and the ruins of the town and fort which they erected may be still traced. » #1128 Whitelock, Lieut. H. H., Descriptive Sketch of the Islands and Coast at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1838 8:170-84 ~ p. 178

« From Bassidore I crossed the island of Kishm to visit some salt-caves and naphtha-springs. The road, after leaving a ledge of rock on which Bassidore is built, descends a few feet into a plain, sprinkled here and there with a few date-trees, and passes the ruins of an old Portuguese fort, situated on a detached rock and overlooking the Clarence Straits. After some 7 miles you reach the village of Gooree, and thence wind among low hills for about 5 miles more into the plain of Kownee, distant only a mile or two from the southern shore. » #2895 Lewis Pelly, Visit to Lingah, Kishm and Bunder Abbas by Lieutenant-Colonel Lewis Pelly, Royal Geographical Society, London, 1864 ~ p. 2

[there is a small rectangular rock plateau about 120 x 80 m. rising to 7-8 m. on the south side of the bay just east of the modern city of Basidu at coordinate lat 26.648607, long 55.29659, as describer by Pelly above. PBR]

« To the north-west of Kischm lies Bassadore , the hottest place in all the Persian Gulf. Here there is an English station, and a few European houses are to be seen. There is also a small caravansary belonging to the Arabs, situated amid the ruins of a great Portuguese city-the reservoirs of which are still entire and supply the inhabitants with water. » #2690 Col. Louis Du Couret, Life in the Desert or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa, Mason Brothers, New York, 1860 ~ p. 483

« The Joasmi chief, apprehending an attack by the Turkish troops, sent a force to build a fort at Bassadore, on the western extremity of the island of Kishm, which had formerly been occupied by the Portuguese, who built fortifications and reservoirs, and which became, during the forty years preceding its abolition, the head-quarters of the Indian Naval Squadron in the Persian Gulf. » #2909 The Army and Navy Magazine, W H Allen and Co, London, 1887 Vol. 14: ~ p. 351

« A move was then made to Deristan, on the southern coast of the island, opposite Henjam; but here, too, the insalubrity of the place compelled a retreat. Finally, the point of Basiduh, called by the English Bassadore, at the north-western extremity of the island, where also are the ruins of a once flourishing Portuguese settlement, became the headquarters of the Indian naval squadron, maintained for the same object in these waters; and here, until 1879, was stationed a company of sepoys belonging to the marine battalion at Bombay, their barracks being built upon a plot of land that is still the property of the British Government. » #1116 Curzon, George N., Persia and the Persian Question, Cass: Longmans Green and Co, 1966: 1892 ~ vol.2 p. 412

Place Name: Badani
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054400 coordinate: lat 27.599444 long 54.784722
NIMA/GNS names: Bad Ney , Badani ,
VARIANT names: Badani , Badeni ,


※ SOURCE for: Badeni:
« Badeni » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Badiyyah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782448 coordinate: lat 25.432273 long 56.345736
NIMA/GNS names: Al Badiyah , Badiya , Badiyah , Badiyyah , Bidiya , Bidyah , Budayyah ,
VARIANT names: Badiyyah , Lebdia , Libedia , Libidia ,


※ SOURCE for: Lebdia:
« From the Southern corner of Dabba till the small island which is situated in front of Lebdia32 the course is south for 2114 miles, while one passes over depths of 21, 20, 19,22 fathoms of waxy sand ground. Lebdia is a place with about 200 small houses (3372) which are all built with branches of date trees and is situated close to the beach. It lies at 25 degrees, 5 minutes Northern latitude. fn. 32 Probably (al-)Bidyah is meant here. The island is called jazirah Bidyah. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 303

※ SOURCE for: Libedia:
« Discripssão da Fortaleza de Libedia - Libedia he hūa fortaleza que está hua legoa de Corfacam pella costa, pera o norte, sita ao longo da praya, com bahia de repairo do sul, sudueste, oeste, noroeste. He quadrada, do feitio de mouros, com hum muro baixo, duas braças e mea de altura Tem hum grande sircuito, com seis baluartes e hum que esta cavaleiro, pegado no muro, com mais dous em redondo da povoação, ficando em distancia de tiro d'espin garda. A povoação sera de dozentos vizinhos, de cazas cubertas de ola, que he quzzi o mesmo que palha. Foi tomada por Matheus de Siebra em Agosto de seiscentos vinte e tres, por mando do Capitão Geral Rui Freire, pella mesma rezão que asima fica dita Tem de prezidio vinte lascarins com seu capitão, que sustenta a mesma terra. [f. 33] » #821 Bocarro, António, O livro das plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoac¸o~es do estado da I´ndia Oriental, Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa, 1937-40: 1992 Series: 442 3 vols. ~ vol. 2 p. 58

« However, an Australian team has now excavated the fort of Bidiyah in Fujairah which is identified with ‘Libedia’, a Portuguese fortress recorded by de Resende in his 1646 AD map (de Resende, 1646; Ziolkowski 1999: pp 19–21). The walls of the Portuguese fortress of Bidiyah were largely built with masonry from a third millennium BC tower nearby. The Portuguese fortress measures 60 m a side and C14 analyses from the foundation levels confirm a date of 1450–1670 AD for the building, matching the date of ceramics retrieved during the excavations. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 92

« Unsurprisingly, these volatile allies soon resumed their old habits, such as trading outside Portuguese controlled routes or plundering commercial ships along the coast, as was the case of one ‘Camis Bilizano’ [Khamis ?], known for his activities against shipping between Khor Fakkan and Limah around 1625–2.(276) Of course the election of Nāṣir b. Murshid al-Ya‘rubi to the imamate in 1624 (277) heralded a new era, though his actions only afected the Portuguese around 1627–2 fn. 275 “Instructions given to D. Gonçalo da Silveira” n/l [Muscat?] 22.05.1623. In: Ribeiro 1936, III, 3. fn. 276 “Instructions given to D. Gonçalo da Silveira” n/l [Muscat?] 14.12.1625. In: Ribeiro 1936, III, 33. . » #2602 João Teles e Cunha, Oman and Omanis in Portuguese Sources in the Early Modern Period (ca. 1500–1750), ~ p. 250 [nb this reference « Ribeiro 1936 Ribeiro, Luciano: Questões histórico-coloniais. Vol. III. Lisbon 1936. » on page 261 I believe should be Luciano Cordeiro see below

« Libidia e mais que all estao, dando-ines ajuda e ravor, porque além de lho devermos, hemo-lo mister e servem a Sua Majestade com fidelidade. Destes oito navios declarados há de ficar o sanguicel, de Lima até Corfação, até o melhorar, assim para alentar aquelas Fortalezas, como para impedir que não navegue o Camis e » [] #2729 Luciano Cordeiro, Questões Histórico-Coloniais, Divisa~o de Publicac¸o~es e Biblioteca, Age^ncia Geral das Colo´nias: Atica, 1935-1936 ~ vol. 3 p. 337

« Sai de Mascate em Abril de 627 e em minha companhia D. Gonçalo da Silveira por Capitão de uma fusta, a juntar- -me com mais que andavam na costa, e prefazendo 20, e quinhentos lascarins; tendo feito assento em Conselho, que se tomassem as Fortalezas e terras de Doba, desembarcamos nelas e en aanharam ao Camis que as tinha com grande valor » [D. Gonçalo da Silveira left Muscat in April 627 in my company as Captain of a fusta, joining with more that were on the coast, and making 20, and five hundred Lascarins; having sat down in Council, that the Fortresses and lands of Doba were taken, we disembarked on them and captured Camis who had them with great value.] #2729 Luciano Cordeiro, Questões Histórico-Coloniais, Divisa~o de Publicac¸o~es e Biblioteca, Age^ncia Geral das Colo´nias: Atica, 1935-1936 ~ vol. 3 p. 345

※ SOURCE for: Libidia:
« Libidia e mais que all estao, dando-ines ajuda e ravor, porque além de lho devermos, hemo-lo mister e servem a Sua Majestade com fidelidade. Destes oito navios declarados há de ficar o sanguicel, de Lima até Corfação, até o melhorar, assim para alentar aquelas Fortalezas, como para impedir que não navegue o Camis e » [] #2729 Luciano Cordeiro, Questões Histórico-Coloniais, Divisa~o de Publicac¸o~es e Biblioteca, Age^ncia Geral das Colo´nias: Atica, 1935-1936 ~ vol. 3 p. 337

Place Name: Baghan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054506 coordinate: lat 28.210005 long 51.881865
NIMA/GNS names: Baghan , Charkh Falak , Cheru , Heydarabad , Kheybi , Kheyvi , Tall Akhori , باغان , تل آخری , چرخ فلک , چرو , حيدر آباد , خی بی , خیوی ,
VARIANT names: Baghan ,

※ SOURCE for: Baghan:
« After Diz-gah, the river enters the district of Sana- wa-Shumba of the buluk of Dashti, and near the village of Baghan receives on the right bank the river Caniz which comes from the district of Tasūdj-i Dashti. Finally, near the village of Dumanlü the river enters the coast district of Mändistan and receives the name of Mand. It flows into the sea near the village of Ziyarat, halfway between the old harbours of Nadjiram (to the north and Siraf (to the south). » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 6 p. 384

« 16. The Kara Aghach river is or was bridged at the following points:- … (4) Near Baghan. Remains of an ancient bridge. » #2878 Gazetteer of Persia vol. III., Government of India Press, Simla, 1924, ~ vol. 3 pt. 2 L-Z p. 757

Place Name: Bagh-e Payeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3193754 coordinate: lat 27.883333 long 52.433333 † see notes (p)
NIMA/GNS names: Bagh-e Payeh , Bagh-e Piyeh , Bagh-i-Payeh , باغ پايه , باغ پيه ,
VARIANT names: Bagh-e Payeh ? , Payah ? , Payam ? ,


※ SOURCE for: Payah:
« Payah » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

※ SOURCE for: Payam:
« Payam » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}

Place Name: Bahla
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786359 coordinate: lat 22.978865 long 57.304705
NIMA/GNS names: Bahla' , Bahlah , بهلاء ,
VARIANT names: Bahla ,


Place Name: Bahlu
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054763 coordinate: lat 30.152507 long 51.584205
NIMA/GNS names: Bahlu , Baker , Darreh Bahlu , بهلو , دره بهلو ,
VARIANT names: Bahlu , Gureh ,


※ SOURCE for: Gureh:
« Fahlian [Name.] 30 17 [Lat.] 51 35 [Long.] 72 miles N.-W. of Shiraz, the chief village of Talaspid plain: situated in the Shib Bawwan valley at N. base of hills, 2 miles W. of Behbehän-Shiraz road at Güreh: narcissus in abundance: De Bodo gave number of houses as 60 or 70; palm-trees, ruined fort; water from canal running 14 miles from mountains beyond Kalah Safid. Climate must be very mild, as palms grow; grain, cattle and grazing plentiful water scarce: W. of Fahliin river is bitter and can only be used for irrigation. Mamassani have made themselves masters of this valley, dispossessing the original inhabitants. [Notes.] … Gureh [Name.] At foot of Kaleh Safid: 9 miles S. by E. from Shah Sadi: large permanent camp of 60 tents. [Notes.] » #3095 Report on Fars by Captain A T Wilson, Indian Political Department, Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1916 ~ p. 281

Place Name: Bahr Hadri
NIMA/GNS feature: GULF UFI: -787979 coordinate: lat 20.147631 long 58.134941
NIMA/GNS names: Bahr Hadri , Gulf of Masira , Gulf of Masira , Gulf of Masirah , Khalij Masirah , Masira Bay ,
VARIANT names: Bahr Hadri ,

※ SOURCE for: Bahr Hadri:
« To the south of the island is the Gulf of Maseera, which is known to the Arabs of Oman as Bahr al-Hadri, or the “ Lower Sea.” » #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994 ~ p.488

Place Name: Bahrain
NIMA/GNS feature: ADM1 UFI: -784834 coordinate: lat 26.2166667 long 50.5833333
NIMA/GNS names: Al Manamah , Al Qal`ah , Manama , Manama Fort , Manamah Fort , Qal'at-ad-Diwan , Umm ash Sha`um , Umm ash Shalum , Umm ash Sholum ,
VARIANT names: Awāl , Bahara , Baharem , Bahhrejn , Bahrain , Bahräin , Bahrayn , Bahrëin , Barem , Beroaquem , Dilmun , Fortaleza de Barens , Pai-lién , Tylos , y. de Baarem ,

※ SOURCE for: Awāl:
« AWAL — The old name of Bahrain Island, disused but still remembered. According to tradition Awal was the name of the first occupier, the brother of a certain Na'asan whose name also is supposed to survive in that of Jazirat Umm Na'asan. The name Awal occurs in the annals of the earliest Muhammadan conquest.(1) Palgrave, however, considers this name to have arisen through a mistake. He states that the word awāl is commonly used for a shark, and as many of these fish are to be found off Bahrain the name came to be applied to the island itself. fn. 1 Vide Le Strange's Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. » #2726 Gazetteer of Arabia, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/2/2, 1917 ~ vol. 1 p. 299

※ SOURCE for: Bahara:
« Bahara » in Persia, The Caspian Sea, c. 11730 H. Moll #974 Qasimi, Sultan bin Muhammad Al-, The Gulf in Historic Maps, 1493-1931, Privately published, 1996 ~ p. 145

« Bahara (93 C): Bahreïn / Bahrain / Babrayn Bahara L. (93 E): Bahreïn / Bahrain / Bahrayn » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 413

※ SOURCE for: Baharem:
« These two islands of Queximi and Baharem are large; and Queximi has eight inhabited towns and has plenty of provisions. Baharem has a large town of many Moors, important and honourable personages. And it is distant from Lorom to the north east xxxiv leagues, and to the island of Queximi fifty leagues of channel; and between it and the mainland from two to four leagues; and after that the coast turns between north-east and east, until the island of Ormuz for xxxv leagues, of which island mention is made lower down.(9) fn. 9 Here there appears to be a gap in the MS. of three quarters of a line. » #2616 Duarte Barbosa, A Description of the Coasts of East Africa And Malabar in the beginning of the sixteenth century , by Duarte Barbosa, A Portuguese . Translated from an early Spanish Manuscript in the Barcelona Library with Notes and a Preface byThe Hon. Henry E. J. Stanley, printed for the Hakluyt Society, London, 1866 ~ pp. 37-8

※ SOURCE for: Bahhrejn:
« Lorsque Nadir Schah avoit une flotte dans le golfe perfique, Täckt Khán, Begierbeg de Fars, s'empara de l'isle de Bahhrejn, et Mam es Sultan y devint Commandant; mais dèsque Täckt Khán fut allé en Oman avec la flotte de Perfe, le Schecb de Täbbre reprit tout le domaine, de Bahhrejn, excepté la citadelle, [When Nadir Schah had a fleet in the Persian Gulf, Täckt Khán, Begierbeg of Fars, seized the island of Bahhrejn, et Mam es Sultan became Commander there; but as soon as Täckt Khán had gone to Oman with the fleet of Perfe, the Schecb of Täbbre took over the whole domain of Bahhrejn, except the citadel,] » #2874 Carsten Niebuhr, Description de l'Arabie faite sur des observations propres et des avis recueillis dans les lieux mêmes, S. J. Baalde, Amsterdam, 1774 ~ p. 286


※ SOURCE for: Bahräin:
« Portugal was still the only European nation represented in the Persian Gulf, where the Portuguese power had first as we have seen, been established in 1507, and where the Portuguese flag was as yet supreme at sea. Portuguese fortified stations existed on the islands of Hormuz and Bahrain, at Qishm, at Masqat, and probably at other places in 'Oman, the administrative headquarters being Hormuz, which remaned the chief emporium of trade for a large part of the world. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 1 pt. 1 p. 9

※ SOURCE for: Bahrayn:
« The archipelago of Bahrayn [q.v.] between Katar and the Saudi Arabian mainland constitutes an Amirate under the rule of Al Khalifa, a family from Nadjd which established itself in the islands in 1197/1783 and has ruled there ever since, with its capital in the port of al-Manama on the main island. British interests in the Persian Gulf come under the supervision of a Political Resident with headquarters in al-Manama. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden ~ vol. 1 p. 540

※ SOURCE for: Bahrëin:
« The present Sheikhdom of Bahrein consists of the archipelago formed by the islands of Bahrein, Muharraq, Umm Na'asan, Sitrah, and Nebi Salih, with a number of lesser islets and rocks. The whole forms a compact group almost in the middle of the gulf which separates the promontory of El-Qatar and the coast of Qatif; the Sheikhs of Bahrein have had relations of a political nature with El-Qatar (see p. 328). The principal island has an extreme length of 30 miles from N. to S. and a maximum breadth of 10 miles. Muharraq, which lies NE., and is separated from Bahrein by a strait 1 miles broad, has a maximum diameter of 5 miles, but owing to its horseshoe form contains little territory. Umm Na'asan, which is less than 4 miles by 24 miles, lies 3 miles off the W. coast of the main island. Sitrah, separated from the E. coast by a narrow channel, has a length of 41 miles from N. to S., and a maximum breadth of 1½ miles. Nebi Salih, commonly called Jezirah, lying in the inlet of Kabb on the E. coast of Bahrein, NW. of Sitrah, has a diameter of only ½ mile. » #2699 Admiralty War Staff, Intelligence Department, Handbook of Arabia Vol. 1 General, H.M.S.O., London, 1917 ~ vol. 1 p. 311

#1839 Morgan, Jacques de, Mission scientifique en Perse Tome Second Études Géographiques, Ernest Leroux, Paris, 1895 vol. 2: ~ Fig. 148. Ile Bahreïn p. 308

※ SOURCE for: Barem:
« nous avons une ile appelée Barem (version espagnole Baharem) (Bahrain), où résident un grand nombre de marchands et des gens importants. L'fle est située au milieu du Golfe Persique, de sorte que beaucoup de bateaux avec des marchandises le fréquentent." (3). [we have an island called Barem (Spanish version Baharem) (Bahrain), where a large number of merchants and important people reside. The island is located in the middle of the Persian Gulf, so many ships with goods frequent it." (3).] » #233 Faroughy, Abbas, Histoire du Royaume de Hormuz depuis son origine jusqu'a son incorporation dans l'empire persan des Safavis en 1622, Bruxelles, 1949 ~ p. 14

« ya de barem » in {map#884 Atlas de Lázaro Luís FOL. 5V. [O-E], Lazaro Luis, 1563, Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, atlas de dez folhas} see PMC vol. 2 EST 216 and AHduGP map 31

※ SOURCE for: Beroaquem:
« The Bahrain Islands, although included here, belong properly to the Arabian Coast, where also they are mentioned. See § 41. here given in the form Barem is there spelt Beroaquem, the Arabic ḥ being as elsewhere hardened into a k sound, cf. Soquiar for Sohår. ($40). » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ vol. 1 p. 82

※ SOURCE for: Dilmun:
« Because of its important location, the Gulf has one of the longest histories of navigation. It is mentioned in the history of ancient Dilmun settlements in the Bahrain Islands as a trading centre as early as the third millennium. » #2426 Mohammed Hameed Salman, Aspects of Portuguese Rule in the Arabian Gulf, 1521-1622 Being a Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Hull, 2004 ~ p. 34

※ SOURCE for: Fortaleza de Barens:
« Fortaleza de Barens » in {map#1046 Atlas de Lázaro Luís FOL. 8., Lazaro Luis, 1563, Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, atlas de dez folhas} see AHduGP map 32

※ SOURCE for: Pai-lién:
(#326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 pp.117, 122 note 13)

※ SOURCE for: Tylos:
Tylos (Ancient Greek: Τύλος)

« C3 | Tylos Ins. | HR | Bahrain | Potts 1990, 125-44 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ MAP 95 TYLOS p. 1347

« A intervenção portuguesa na ilha do Bahrein, seguindo as indicações de ataque e utilizando máquinas de guerra construídas sob direcção do Arquitecto Inofre de Carvalho, ocorreu sobre uma pré-existência datada do século XV, realizada sob controlo do sultão de Ormuz. Os senhores locais tinham abandonado o velho forte de Tylos em meados do século XIII e a potência persa dominante no Golfo tomara posição na costa oposta do Mar Pérsico subordinando a nova fortificação à ordem reinante na região. Quando foi tomada pelos portugueses, como extensão do acordo com o rei de Ormuz, foram melhoradas as condições de defesa, realizando-se, à semelhança de obras também levadas a cabo noutros pontos, importantes trabalhos de arquitectura e engenharia militar. » #2046 João Dos Santos De Sousa Campos, Arquitectura Militar Portuguesa No Golfo Pérsico - Ormuz, Keshm E Larak. Dissertação De Doutoramento Apresentada À Faculdade De Letras Da Universidade De Coimbra Na Área De História, Especialidade De História Da Arte, Sob A Orientação Do Professor Doutor Pedro Dias, Coimbra, 2008 ~ p.279

« … Capsina, Sacrum/ Solis Pro/mont., Rhegama … » in {map#840 Sexta Asiae Tabula, Claudius Ptolemaeus Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Buckinck, 1478, in Cosmographia, Rome} see AHduGP map 3

※ SOURCE for: y. de Baarem:
« y. de Baarem » in {map#1019 Anonymous Portuguese Planisphere, Pero Fernandes (?), 1545, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Kartensammlung, FKB 272/11} see AHduGP map 20 and PMC vol. I pl. 79

Place Name: Bahram Gur Landmark
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 29.2897145192342 long 51.6976802037048
VARIANT names: Bahram Gur Landmark ,

※ SOURCE for: Bahram Gur Landmark:
coordinates obtained from google maps 03dec2023 « کتیبه کرتیر در سرمشهد Bahram Gur Landmark » [The bas-relief of Bahram II and the large Sassanid inscription in Sarmeshhad. PBR]

Place Name: Bahramabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3080584 coordinate: lat 30.4067 long 55.9939
NIMA/GNS names: Bahramabad , Rafsanjan , Rafsinjan , رفسنجان ,
VARIANT names: Bahramabad , Rafsandjan , Unas ,

※ SOURCE for: Bahramabad:
« ["The province Kerman is still rich in turquoises. The mines of Páríz or Párez are at Chemen-i-mó-aspán, 16 miles from Páríz on the road to Bahrámábád (principal place of Rafsinján), and opposite the village or garden called Gód-i-Ahmer. These mines were worked up to a few years ago; the turquoises were of a pale blue. Other turquoises are found in the present Bardshir plain, and not far from Mashíz, on the slopes of the Chehel tan mountain, opposite a hill called the Bear Hill (tal-i-Khers). » #2066 Yule, Henry, Sir, The book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian : concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East, J. Murray, London, 1903, ~ vol. 1 p. 92 note. 2

« We put up our tents inside the rooms, and when we had settled in, our Yezd acquaintance arrived to dinner, as the floods had delayed him on his journey to Kerman. He told us that from the roof of the Bahramabad caravanserai he had seen houses collapsing one after another around him, and the drainage channel was turned into a roaring torrent some thirty yards wide, sweeping away everything in its course. » #1630 Sykes, Ella C., Through Persia on a side-saddle, A. D. Innes and Co Ltd, 1898, ~ p. 77

※ SOURCE for: Rafsandjan:
RAFSANDJAN, a town of Kirman province, central Persia (lat. 30° 25' N., long. 56° 00' E., altitude 1,572 m/5,156 ft.), situated on the Yazd road 120 km/74 miles to the west of Kirman city. It is the cheflieu of a shahrastan or district of the same name. Known also as Bahramabad, in 1991 it had an estimated population of 87,798 (Preliminary results of September 1991 census, Statistical Centre of Iran, Population Division).

Bahramabad is a considerable town of 4,000 houses, fairly clean, and evidently thriving. The caravan- serai was a good one, the rooms having for the first time, if I remember rightly, doors and windows;

※ SOURCE for: Unas:
« The town of Rudan, with Unas (also known as Bahramabad) and Aban, was situated in a northern extension of the Kerman oasis which, nevertheless was considered part of Istakhr kurah during this period. » #3094 Donald Whitcomb, Trade and Tradition In Medieval Southern Iran - Thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1979 ~ p. 113

« To sum up, during Sassanian times the northern desert fringe of both Fars and Kirman was being systematically colonized, and the process may well have included the founding, or at least the enlargement, of the whole string of small qanat-oases in northern Kirman: Zarand, Rafsandjan, Bafq, etc.(6) fn. 6. Yaqut (tr.: 285) calls Zarand an "old town", a designation which usually means pre-Muslim. From the distances given in the geographical literature Le Strange (1905: 286) would identify Rafsandjan, previously Bahramabad, with the medieval town of Unas (see also Schwarz: 224). It might also be a case of successive settlements. The name "Bahramabad" appears from the end of the 14th century (Samarkandi tr.,: 113f). Also Kuh-bunan (between Bafq and Ravar) is sometimes listed as a Sassanian founding (Tomaschek, 1883: 605). 3112 pp. 179-181 ch 14 A parallel can be made with the small town of Unas. The name has also disappeared, but the actual settlement must be either identical with or succeeded by Bahramabad /Rafsandjan.(44)fn. 44 Cf. above p. 181, note 6. » #3112 Peter Christensen, The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500, Bloomsbury Publishing Limited, London, 2015 ~ p. 113

Arch. Site in OMN name: Ba'id 22
UTM: FA 373 542 / FA 375 509 converted to coordinate: lat 23.09079 long 58.34057
VARIANT names: Ba'id 22 ,

※ SOURCE for: Ba'id 22:
« Cairn tombs, beehive tombs, pill-box tombs, walled large boulders » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 45 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Bairam
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056129 coordinate: lat 27.432027 long 53.514126
NIMA/GNS names: Bairam , Beyram , Beyrom , بیرم ,
VARIANT names: Bairam ,


Place Name: Bakhtiari
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054904 coordinate: lat 28.073424 long 53.980175
NIMA/GNS names: Bakhteyar , Bakhteyaru , Bakhtiari , Bakhtiaruyeh , بختیارویه ,
VARIANT names: Bachtiaru , Bakhtiari , Bakhtiyari , Bocktearee ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Bachtiaru:
When it rained, the road to Banaru was followed via Bakhtiyari (after two farsakhs) which had a fortress with two high towers. Banaru also had a fortress and large cisterns. (103) fn. 103 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p.117 (Bachtiaru; Benaru); Hedges, p. 206 (Bocktarea, a nice village with a water supply, the home of his chief muleteer, at whose house he stayed); ...


※ SOURCE for: Bakhtiyari:
When it rained, the road to Banaru was followed via Bakhtiyari (after two farsakhs) which had a fortress with two high towers. Banaru also had a fortress and large cisterns. (103) fn. 103 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p.117 (Bachtiaru; Benaru); Hedges, p. 206 (Bocktarea, a nice village with a water supply, the home of his chief muleteer, at whose house he stayed); ...

※ SOURCE for: Bocktearee:
« August 15. We rose from Beeres, and passing through Benarroo, lay at Bocktearee, a pretty well seated village, where our Chief Muleteer lived, who invited and entertained us at his house very courteously. This Place is well watered (a rarity in this Country) with a fine running stream (the first and only one I have yet seen in this barren Country), conveyed to them by an Aqueduct under ground.August 16.-We lay here (being Sunday) all day, and accepted of our Muleteer's entertainement. »#3146 Yule, Henry Colonel, The Diary Of William Hedges, The Hakluyt Society, London, 1889 ~ vol. 1 p. 206

Place Name: Bala Deh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054925 coordinate: lat 29.286854 long 51.942535
NIMA/GNS names: Bala Deh , بالا ده ,
VARIANT names: Bala Deh , Baladeh , Baladih , Balla Deh ,

※ SOURCE for: Bala Deh:
« BalaDeh » in {map#1139 Sketch Map of the River Mand or Kara-Aghatch, , , #1453 Ross, E. C., Notes on the River Mand, or Kara-Aghatch (The Sitakos of the Ancients) in Southern Persia, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, London, 1883 (Dec.) New Monthly Series 5:12:712-6 ~}

« 260 to Balla Deh ... ¾ mile 325 to Robat » #3038 Keith E. Abbott, Notes Taken on a Journey Eastwards from Shiráz to Fessá and Darab, Thence Westwards by Jehrúm to Kazerún, in 1850, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, London, 1857 ~ p. 182

※ SOURCE for: Baladeh:
« Baladeh » in {map#1160 Fig. 1 Location of Fahlian and other way-stations on the Royal Road (modified from Mostafavi 1967), , , #3067 Yoshihiro Nishiaki, Fahlian (Tape Suruvan), Faras, Iran, Laboratory for Prehistoric Archaeology of West Asia, The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2020 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Baladih:
« Baladih » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}


Place Name: Baleli
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054987 coordinate: lat 27.8671 long 52.6555
NIMA/GNS names: Bal Bali , Baleli , Baleyli , Balili , بل بلی ,
VARIANT names: Baleli ,


Place Name: Banaf
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055076 coordinate: lat 29.564987 long 51.521571
NIMA/GNS names: Banaf , Banav , بناف , بناو ,
VARIANT names: Banaf ,

※ SOURCE for: Banaf:
3079 abb5

Place Name: Banak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3758985 coordinate: lat 30.35 long 48.2
NIMA/GNS names: Banak , Omm ol Kharnub , Omm ol Qasab-e Haj `Ali ,
VARIANT names: Banak ,

※ SOURCE for: Banak:
« Banak, the northernmost village on the coast of Shibku situated about 3 miles north-westward of Kangun. » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p. 153

Stream in grp 00POL01 name: Bandamir Rud
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3072027 coordinate: lat 29.997295 long 52.750737
NIMA/GNS names: Bandamir , Bandamir Rud , Band-e Amir , Kor , Kur , Kur Rud , Kurowsh , Qain Piran , Rud-e Band-e Amir , Rud-e Kor , Rud-i-Kur , Rudkhaneh-te Kaz , Rudkhaneh-ye Kor , رودخانه کر , رودخانه کز ,
VARIANT names: Bandamir Rud ,


Place Name: Bandar Abbas
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055107 coordinate: lat 27.1865 long 56.2808
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar `Abbas , Bandar `Abbasi , Bandar-e `Abbas , Cambarao , Gombroon , Gumrun , Port Comorao , بندر عباس , بندر عباس , بندر عباسی , گمبرن ,
VARIANT names: Bandar Abbas , Banderabassi , Camarão , Combrú , Comerão , Comorão , Gambrun , Gamru , Gamrun , Gombroon , Gombrun ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Abbas:
« There are grounds for believing that the town is situated on or near the site of the small fishing village of Shahrū (see Iṣṭakhri, 67) or Shahruvā (see the Ḥudūd al-ʿAlam, 124 and 375). When the neighbouring island of Djarūn (or Djarrūn) ceased to be so called and was given instead the name of Hormuz at the beginning of the 8th/14th century, the former name was transferred to Shahrū. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 1 p. 1013

※ SOURCE for: Banderabassi:
« Banderabassi » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

※ SOURCE for: Camarão:
« GOMBROON, n.p. The old name in European documents of the place on the Persian Gulf now known as Bandar ’Abbas, or ’Abbasi. The latter name was given to it when Shah ’Abbas, after the capture and destruction of the island city of Hormuz, established a port there. The site which he selected was the little town of Gambrún. This had been occupied by the Portuguese, who took it from the ‘King of Lar’ in 1612, but two years later it was taken by the Shah. The name is said (in the Geog. Magazine, i. 17) to be Turkish, meaning ‘a Custom House.’ The word alluded to is probably gumruk, which has that meaning, and which is again, through Low Greek, from the Latin commercium. But this etymology of the name seems hardly probable. That indicated in the extract from A. Hamilton below is from Pers. kamrun, ‘a shrimp,’ or Port. camarão, meaning the same. » #379 Yule, Henry and Burnell A. C., Hobson-Jobson, The Anglo-Indian Dictionary, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, Ware, Hertfordshire, 1996 ~ p. 384

※ SOURCE for: Combrú:
« 1622.—“That evening, at two hours of the night, we started from below that fine tree, and after travelling about a league and a half…we arrived here in Combrú, a place of decent size and population on the sea-shore, which the Persians now-a-days, laying aside as it were the old name, call the ‘Port of Abbas,’ because it was wrested from the Portuguese, who formerly possessed it, in the time of the present King Abbas.”—P. della Valle, ii. 413; [in Hak. Soc. i. 3, he calls it Combu]. » #379 Yule, Henry and Burnell A. C., Hobson-Jobson, The Anglo-Indian Dictionary, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, Ware, Hertfordshire, 1996 ~ p. 384

※ SOURCE for: Comerão:
« No entanto o rei da Persia tinhase já apoderado em 1614 do forte de Comerão na terra firme, a tres leguas de Ormuz e das ilhas de Baharem e de Queixome, aquella muito rica por causa da pesca das perolas, e esta porque abastecia Ormuz de agua doce e de refrescos. [However, in 1614 the king of Persia had already taken over the fort of Comerão on the mainland, three leagues from Ormuz and the islands of Baharem and Queixome, the former very rich because of pearl fishing, and the latter because it supplied Ormuz with water. candy and refreshments] » #2280 Manoel Bernardes Branco, Portugal e os estrangeiros, Livraria De A. M. Pereira, Lisboa, 1879 ~ p. 315

※ SOURCE for: Comorão:
« 1614. (The Captain-major) “under orders of Dom Luis da Gama returned to succour Comorão, but found the enemy’s fleet already there and the fort surrendered.…News which was heard by Dom Luis da Gama and most of the people of Ormuz in such way as might be expected, some of the old folks of Ormuz prognosticating at once that in losing Comorão Ormuz itself would be lost before long, seeing that the former was like a barbican or outwork on which the rage of the Persian enemy spent itself, giving time to Ormuz to prepare against their coming thither.” - Bocarro, Decada, 349. » #379 Yule, Henry and Burnell A. C., Hobson-Jobson, The Anglo-Indian Dictionary, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, Ware, Hertfordshire, 1996 ~ p. 384

※ SOURCE for: Gambrun:
« Of these possibly Najiram may stand for the island of Jarm on which the later town of Hurmuz stood. Karman is the Carmon of p. 76, n. 1, and p. 77, n. 1, i.e., Gambrun, which is not far from the site of Hurmuz in Mas'udi's time. » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ p.79 notes

※ SOURCE for: Gamru:
« However, in 1622, when Hormuz changed hands, most buildings were destroyed and the Safavides decided to divert all traffic to Gamru, on the mainland opposite of Hormuz. The rise of Gamru, named Bandar 'Abbàs by their new masters, caused the final decline of Hormuz. » #2023 Ralph Kauz and Roderich Ptak, Hormuz in Yuan and Ming sources, Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient, ~ p. 29

※ SOURCE for: Gamrun:
« The great depot for the produce of India, China, and Persia, was then removed to Gombroon* and Ormuz, and has ever since remained in the hands of the Persian monarch. » fn. « * Gamrún, or Gamrú.-E » #253 Kempthorne, Lieut. G.B., Notes on a Survey along the Eastern Shores of the Persian Gulf in 1828, Royal Geographical Society, 1835

※ SOURCE for: Gombroon:
« The name Djarun was transferred to the small town and port of Suru or Shahru on the mainland 17 km to the north-west, where goods in transit to or from Hormuz were transhipped; this name became corrupted to Gamru and was further corrupted by Europeans into Gambrun, Gombrun and Gombroon. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 3 p. 585

※ SOURCE for: Gombrun:
« The name Djarun was transferred to the small town and port of Suru or Shahru on the mainland 17 km to the north-west, where goods in transit to or from Hormuz were transhipped; this name became corrupted to Gamru and was further corrupted by Europeans into Gambrun, Gombrun and Gombroon. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 3 p. 585

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 10 (BK10)
UTM: FB783019 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5175609551116 long 58.7463700093795
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 10 (BK10) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 10 (BK10):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 11 (BK11)
UTM: FB753021 converted to coordinate: lat 23.519693475113 long 58.7170200809735
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 11 (BK11) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 11 (BK11):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 12 (BK12)
UTM: FB752020 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5188013948706 long 58.7160292406799
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 12 (BK12) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 12 (BK12):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 3 (BK3)
UTM: FB762020 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5186931453213 long 58.7258204898381
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 3 (BK3) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 3 (BK3):
« Stone structures » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 4 (BK4)
UTM: FB771026 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5240124078081 long 58.7347035697172
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 4 (BK4) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 4 (BK4):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 5 (BK5)
UTM: FB779019 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5176048436592 long 58.7424535929521
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 5 (BK5) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 5 (BK5):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 6 (BK6)
UTM: FB779018 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5167019780665 long 58.7424417079448
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 6 (BK6) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 6 (BK6):
« Stone structure » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 7 (BK7)
UTM: FB772021 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5167785428948 long 58.7355880030909
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 7 (BK7) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 7 (BK7):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bandar Khayran 8 (BK8)
UTM: FB771020 converted to coordinate: lat 23.5194980638308 long 58.7346443967416
VARIANT names: Bandar Khayran 8 (BK8) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Khayran 8 (BK8):
« Cairns » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 286

Place Name: Bandar Misha`ab
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -3097367 coordinate: lat 28.1 long 48.6666667
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar al Mish`ab , Bandar Misha`ab ,
VARIANT names: Bandar Misha`ab ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bandar Misha`ab FOR Sar [PBR],

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Misha`ab:
« Bandar Mishaab is the anchorage where native craft shelter from the shamal, on the southern side of the spit extending eastward from Jazirat al Mukta, and in the northwestern part of a large bay which is mostly shoal; the entrance, with from 6 to 7 fathoms water, is between Mukta Spit and Kassar al Mitma (Kasar al Mitma'), 2 miles to the eastward. The best position is about 11 miles southeast- ward of the northeastern point of Jazirat al Mukta. A detached shoal patch lies 1½ miles southward of Mukta Spit. The northern entrance to the inshore boat channel from Ras at Tanajib is in this bay. » #2963 United States. Hydrographic Office, Persian Gulf Pilot Comprising the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Omán and the Makrán Coast, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1920 ~ pp. 148-9

Place Name: Bandar Ruwayni
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -3191194 coordinate: lat 14.533333 long 49.2
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Ruwaini , Bandar Ruwayni ,
VARIANT names: Bandar Ruwayni , Bander Ruweini ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bandar Ruwayni FOR Burum [Visconde De Lagoa],

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Ruwayni:
« Bandar Ruwayni (14°32'N., 49°10'E.), extending NE of Mukalla Promontory, provides anchorage, sheltered from the Southwest Monsoon, to vessels with local knowledge, in depths of 7 to 11m. The depths increase rapidly to seaward of this bay. 9.14 A large mosque stands in the village of Ar Rukayb, about 3.5 miles NE of the E side of Mukalla Promontory. Buwaysh, another village, stands in a valley surrounded by date groves, about 3 miles farther NE. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~ p.187

※ SOURCE for: Bander Ruweini:
« BANDER RUWEINI is a small bay close north-eastward of Ras Makalleh, having from 4 to 6 fathoms close in-shore, from whence it shelves into deep water. Native trading vessels find shelter here during the south-west monsoon.Rukub (Raghib) village, 2 miles eastward of the bay, has a large ancient mosque. » #2345 William James Lloyd Wharton, John Phillips, The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot: Containing Descriptions of the Suez Canal, the Gulfs of Suez, Printed for the Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1900 ~ ed. 3 1887 p. 106

« Coast. From the head of Bander Ruweini , the little bay on the eastern side of Ras Makalla, the coast trends eastward about 40 miles (74.1 km . ) in an almost unbroken line of low sand as far as the cliffs of Hami. » #2736 H. O. No. 157 - Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot, Hydrographic Office, United States, 1922 ~ p.506

Place Name: Bandar Singau
NIMA/GNS feature: ANCH UFI: -3082309 coordinate: lat 26.65 long 55.3
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Singau , Bandar-e Sangow , بندر سنگو ,
VARIANT names: Bandar Singau ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Singau:
age.

Place Name: Bandar-e Dargahan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059445 coordinate: lat 26.96316 long 56.06278
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Dargahan , Bandar-e Dargahan , Dargahan , Dargawan , بندر درگهان , درگهان ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Dargahan , Darbaga , Dargahon , Durguam ,


※ SOURCE for: Darbaga:
« The Iſle of Queixome, or Queixume, or Quezeme, otherwife called Kechmiche, and by the Inhabitants Brokt, lies clofe to the Continent of Perfia, being feparated from it only by a fmall branch of the Sea: It has about two Leagues in Circuit, and is three Leagues diftant from Ormus. Its two chief Places are Arbez and Homeal, where the King of Ormus at the time when Albuquerque firit appeared hereabouts, had ftrong Garrifons. The other Places of Note are, Lapht, the beſt Harbours of this Ifland, Darbaga not far from the Lapht, Chau, and Sirmion or Sermion. It bears plenty of Corn, but efpecially Barly, without which, the Inhabitants of Ormus, who are fupplied from hence with it for their Horfes, could Scarce fubfift there. Here is alfo a moft Excellent Spring of Freſh Water; to fecure which, the Perfians had Erected a Fort hard by, for fear of the Portugueſes, who were then as yet Mafters of Ormus. » #1933 Nieuhof, Johannes, Voyages and travels, into Brasil, and the East-Indies: containing, an exact description of the Dutch Brasil, and divers parts of the East-Indies; … ~ p. 244

※ SOURCE for: Dargahon:
« It has several ports within and without, but mostly very shallow. The best within are Dargahon, Lapht, Chau, and Sermion.(4) The point of Queixome on the outside (6) has plenty of palm orchards, gardens, and wells of good water; whence Harmuz is cemmonly provided, though not thence alone. There also are Karuez and Angan,(6) which last, a little distinct island used as a port, forms in its sound a very safe haven, fit to hold many and very great ships. This isle (Queixome) is very fertile fn. 4 The three first are on our charts yet. Sermion must have been where our own queer little possession of Basidu or Bassadore now exists. fn. 5 Extant and prosperous, on the E. point of the isle. fn. 6 Karvez is not now identifiable; Angan is Henjam Island. » #258 Teixeira, Pedro, The Travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his Kings of Harmuz, and extracts from his Kings of Persia. Translated and annotated by W. F. Sinclair ... With further notes and an introduction by D. Ferguson., Hakluyt Society:Kraus Reprint, 1902:1991 ~ p.19

※ SOURCE for: Durguam:
« Durguam » in {map#1036 Tracing showing the route and coast line from Mogoo Bay to the town of Bunder Abbas, Lewis Pelly, 1684, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F126/37, ff 18-27, in Qatar Digital Library}

Place Name: Bandar-e Kangan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3069533 coordinate: lat 27.834 long 52.0628
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Kangan , Kangan , Kangun , بندرِ كنگان , كنگان ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Kangan , Congon , Congoon , Gaugana , Gôgân , Gogana ? , Kangun , Konkun ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar-e Kangan:
« The route as far as the village of Kangān led along the foot of the steep maritime range, which is there broken by a wide valley descending from the north-west. The river draining it carries a good deal of water and, being tidal at its mouth, might in case of rain, which a cloudy sky had promised for some days past, have held us up. So I did not stop at Kangān to look for any remains of the small Portuguese factory which is stated to have existed there for some time, but thought it safer to push on past the well-cultivated fields of Banak to the river. Though some 150 yards wide at the ford, the water was deep, reaching up to the camels' bellies. » #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937, ~ p. 232

※ SOURCE for: Congon:
« Congon » in {map#990 Golfe Persique. Dresse en 1758 et publie en 76, Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon, 1776, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 2603.025} see AHduGP map 75

※ SOURCE for: Congoon:
« KONKUN, OR CONGOON, in lat. 27° 48' N. lon. 52° 6' E., is the northernmost town in the bay of this name, off which there is good anchorage, in from 5 to 7 or 8 fa- thoms soft bottom, and shelter from N. Westers. About 5 leagues west of Konkun, on the high land, there is a remarkable table hill, called BARN HILL, which answers as a guide in rounding Berdistan Shoal. About 6 leagues to the westward of Konkun, there is a projecting part of the coast that forms the western point of Konkun Bay, and is in lat. 27° 48' N.; this is by some called Cape Berdistan, as the easternmost range of breakers extends from this point to the S. S. East- ward; but the head-land, which may be considered the true Cape, bears about W. N. W. 8 leagues distant from the west point of Konkun Bay. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ vol 1 2 ed. P. 263

※ SOURCE for: Gaugana:
« endlich, 18 Miles von Tahiriyah, an einer Bai mit vortrefflichem Ankergrund, die Veste Bandar Kongûn 27° 49' 38" N. 52° 3' 39" Q., mit gutem Wasser, viel Anbau und Dattelpalmen: das ist Γώγανα Nearchs, *Gaugana, Gôgân, Kongûn. [Finally, 18 miles from Tahiriyah, on a bay with excellent anchorage, the fortress Bandar Kongûn 27° 49' 38" N. 52° 3' 39" Q., with good water, much cultivation and date palms: this is Gogana Nearchs, * Gaugana, Gôgân, Kongûn.] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890, vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 58

※ SOURCE for: Gôgân:
see source « Gaugana »

※ SOURCE for: Gogana:
« Gogana » in map Grecian Empire#836 Warrington, John (ed.), Everyman's Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography, J M Dent and Sons Ltd, 1952, ~ p. 13

« Gogana » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}

« Upon departing from Nabon, the fleet proceeded upwards of thirty-seven miles to Gôgana, a distance which answers within a mile to the position of the modern Konkûn or Congoon, re-marked by M'Cluer for a high ground over it called Barn-hill from its appearance, and as being the northernmost town in the bay", which curves to Verdistan. » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 p384

« Gogana » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}

※ SOURCE for: Kangun:
« Kangun » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}

« Some boats were also taken and destroyed at the ports of Lingeh, Mughu, Asalu and Kangun for which compensation had later to be paid, as Bruce could produce no definite proof of piracy by the people of these places. (64) fn. 64. Lorimer, op. cit., p. 669. » #6 Hawley, Donald, The Trucial States, Allen and Unwin, London, 1970 ~ p. 114

※ SOURCE for: Konkun:
« KONKUN, OR CONGOON, in lat. 27° 48' N. lon. 52° 6' E., is the northernmost town in the bay of this name, off which there is good anchorage, in from 5 to 7 or 8 fa- thoms soft bottom, and shelter from N. Westers. About 5 leagues west of Konkun, on the high land, there is a remarkable table hill, called BARN HILL, which answers as a guide in rounding Berdistan Shoal. About 6 leagues to the westward of Konkun, there is a projecting part of the coast that forms the western point of Konkun Bay, and is in lat. 27° 48' N.; this is by some called Cape Berdistan, as the easternmost range of breakers extends from this point to the S. S. East- ward; but the head-land, which may be considered the true Cape, bears about W. N. W. 8 leagues distant from the west point of Konkun Bay. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ vol 1 2 ed. P. 263

« Upon departing from Nabon, the fleet proceeded upwards of thirty-seven miles to Gôgana, a distance which answers within a mile to the position of the modern Konkûn or Congoon, remarked by M'Cluer for a high ground over it called Barn-hill from its appearance, and as being the northernmost town in the bay", which curves to Verdistan. » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 p384

Place Name: Bandar-e Laft
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3072726 coordinate: lat 26.896 long 55.7584
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Laft , Laft , Laft-e Now , Yaft , بندر لافت , لافت , لافت نو , يافت ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Laft , Lafat , Lafate , Laft , Lafte , Lapht , Laphta , Leftatic ? , Luft ,


※ SOURCE for: Lafat:
LAFAT, ilha-Nome dado no século XVIII, segundo o Dr. Mansell L. Dames, à ilha Kishm ou Jezirat at Tawila, em 26° 47' lat. N. e 55° 57' long. E., à entrada do golfo Pérsico. [LAFAT, island-name given in the 18th century, according to Dr. Mansell L. Dames, to Kishm Island or Jezirat at Tawila, at 26° 47' lat. N. and 55° 57' long. E., at the entrance to the Persian Gulf.] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 176

※ SOURCE for: Lafate:
LAFATE, lugar de-Laft, em 26° 53' lat. N. e 55° 46' long. E., na costa oci- dental da ilha Kishm ou Jezirat at Tawila, à entrada do golfo Pérsico. [LAFATE, place de-Laft, at 26° 53' lat. N. and 55° 46' long. E., on the west coast of the island of Kishm or Jezirat at Tawila, at the entrance to the Persian Gulf.] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 176

※ SOURCE for: Laft:
« Laft, when in the possession of the Juwásimi* pirates, was a place of considerable strength, to which they resorted, and the tortuous nature of the channel and numerous shoals (then un- known) in Clarence's Straits rendered it very difficult to follow them. During the expedition under Colonel Smith and Captain Wainwright in 1809, these Arabs beat back, with considerable loss, a storming party, but surrendered when the vessels came close in, and had battered their walls. The town is at present in a miserable state, built on the slope of a hill on the northern side of the island and surrounded by a wall. fn. * Jawáthimí, or Jawásimí, i. e., belonging to the Jawásim or Jasúms, the aboriginal natives of the country. » #1128 Whitelock, Lieut. H. H., Descriptive Sketch of the Islands and Coast at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1838 ~ p. 178

※ SOURCE for: Lafte:
LAFTE, porto de - V. Lafale, lugar de. [LAFTE, port of - V. Lafale, place of.] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 177

※ SOURCE for: Lapht:
« The Iſle of Queixome, or Queixume, or Quezeme, otherwife called Kechmiche, and by the Inhabitants Brokt, lies clofe to the Continent of Perfia, being feparated from it only by a fmall branch of the Sea: It has about two Leagues in Circuit, and is three Leagues diftant from Ormus. Its two chief Places are Arbez and Homeal, where the King of Ormus at the time when Albuquerque firit appeared hereabouts, had ftrong Garrifons. The other Places of Note are, Lapht, the beſt Harbours of this Ifland, Darbaga not far from the Lapht, Chau, and Sirmion or Sermion. It bears plenty of Corn, but efpecially Barly, without which, the Inhabitants of Ormus, who are fupplied from hence with it for their Horfes, could Scarce fubfift there. Here is alfo a moft Excellent Spring of Freſh Water; to fecure which, the Perfians had Erected a Fort hard by, for fear of the Portugueſes, who were then as yet Mafters of Ormus. » #1933 Nieuhof, Johannes, Voyages and travels, into Brasil, and the East-Indies: containing, an exact description of the Dutch Brasil, and divers parts of the East-Indies; … ~ p. 244

« It has several ports within and without, but mostly very shallow. The best within are Dargahon, Lapht, Chau, and Sermion.(4) The point of Queixome on the outside (6) has plenty of palm orchards, gardens, and wells of good water; whence Harmuz is cemmonly provided, though not thence alone. There also are Karuez and Angan,(6) which last, a little distinct island used as a port, forms in its sound a very safe haven, fit to hold many and very great ships. This isle (Queixome) is very fertile fn. 4 The three first are on our charts yet. Sermion must have been where our own queer little possession of Basidu or Bassadore now exists. fn. 5 Extant and prosperous, on the E. point of the isle. fn. 6 Karvez is not now identifiable; Angan is Henjam Island. » #258 Teixeira, Pedro, The Travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his Kings of Harmuz, and extracts from his Kings of Persia. Translated and annotated by W. F. Sinclair ... With further notes and an introduction by D. Ferguson., Hakluyt Society:Kraus Reprint, 1902:1991 ~ p.19

« LAPHT, lugar de - V. Lafate, lugar de. [LAPHT, place of - V. Lafate, place of.] » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 183

※ SOURCE for: Laphta:
LAPHTA, lugar de-v. Lafate, lugar de. [Diogo do Couto-Da Asia]. [LAPHTA, place of-v. Lafate, place of. [Diogo do Couto-Da Asia].] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 183

※ SOURCE for: Leftatic:
« we cast anchor in the water and stopped our boat near a farmhouse called Leftatic, (483) habitation of our sailors, who presented very good melons and watermelons and we found there a large quantity of hens and kids and at good prices. market, so that there we were very well treated. Then the sailors came to the vessel, first they supplied the vessel with water and then at 11 pm we left with a sirocco breeze and went by master to get out of the canal, (484) from which, having come out, we passed between two very narrow mountains and dangerous because of the shoals made by the stones that fell from them; and therefore our sailors always sailed with soundings in hand and other very long poles. fn. 483. Possibly the point of Laft Kadim in Clarence Strait, near which they are found fishing villages. On the map by Diego Ribero of 1529 (reproduced in BARBOSA, op. cit., vol. I) the locality of Lefete is marked at about this height. » #1572 Pinto, Olga, Viaggi d i C. Federici e G. Balbi alle Indie Orientali, Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Rome, 1962 ~ p. 117

※ SOURCE for: Luft:
Luft and fort symbol in {map#1040 Trigonometrical Survey of Clarence’s Strait, Gulf of Persia, Commr. G.B. Brucks and Lieutt. S.B. Haines. H.C. Marine, 1828, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3630/28/2, in Qatar Digital Library} Sheet 1

« "I then despatched the cruisers Ternate and Nautilus to the eastward of Kishma, to prevent the escape of the Luft pirates, while I entered the channel between that island and the main at the western end; but having got the ship I command aground in endeavouring to work through it, as I had no pilot acquainted with the navigation, and as I found the channel was too intricate to pass without buoying the shoals, which would have taken up too much time, I determined to proceed to Luft by the eastern channel, leaving the cruiser Vestal to guard the western end of Kishma. His Majesty's ship Caroline had been previously detached to Burka road with the heavy transports. "On the 24th, the Ternate and Nautilus joined; and having procured pilots at Kishern, I proceeded up the channel in H. M. ship under my command, with the ships and vessels named in the margin, and arrived off the town of Luft on the 26th at noon. Twenty-four hours having been expended in fruitless negociation with the chief Moola Hussum, the Ter nate, Nautilus, and Fury were anchored off the town, and the troops, pre- ceded by the gun-boats, approached to the attack, which commenced at two o'clock in the afternoon of the 27th. "The enemy made no resistance until the troops came close to the very strong fort, and attempted to force the gate; he then commenced a fire, I am sorry to say, most destructive, as your Excellency will see by the accompanying return, added to that of Lieutenant-Colonel Smith to the government. The piratical vessels, eleven in number, 3 of them very large down, were in the mean time burnt by the seamen; and the gun- boats and the cruiser Fury, which being of light draught of water, had been towed within musket-shot of the fort, kept up a ruinous fire, which very much shattered it by sun-set: the Sheik then consented to yield up the place on the following day to the English, on the part of the Imaun of Muscat, together with all the property in it belonging to his Highness's subjects; this was accordingly carried into effect, the Sheik departing after Lieutenant-Colonel Smith and myself had guaranteed his personal safety. "The fort having been delivered in trust for the Imaun to Sheik Dewish, the head of the Benismain, a tribe of Arabs who have always been firmly attached to his Highness, I sailed next morning in la Chiffonne, leaving the Mornington to bring on the cruisers and the transport to Burka, off which place I anchored this day +. "The loss of the enemy has been very great; he acknowledged to upwards of 50, independent of those who were killed in the towers adjacent to the fort, and driven over precipices to the eastward thereof." » #2905 John Marshall, Royal naval biography; or, Memoirs of the services of all the flag-officers, superannuated rear …, Longmam, Rees, Orme Brown and Green, London, 1829 ~ pp.89-90

Place Name: Bandar-e Mahshahr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055128 coordinate: lat 30.556546 long 49.188519
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Ma`sbur , Bandar Ma`shur , Bandar Mah Shahr Terminal , Bandar Mah Sharh , Bandar Mah-Shahr , Bandar Mashur , Bandar-e Ma`shur , Bandar-e Mahshahr , Bandar-mashoor , Bandar-Mashour , Bar Andaz , Mah Shahr , Mahshahr , Markaz-e Bargiri-ye Bandar-e Mah Shahr , Mashur , بندر ماهشهر ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Mahshahr ,


Place Name: Bandar-e Moghuyeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055132 coordinate: lat 26.605228 long 54.509139
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Moghuyeh , Moghuyeh , بندر مغویه , مغویه ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Moghuyeh , Mogbo , Moghu , Moghunah , Mogo , Sidodone ,


※ SOURCE for: Mogbo:
« and [arabic] Mogbo, belong to an independent Schech. » #2874 Carsten Niebuhr, Description de l'Arabie faite sur des observations propres et des avis recueillis dans les lieux mêmes, S. J. Baalde, Amsterdam, 1774 ~ p. 272

※ SOURCE for: Moghu:
« Moghu or Moghunah, is situated in the bay between Ras Bostonah and Ras Yarid on the Persian shore. Until the acquisition of Bassadore on the north-west extremity of the island of Kishm, Moghu was the station for the Indian Navy squadron. » #782 Low, Charles Rathbone, History of the Indian Navy (1613-1863), Richard Bentley and Son, 1877 ~ vol1 p. 333

※ SOURCE for: Moghunah:
« Moghu or Moghunah, is situated in the bay between Ras Bostonah and Ras Yarid on the Persian shore. Until the acquisition of Bassadore on the north-west extremity of the island of Kishm, Moghu was the station for the Indian Navy squadron. » #782 Low, Charles Rathbone, History of the Indian Navy (1613-1863), Richard Bentley and Son, 1877 ~ vol1 p. 333

※ SOURCE for: Mogo:
« Mogo » in {map#1035 Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A) Tab: XIX p. 340}

※ SOURCE for: Sidodone:
« In "Nearchus' Voyage" (Gronov. edition) Moghu is called Sidodone. » #782 Low, Charles Rathbone, History of the Indian Navy (1613-1863), Richard Bentley and Son, 1877 ~ vol1 p. 333

Place Name: Bandar-e Nakhilu
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055133 coordinate: lat 26.891 long 53.4874
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Nakhilu , Nahkilu , Nahkilu , Nakhilu , بندرِ نخيلو , نخيلو ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Nakhilu , Nachelo , Nakelo , Nakhilū , Nikilú ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar-e Nakhilu:
« In 1585 the Portuguese suffered a serious reverse at Naklilu, upon the Persian Coast, in attempting to punish the place for obstructing the despatch of supplies to Hormuz. Taken unawares after landing they were driven to their ships with a loss, native auxiliaries probably included, of 250 men. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ bvol. 1 pt. 1 p. 8

※ SOURCE for: Nachelo:
« Laftly, the Schiechs of Nachelo, Nabend, Aaloe, Tahhrie, Schilu, and Konkoun. The inhabitants of Nachelo are eſteemed to be very ſkilful divers. In the city of Kon- koun, the inhabitants of which are of a more pacific character than the other branches of the tribe of Houle, both Jews and Banians refide. » #1845 Pinkerton, John, A general Collection of the best and most interesting Voyages and Travels in all parts of the world, Longmans, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, London, 1811 ~ p. 127

« Niebuhr places Nachelo, the residence of a Sheik, in the river Darabin; and if I had found any resemblance in this name (199) to Okhus, I should have looked to this place for a station; but in the position taken there can be no error of consequence to the journal, except that an addition to the distance Arrian gives between the Darabin and Cape Nabon would be convenient, as his account is at present somewhat in excess. » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 p. 380

« Enfin les fchechs de Nachelo, de Nabend d'Aaloe, de Tabrie, de Schilu et de Koukoun. Les habitans de Nachelo paffent pour les meilleurs plongeurs. Dans la ville de Kontorn, dont les habitans font les plus pacifiques des Houles, on trouve des Juifs et des Banians. » #291 Niebuhr, Carsten, Description de l’Arabie d’apre`s les observations et recherches faites dans le pays me^me., S. J. Baalde, Amsterdam, 1774 ~ vol. 2 p. 155

« Nachelo » in {map#1035 Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A)} see AHduGP map 102

※ SOURCE for: Nakelo:
« NAKELO, a town on the coast opposite to the Island Schittuar, has a fort and a detached tower for its protection, with regular soundings near the shore; but the anchorage is exposed to N. W. winds, and the town is within a point of land, that forms the south side of an inlet or river. Cheroo, is a village about 4 miles S. E. of Nakelo, and subject to the Sheik of that place. Between them the shore is steep, therefore a ship should not borrow under 15 fathoms, this depth being within of a mile of the shore. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ p. 262

※ SOURCE for: Nakhilū:
« That is because it [Larak] is portless, and thus no large towns can be settled there; its residents would be exposed to great danger from the many Nautaque (71) or Nakhilū (72) corsairs from the coast of Persia and island of Qeshm, as well as from the rest of this Arabian Coast and sea, who regularly ply these waters in their terranquins, wreaking havoc on everything they come across. fn. 71 Nautaque was the name given by the Portuguese to the Baloch inhabitants of the Makran Coast, Pakistan, between Jask and Gwadur; see Floor, Persian Gulf, 43–46. fn. 72 The Nakhilū were Huwala, Sunni Arabs who relocated from Arabia to Persia; see Floor, Persian Gulf, 43–46. » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ p. 271

« A few days after the bishop of Cyrene arrived in Hormuz from Persia, the captain was notified that several merchants from Nakhilū,(383) Basra, and Qatif were on their way to Hormuz with four or five terranquins full of merchandise and supplies, something they had done many times before. fn. 383 Bandar-e Nakhilū; see p. 271 n. 11. 2651p494 » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ p. 494

« But this sense of relief proved short lived, for six or seven days later the Persian fleet returned to their previous position, having burned and razed a small village a league from Julpha to the ground, killing fifty or sixty Arabs from Nakhilū (149) without attempting anything against Julpha itself. fn. 149 Present-day Bandar-e Nakhilū. » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ p. 744

※ SOURCE for: Nikilú:
« Não ha muitos annos ~ue no estreito de Ormuz, em a costa da Arabia, houve dIssensões grandes entre duas linhagens de arabios, pescadores de aljofar, que em sua linguagem se chamam cabildas, nomeados uns Alimoeiros e outros Niquelús (1). fn. 1 Os Alimoeiros conjecturo que serão os da aldeia Limah na costa arabica de Kalhat, ao sul do cabo Mesandan. A costa opposta do Laristan é habitada por diversas tribus de arabes, inüependentes, e sob seus respectivos cheiks. São quasi todos piratas, e vivem em pequenas aldeias na ourela do Golpho Persico. Uma destas é Nikilú, defronte da pequena ilha de Chituar e a poucas leguas de Lara. » [Not many years ago, in the Strait of Hormuz, on the coast of Arabia, there were big differences between two lineages of Arabs, fishermen of aljofar, which in their language are called cabildas, named as Alimoeiros and other Niquelús (1) fn. 1 The Alimoeiros I conjecture to be those of the Limah village on the Arabian coast of Kalhat, south of Cape Mesandan. The opposite coast of Laristan is inhabited by several tribes of Arabs, independent and under their respective sheiks. They are almost all pirates, and they live in small villages on the edge of the Persian Gulf. One of these is Nikilú, opposite the small island of Chituar and a few leagues from Lara.] #712 Francisco Rodrigues Silveira, ed. A. de Sousa Silva Costa Lobo, Memorias de um Soldado da India, Imprensa Nacional-Casa Da Moeda, Lisbon, 1877 ~ p. 45

Place Name: Bandar-e Rig
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055134 coordinate: lat 29.487903 long 50.626984
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Rig , Bandar-e Rig , Rig , بندر ريگ ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Rig , Bender Regh , Bender Rig , Bunder Reig , Bunderick , Rade d Banderic ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar-e Rig:
« The two islands of Kharg and Khargu belonged to the Ruler of Bandar Rig. Kharg was inhabited by a tribe of sailors who acted as pilots to European ships on the channel to Basra. European travellers visited Kharg since the sixteenth century, but their remarks about the place usually are very summary.(44) fn. 44 Teixeira, Travels, pp. 24-25; De la Boullaye de Gouz, Voyages, p. 286; Hotz, 'Roobacker', pp. 362-363; Foster, Englishfactories (1642-1645), pp. 186,273. » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 15

« Just as they could not tolerate French expansion in India, the British regarded the activities of the Dutch in the Persian Gulf a danger to British interests that must be halt forthwith. For all these reasons, therefore, the Company came to favor the establishment of a new settlement in the northern part of the Persian Gulf at Bandar Riq. » #2977 Abdul Amir Amin, British Interests in the Persian Gulf 1747-1778 - thesis, University of Maryland, 1962 ~ p. 58

※ SOURCE for: Bender Regh:
« Bender Regh » in Map of Susiana or Khoozistan in #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 after p. 480

※ SOURCE for: Bender Rig:
« BENDER (d. h. Handelshafen) RIG, Rigk, Rech, Reig, Reeg, ist von Macd. Kinneir besucht worden. Die Stadt (Rhogonis des Nearch), welche dicht an der See steht und von einer elenden Lehmmauer umgeben ist, war einst der Sitz eincs gefürchteten Freibeüters, ist aber jetzt verfallen. Die Entfernung von Buschir beträgt 32 Meilen (15), die, mit Rücksicht auf die Krüm- mungen des Landweges längs der Buschir - Bucht, Bender Rigk in Lat. 29° 16' N. setzt. Damit stimmt die Beobachtung älterer englischer Seefahrer vollkommen überein (16). fn. 15 Kinneir Mem. 455. fn. 16 Nieb . Descr . 290. [BENDER (i.e. trading port) RIG, Rigk, Rech, Reig, Reeg, is from Macd. Kinneir was visited. The city (Rhogonis of Nearchus), which stands close to the sea and is surrounded by a miserable mud wall, was once the seat of a feared privateer, but is now in ruins. The distance from Bushir is 32 miles (15), which, taking into account the curvatures of the land route along Bushir Bay, is Bender Rigk in Lat. 29° 16' N. The observations of older English seafarers agree completely with this (16). fn. 15 Kinneir Mem. 455. fn. 16 Nieb . Descr. 290 ] » #2992 Berghaus, Heinrich, Geo-Hydrographisches Memoir Zur Erklärung Und Erläuterung Der Reduzirten Karte Vom Persischen Golf Berghaus' Atlas von Asia, Gotha, ~ p. 38

※ SOURCE for: Bunder Reig:
« Bunder Reig, once the stronghold of' the celebrated pirate Neer Mahura, who was the terror of the Gulf, and who even ventured to rebist the power of Kerim Khan. When the place was taken he retired to Karak, from whence he was driven by the English fleet ;(1) the fortifications of Bunder Reig were razed, since which time it has entirely fallen from its ancieiit importance, though it has continued to be the residence of the principal Arab Sheikh on the coast, after the Governor of Bushire. fn. 1 He is said to have fired red-hot shot at our vessels tweuty years before they were used at Gibraltar. He was ultimately executed at Grain by the Turkish authorities. » #1334 Monteith, William, Notes on the Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, etc., Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857, 27:108-19 ~ p. 108

※ SOURCE for: Bunderick:
« Bunderick » in {map#1117 Chart of the Head of the Gulph of Persia, John McCluer (Dalrymple edition), 1786, British Library: 435.k.17, folio 367}

※ SOURCE for: Rade d Banderic:
« Rade d Banderic » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

Place Name: Bandar-e Sangow
NIMA/GNS feature: ANCH UFI: -3082309 coordinate: lat 26.65 long 55.3
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Singau , Bandar-e Sangow , بندر سنگو ,
VARIANT names: Bandar Singau , Bandar-e Sangow ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Singau:
« BASIDU. Anglice Bassadore, a British station situated on the westernmost point, similarly named, of Qishm Island and about 25 miles east by north of Lingeh Town. It includes a native village called Bandar Singau about 1 mile to eastward of the remains of the principal settlement described- below. The village of Nakhlistan, mentioned in the article on Qishm Island, lies just outside the station and to the east of it. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 267


Place Name: Bandar-e Suza
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3086528 coordinate: lat 26.7807 long 56.063
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Suza , Shuzeh , Sooza , Sureh , Suza , Suzeh , بندر سوزا , سوزا ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e Suza , Juza , Shūza , Suza , Sûzâ , Xuza ,


※ SOURCE for: Juza:
« Der zweite Ankerplatz Nearchs an der Südküste der Insel fullt auf den Ort Sûzâ, portugies. Xuza, Juza; 6 Miles weiter liegt der Ankerplatz Mesen, Maçim bei Barbosa [Nearch's second anchorage on the south coast of the island is in Sûzâ, portuguese. Xuza, Juza; 6 miles further is the anchorage Mesen, Maçim near Barbosa] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890 vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 49

※ SOURCE for: Shūza:
« Shūza » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}Shūza

※ SOURCE for: Suza:
« Suza (26°47'N., 56°04'E.) and Masen (26°44'N., 56°00'E.) are two small villages on this coast. A remarkable isolated crag, which shows up well from the E, rises W of Masen. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~ p. 279

※ SOURCE for: Sûzâ:
« Der zweite Ankerplatz Nearchs an der Südküste der Insel fullt auf den Ort Sûzâ, portugies. Xuza, Juza; 6 Miles weiter liegt der Ankerplatz Mesen, Maçim bei Barbosa [Nearch's second anchorage on the south coast of the island is in Sûzâ, portuguese. Xuza, Juza; 6 miles further is the anchorage Mesen, Maçim near Barbosa] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890 vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 49

※ SOURCE for: Xuza:
« Der zweite Ankerplatz Nearchs an der Südküste der Insel fullt auf den Ort Sûzâ, portugies. Xuza, Juza; 6 Miles weiter liegt der Ankerplatz Mesen, Maçim bei Barbosa [Nearch's second anchorage on the south coast of the island is in Sûzâ, portuguese. Xuza, Juza; 6 miles further is the anchorage Mesen, Maçim near Barbosa] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890 vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 49

Place Name: Bandar-e-Langeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055126 coordinate: lat 26.557918 long 54.880669
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Langeh , Bandar-e Lengeh , Bandar-e-Langeh , Linja , Linjah , بندر لنگه ,
VARIANT names: Bandar-e-Langeh , Lengeh , Lenghì , Lingah , Linghee , Linjah , Lundsje ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bandar-e-Langeh FOR Hiṣn Ibn ʿUmāra [Cornu],

※ SOURCE for: Bandar-e-Langeh:
« Tribes traveled freely back and forth across the Gulf, and some had sections on both sides, most famously the Qawasim based in Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah who temporarily governed Bandar Langeh. Settlements along the coast often had closer relations with those on the Arab side than those in the interior, due to ease of communication. » #1723 Potter, Lawrence, The port of Siraf: Historical Memory and Iran’s role in the Persian Gulf, International Congress of Siraf Port, Bushehr, 2005 (Nov), ~ p. 31

« It was not until late in the 19th century, however, that the Tehran government was able to reassert control over its Gulf littoral, reclaiming Bandar Abbas from Oman in 1868 and in 1887 evicting the (Arab) Qasimi shaikhs who had long ruled Bander Langeh » #1723 Potter, Lawrence, The port of Siraf: Historical Memory and Iran’s role in the Persian Gulf, International Congress of Siraf Port, Bushehr, 2005 (Nov), ~ p. 46

※ SOURCE for: Lengeh:
« In 1884, after the Ruler of Lengeh had planted date offsets on Greater Tunb without permission, the Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah uprooted the plants and sent a letter of protest to both the Ruler of Lengeh and the native agent of the British at Lengeh. The Ruler of Lengeh replied to this protest by apologizing and acknowledging in writing that the island belonged to the Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah. He also committed to prohibiting the tribesmen from Lengeh who were under his authority from using the island to graze their animals.66 » #2583 Charles L.O. Buderi, Luciana T. Ricart, The Iran-UAE Gulf Islands Dispute A Journey Through International Law, History and Politics, Brill, Leiden, 2018 ~ p.99

※ SOURCE for: Lenghì:
« was suddenly encountered by a band of Pirates in the gulf of Lenghee, or Lenghi, and slain after a most desperate » #57 Maurizi, Vincenzo, History Of Seyd Said, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1984 ~ p. 2

※ SOURCE for: Lingah:
« In reply to a request of the British Resident in 1879 to compile “a complete list of the dependencies of each Trucial Chief”, the native agent on the Arab coast listed Greater Tunb as being owned by the Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah. He added, however, that the island was “also owned by the Chief of Lingah in part as he is also of the tribe of the Joasmees”.65 » #2583 Charles L.O. Buderi, Luciana T. Ricart, The Iran-UAE Gulf Islands Dispute A Journey Through International Law, History and Politics, Brill, Leiden, 2018 ~ p.99

#1839 Morgan, Jacques de, Mission scientifique en Perse Tome Second Études Géographiques, Ernest Leroux, Paris, 1895 vol. 2: ~ Fig. 139. Côte de Lingah ; Laristân p. 296

※ SOURCE for: Linghee:
« was suddenly encountered by a band of Pirates in the gulf of Lenghee, or Lenghi, and slain after a most desperate » #57 Maurizi, Vincenzo, History Of Seyd Said, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1984 ~ p. 2

※ SOURCE for: Linjah:
#428 Farmayan, Hafez and Daniel, Elton L. (ed.), A Shi'ite Pilgrimage to Mecca 1885-1886, The Safarnameh of Mirza Mohammad Hosayn Farahani, Saqi Books, London, 1990 ~ p. 238

※ SOURCE for: Lundsje:
« Lundsje » in {map#1035 Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A) Tab: XIX p. 340}

« . Here are the ports which belong to these Arabs and which make me known: [arabic] Kunk, [arabic] Lundsje, [arabic] and Rás Hati » #2874 Carsten Niebuhr, Description de l'Arabie faite sur des observations propres et des avis recueillis dans les lieux mêmes, S. J. Baalde, Amsterdam, 1774 ~ p. 272

Place Name: Bandargah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055142 coordinate: lat 28.8251 long 50.9074
NIMA/GNS names: Bandargah , بندرگاه ,
VARIANT names: Bandargah ,


Place Name: Bandel
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.15359 long 56.536706 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Bandel ? , Bandel do Comorão ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandel:
« fn. 11 In referring to the general area of the Persian littoral, Silva y Figueroa employs the Portuguese term Bandel, based on Persian bandar (meaning “harbor city”); this region corresponds to the present-day Iranian province of Hormozgān, which faces the Persian Gulf near the Straits of Hormuz (see p. 244) » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017 ~ p. 246

« fn. 94 The Persian word bandar, meaning “harbor city,” refers to the Persian littoral around Gamrū [Bandar-e ʿAbbās]; see YandB, 58, s.v. “bandel.” For the province in which the Bandel is located, see p. 246 n. 11. » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017 ~ p. 285

The next morning the sultan of the Bandel, under whose jurisdiction [fol. 476r] falls the section of mainland between Gamrū and the island of Qeshm, » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017 ~ p. 732

※ SOURCE for: Bandel do Comorão:
« The origins of Bandel do Comorão lay in the period after the Portuguese took Hormuz in 1515 during ‘the time of the Kings of Lar who allowed them to stay there so they could better supply Ormuz.’ (5) The island’s hereditary rulers had traditionally claimed allegiance from parts of Mughestan and Birunat from which were derived significant revenues.(6) fn. 5 CASA OCD 234/d, Fr Redento de la Cruz, Relación. chap. XXX, f.1 fn. 6 Aubin, Jean. 1973 ‘Le Royaume d’Ormuz au début du XVIe siècle’, Mare Luso-Indicum, vol 2, 107-8. Mughestan comprised the coastal territory east of the Strait of Hormuz between Minab in the north and the southern coast at Jask. Minab, Manujan and Vaskird, north-east of the Strait, represented three districts of Birunat from which Hormuz earned revenues. » #1698 Faridany, E. K., Signal Defeat: the Portuguese Loss of Comorão in 1614 and its Political and Commercial Consequences at Portugal, The Persian Gulf and Safavid Persia Conference, 8-9 September 2007 The Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, Washington, 2007 ~ p.2

Place Name: Bani Forur
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3055244 coordinate: lat 26.118333 long 54.443889
NIMA/GNS names: Jazireh-e Bani Farur , Jazireh-e-Bani Forur , Jazireh-ye Bani Forur , Nabiyu Farur , جزيره بنی فرور , جزيرۀ بنی فرور ,
VARIANT names: Bani Forur , Nobfleur Island ,


※ SOURCE for: Nobfleur Island:
« NOBFLEUR ISLAND, in lat. 26° 6' N., bears S. S. W. from Polior distant 5 leagues; it has a hill near the east end, which in most views forms a saddle, and may be seen 6 leagues from the deck, but the other parts of the island are low: At the distance of 14 mile from the south end of the island, the depths are from 28 to 40 fathoms mud; but a ledge of rocks above water projects from the west end about 2 or 3 miles. In the channels among those islands, also betwixt them and the Tumbs, and to the southward of them, near the Arabian Coast, the general depths are from 35 to 50 fathoms. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ p. 260

Place Name: Banzark-e Kohneh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055278 coordinate: lat 27.0666 long 56.9762
NIMA/GNS names: Bandarak , Bandark-e Kohneh , Band-e-Zarak , Bandzak , Bandzarak , Banzark Kohneh , Banzark Now , Banzark-e Kohneh , بندرك , بندزرک , بندزک ,
VARIANT names: Bandzak Kohna , Banzark-e Kohneh ,

※ SOURCE for: Bandzak Kohna:
« In 1871 Sir Henry Yule, editor of I Society's edition of The Book of Ser Marco (London 1871), published a letter from Colonel Lewis Pelly, British Resident at Bushihr, who placed the ruins of Old Hormuz “several miles up a creek … about six or seven miles from the fort of Minao, and the Minao river, or its stony bed, winds down towards them”, a location which Carls has shown to have been uncritically followed by later commentators. (15) W. Kleiss, who visited the area in 1977, concluded that Old Hormuz lay on a mound between the modern village of Bandzak Kohna and the bed of the Minab Rud, in roughly the same position as Pelly’s site. (16) Fn. 15 Ibid., pp. 96-100 Fn. 16 “Die Portugesische Seefestung auf der Insel Hormoz am Penischen Golf’, Architectura. Zeitschrift Geschichte und Baukunst VIII ( 1978), 166-83, especially fig. 1.» #1123 Morgan, Peter, New thoughts on Old Hormuz:Chinese ceramics in the Hormuz region in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1991 ~ p.68


Place Name: Bar al Hikman
NIMA/GNS feature: PEN UFI: -786472 coordinate: lat 20.490313 long 58.383015
NIMA/GNS names: Bar al Hikman , Barr al Hikman ,
VARIANT names: Bar al Hikman , Bar-al-Hakman ,

※ SOURCE for: Bar al Hikman:
« Between Ghubbet Hashish and Maseera Channel is a peninsula called Bahr al-Hikman, the south-western point of which is Ras Zeiwani and the south-eastern is Ras Um al-Shew ; near the former point is Khor Milh, a salt lagoon, from which large quantities of salt are exported to Zanzibar. » #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994 ~ p.489

※ SOURCE for: Bar-al-Hakman:
« Bar-al-Hakman » in (map [855] Africa, Sheet VI from the Juba Islands to Maskat with the Entrance to the Red Sea [1r] (1/2), Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen, 1877, British Library IOR/X/3828/598)

Place Name: Barab
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.9389 long 53.1704 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Barab ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Barab AT Fariab lat 27.9389 long 53.1704 [Cornu],

※ SOURCE for: Barab:
« Bārāb VI C5 Faryab près de Hong, à 27°55' N et 53°10'E Iran Avant-dernière étape sur la route de Darabagird à Siraf Muq 454 LS 296, Schw 201, DKI 171 sv Fāryābal- »#2912 Georgette Cornu, Atlas du monde arabo-islamique a l'epoque classique IXe-Xe siecles, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1985, ~ p. 47

[coordinates are those of Cornu above,putting Barab about 3 kms south of Fariab and 26 kms west of Khionji. PBR]

« the location of Bārāb (9) must remain completely undecided. fn. 9 Etymological: "field that can be cultivated with artificial irrigation".» #1717 Schwarz, Paul, Iran im Mittelalter nach arabischen Geographen, ~ p. 201

Place Name: Barak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3077823 coordinate: lat 27.6513 long 52.4157
NIMA/GNS names: Barak , Parak , پرک ,
VARIANT names: Barak , Baruck ,

※ SOURCE for: Barak:
« Barak (Lat. 27° 39' N., Long., 52° 24' E.), situated about 13 miles north-westward of Nakhl Tagi, is a small village with a fort, a square tower, and a date grove. A small village, in which there is a square tower, stands about 2 miles south-eastward of Barak. The coast between Nakhl Tagi and Barak rises steeply to the hills; it is nearly steep-to and has little or no shore reef. A low point projects from the coast line about 2 miles westward of Barak and affords partial shelter from the shamál to boats anchored off the village. » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p. 152

※ SOURCE for: Baruck:
« Baruck » in {map#1153 Sketch map showing the Route taken from Bushire following the coast line to the Port of Lingah, WH Colvill, 1865, Royal Geographical Society, London: Map Room, Iran S. 121}

Place Name: Barayjan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055420 coordinate: lat 28.9749 long 53.033
NIMA/GNS names: Barai Jun , Barayjan , Berayjan , برایجان ,
VARIANT names: Baradjun , Barayjan ,

※ SOURCE for: Baradjun:
« and on the other side of the stream, the village of Baradjun, entirely surrounded by green foliage. After this place Barajan (Baradjun), via villages named as Charbi, Sendjan, Sagada, Bier, Fesjun and Asmunga, (82) fn. 81 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p. 111; Thevenot, vol.II, p.127; Stodart, p. 79 (Moozaferie); Valentijn, vol. V, p. 262 (Moesaserie; Mose Faril); Speelman, p. 82 (Mosaffry); Fryer, vol. II, p. 208 (Mussaferry); Hedges, p. 207 (Mussaferee); KA 1793, fol. 998 (Mossa Ferhie); Chardin, vol. VIII, p. 460 (Mouza fari); LeBrun, vol. II, p. 312 (Mossefarie); Carmelites, loc. cit. (Musafiri). » #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 75


Arch. Site in IRN name: Bardak-e Siāh

VARIANT names: Bardak-e Siāh ,

※ SOURCE for: Bardak-e Siāh:
« Bardak-e Siāh lies 2 km north of the village of Dorūdgāh in the Borāzjān plain. The area is referred to under the names Ta?mâka/Tamūkkan/Taocê/Tūz/Tūj/Tūzag/Tawwaj. The toponyms are different variations of a single geographical name. During the Achaemenid period, the toponym Ta?mâka/Tamūkkan/Taocê is found in three types of texts: late Babylonian sources, the Persepolis Fortification Archive (PFA), and Greek sources, with minor variations among them. The toponym refers to a coastal region that was an Achaemenid majestic center and thanks to the archaeology, we are aware of three palatial monuments in the Borāzjān delta called Bardak-e Siāh, Charkhāb, and Sang-e Siāh » at <irangazetteer.humspace.ucla.edu/catalogue/bardak-siah-%d8%a8%d8%b1%d8%af%da%a9-%d8%b3%db%8c%d8%a7%d9%87/>

Arch. Site in IRN name: Bardak-e Siah BH47
UTM: 513456, 3248026 converted to coordinate: lat 29.3613214685093 long 51.1386368631257 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Bardak-e Siah BH47 ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Bardak-e Siah BH47:
« The third ‘palace,’ that is Bardak-e Siah, which is one of the most impressive monumental buildings in the area, is located approximately 13 km Northwest of Charkhab and in the vicinity of Dorudgah village where the Shapur joins the Dalaki (Fig. 2; Yaghmaee 2017: 87, 131). In 1978, Yaghmaee visited this site while investigating Sang-e Siah. The existence of archaeological materials at the site were reported by members of the local community and excavation was immediately underway. During this season, parts of an Achaemenid monument were found and the excavation was subsequently halted. Almost three decades later in 2004-2005, Yaghmaee resumed the excavation but the investigations were halted again (Karimian, Sarfaraz, Ebrahimi 2010: 50). As a result, the building has been only partially excavated and the complete plan of the monument has not yet been reconstructed. » #2870 E. Matin, The Achaemenid Settlement of Dashtestan (Borazjan): A View from Persepolis, ISMEO, 2020 ~ p. 338

coordinates converted from UTM in #2872 Carter, R.A., K. Challis, S.M.N. Priestman, H. Tofighian, The Bushehr Hinterland: Results of the First Season of the Iranian-British Archaeological Survey of Bushehr Province, November- December 2004, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 44:pp. 63-103 ~ Table 3. Site gazetteer p. 10

Place Name: Bard-i-Pahan-i-Bala
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.719524 long 52.281943 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Bard-i-Pahan-i-Bala ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Bard-i-Pahan-i-Bala:
« Bard-i-Pahan-i-Bala » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicago fig. Kangan G-39E 1942}

« but none at Bard-i-Pahan-i-Bālā, reached at 6 miles, a few date trees and good water. The main ascent now begins, and is increasingly difficult. Many old serais and cisterns are passed, relics of days when Tahiri was an important port. »#3113 Routes in Persia. vol. III, part I., Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1918 ~ p. 162

Place Name: Bard-i-Pahan-i-Pain'
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055492 coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.3
NIMA/GNS names: Bard Pahn-e Pa'in , Bardi Pahni Peyn , Bard-i-Pahan-i-Pain' , برد پهن پائين , بردی پهنی پين ,
VARIANT names: Bard-i Pahn , Bard-i-Pahan-i-Pain' ,

※ SOURCE for: Bard-i Pahn:
« Bard-i Pahn » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

« Bard-i Pahn » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}


Place Name: Bardistan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055479 coordinate: lat 27.87327 long 51.960759
NIMA/GNS names: Bardbestan , Bardestan , Bardistan , بردبستان , بردستان ,
VARIANT names: Bardistan , Verdeitao , Verdostam ,

※ SOURCE for: Bardistan:
« Bardistan, situated about 5 miles north-westward of Banak and about 2 miles in land, is a town at which there is a tall bád-gír, or wind-tower, that is partly hidden by trees. It stands near a creek the mouth of which is situated about 2 miles south-eastward. During rains the creek becomes the mouth of the water-course that drains the valley. » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p.154

※ SOURCE for: Verdeitao:
« De ce cap Nabao jusqu’à la ville (vila) de Reixete (RaySahr), où se jette le fleuve Rodom (Rudan), la terre se fait courbe à la manière d’une baie, distance qui sera de quarante lieues, sur laquelle sont ces villes (vilas): Bedicane (Bidbün), Chilau (Silaw) et le cap de Verdeitao (Bardistàn) » #898 Aubin, Jean, Le royaume d'Ormuz au début du XVIe siècle, Mare Luso-Indicum, Geneva, 1973 ~ p. 101

※ SOURCE for: Verdostam:
« VERDOSTAM, lugar de-Bardistan, em 27° 52' lat. N. e 51° 57' longo E., na costa oriental do golfo Pérsico. [Pedro Teixeira - Relações de .. . ]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. O-Z p.

Stream in grp 09M33 name: Barekeh
NIMA/GNS feature: STMI UFI: 10391276 coordinate: lat 28.3021 long 53.0476
NIMA/GNS names: Barekeh , برکه ,
VARIANT names: Barekeh ,


Place Name: Barkah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786471 coordinate: lat 23.67872 long 57.886047
NIMA/GNS names: Barka' , Barkah , بركاء ,
VARIANT names: Barkah , Borca ,


※ SOURCE for: Borca:
Diseripssão da Fortaleza de Borca #821 Bocarro, António, O livro das plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoac¸o~es do estado da I´ndia Oriental, Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa, 1937-40: 1992, Series: 442 3 vols. ~ vol. 2 p. 55

Place Name: Barmeh
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 28.745049 long 52.181206 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Barmeh ? , Birmey ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Barmeh:
« BARMEH A ruined village, 87¼ miles east of Bushire on the road to Firuzabad. Near by are the ruins of a large caravanserai, almost buried in the sand. (Stotherd, 1893) » #2878 Gazetteer of Persia vol. III., Government of India Press, Simla, 1924, ~ vol. 3 pt. 1 p. 148

« Barmeh » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection}

※ SOURCE for: Birmey:
« Birmey… 35 miles … A small place: the village of Ferashbaund to the left, distant nine miles. Road bad: country barren. At sixteen miles a small rivulet crosses the road. » #3021 John Macdonald Kinneir, A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, John Murray, London, 1813 ~ p. 460

« From Bushire to Ahram, over the plain of the Deshtistan, 30 miles ; road sandy, but otherwise good ; water and forage favourable. Through the easy pass of Kalkhum 20 miles; water, forage, and brushwood abundant; population Arab; then through the pass of Hajji Salli to Bushgum, which is rocky and bad, 18 miles; to Birmey 35 miles ; of tolerable road to Firhabad 35 miles, from whence begins the descent of the mountains, the road very difficult. » #1334 Monteith, William, Notes on the Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, etc., Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857, 27:108-19 ~ p. 119

« Birmey » in {map#1121 Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, , 1850, #1334 Monteith, William, Notes on the Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, etc., Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857 27:108-19 ~}

Place Name: Bas Par
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLL UFI: 10781575 coordinate: lat 29.18655 long 51.679408
NIMA/GNS names: Bas Par , Posht Par , پشت پر ,
VARIANT names: Bas Par , Bozpar , Buzpar ,


※ SOURCE for: Bozpar:
« BOZPAR, a valley situated about 100 km southwest of Kāzerūn, and 11 km by donkey path through the mountains from Sar Mašhad, Fārs [see Comment]. Since 1970, the valley has been accessible via the oil-company road from Ḥosaynābād. It is the site of many old ruins, mostly from Sasanian times, when there was a town in this valley; two important buildings, Kūšk-e Bālā and Kūšk-e Pā?in, are preserved from this town. The most important ruin in the Bozpar valley is the building known locally as Gūr-e Do?tar (Plate XX). R. N. Frye was the first to report its existence after he visited Sar Mašhad in 1948, and W. B. Henning and M. ­T. Moṣṭafawi during their epigraphic survey of the Sar Mašhad region in 1950 were informed about this monument by local tribesmen. » at <iranicaonline.org/articles/bozpar#prettyPhoto>

in #3067 Yoshihiro Nishiaki, Fahlian (Tape Suruvan), Faras, Iran, Laboratory for Prehistoric Archaeology of West Asia, The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2020 ~ Fig. 1 Location of Fahlian and other way-stations on the Royal Road (modified from Mostafavi 1967)

※ SOURCE for: Buzpar:
« Buzpar » #1814 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 7:Teil 5: ~ Abb. 6 Karte der Umgebung von Borazdjan - Kazerun und Djerreh p. 11

Place Name: Bascarde
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.707664 long 56.566885 † see notes (d)
VARIANT names: Bascarde ? , Bascarode ? , Baxeal ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Bascarde AT Bushire lat 28.9684 long 50.8385 [Dames], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Bascarde AT Vaskird lat 27.707664 long 56.566885 [Aubin],

※ SOURCE for: Bascarde:
« Barbosa's Portuguese form. | Other authorities. | Modern. 3. Bascarde | Baxeal (Sp.). | probably Bushire. The identification of Bushire or Bushahr with Bascarde or Baxeal is doubtful but not improbable, as it was already known in Yakūt's time (Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 261). » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ vol. 1 p. 81

« BASCARDE, porto de-Porto do golfo Pérsico que o Dr. Mansell L. Dames se inclina a identificar com o actual Bushire, em 28° 59' lat. N. e 50° 46' long. E. [Duarte Barbosa - Livro de. Versão publicada pela Academia das Ciências de Lisboa]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-c p. 93

« D'après le budget de 1515, publié en version portugaise par João de Barros, les “territoires extérieurs” comprenaient trois districts administrés par des vizirs (guazilado, “vizirat”): Minäb, Manügan et Vaškird (175). Ces districts, qui correspondent aux cantons originels de l'ancien royaume d'Ormuz, rendaient annuellement au trésor royal 2.500, 3.200 et 1.000 ašrafi respectivement. En sus de ces trois “vizirats”, Barros ne cite que six villages du Mugistan, dont la recette annuelle, 4.200 ašrafi au total, allait dans les coffres du roi (176). fn. 175 Le “Basturde” de Barros, II/10-7, p. 454, “situé au pied de la montagne à l'extré mité du royaume”, est évidemment une déformation graphique du nom qui apparaitailleurs sous la forme “Bascarde” (cf. note 167) et représente une prononciation locale Baškard. C'est Gulaškird/Valaškird, au nord-ouest de Manugan (FG, VIII, p. 357-358: Golâškerd), et non pas le district de Bašākird, au sud-est de Minab, appelé Baškard par les natifs (cf. Ilya Gershevitch, Travels in Bashkardia, dans Royal Central Asiatic Journal, 46 (1959), p. 213). Sur Valaškird (Laškird dans Yaqut, IV, p. 341), cf. Schwarz, Iran, p. 248. fn. 176 Barros, II/10-7, traduit ci-après, DE 2/1bis. [According to the budget of 1515, published in Portuguese version by João de Barros, the “outer territories” included three districts administered by viziers (guazilado, “vizirate”): Minäb, Manügan and Vaškird (175). These districts, which correspond to the original cantons of the ancient kingdom of Hormuz, returned annually to the royal treasury 2,500, 3,200 and 1,000 ašrafi respectively. In addition to these three “vizirates”, Barros cites only six villages in Mugistan, whose annual revenue, 4,200 ašrafi in total, went into the king's coffers (176). fn. 175 The “Basturde” of Barros, II/10-7, p. 454, “situated at the foot of the mountain at the extremity of the kingdom”, is obviously a graphic deformation of the name which appears elsewhere under the form “Bascarde” (cf. note 167) and represents a local pronunciation Baškard. It is Gulaškird/Valaškird, northwest of Manugan (FG, VIII, p. 357-358: Golâškerd), and not the district of Bašākird, southeast of Minab, called Baškard by the natives (cf. Ilya Gershevitch, Travels in Bashkardia, in Royal Central Asiatic Journal, 46 (1959), p. 213). On Valaškird (Laškird in Yaqut, IV, p. 341), cf. Schwarz, Iran, p. 248. fn. 176 Barros, II/10-7, translated below, DE 2/1bis.] » #898 Aubin, Jean, Le royaume d'Ormuz au début du XVIe siècle, Mare Luso-Indicum, Geneva, 1973 ~ pp. 107-8

※ SOURCE for: Bascarode:
« "Ensuite, il y a des îles, Andra (Hinderabi), Bascarode, (version espagnolo Baxeal), Laracour (version espagnole Lar Cojur), (Larak) (2), Fomon (version espagnole Tomon) (Tumb) et Firol (version espagnole Firror) (Farur). Après l'fle de Firol, nous avons une ile appelée Barem (version espagnole Baharem) (Bahrain), où résident un grand nombre de marchands et des gens importants. L'fle est située au milieu du Golfe Persique, de sorte que beaucoup de bateaux avec des marchandises le fréquentent." (3). ["Then there are islands, Andra (Hinderabi), Bascarode, (Spanish version Baxeal), Laracour (Spanish version Lar Cojur), (Larak) (2), Fomon (Spanish version Tomon) (Tumb) and Firol ( Spanish version Firror) (Farur). After the island of Firol, we have a island called Barem (Spanish version Baharem) (Bahrain), where a large number of merchants and important people reside. The island is located in the middle of the Persian Gulf, so many ships with goods frequent it." (3).] fn. 3 Dames (Mansel Longworth) : The book of Duarte Barbosa, 2 vol. (Hakluyt, Serie II, vol. XLIV, P. 59). » #233 Faroughy, Abbas, Histoire du Royaume de Hormuz depuis son origine jusqu'a son incorporation dans l'empire persan des Safavis en 1622, Bruxelles, 1949 ~ p. 14

※ SOURCE for: Baxeal:
« Barbosa's Portuguese form. | Other authorities. | Modern. 3. Bascarde | Baxeal (Sp.). | probably Bushire. The identification of Bushire or Bushahr with Bascarde or Baxeal is doubtful but not improbable, as it was already known in Yakūt's time (Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 261). » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ vol. 1 p. 81

Place Name: Bashi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055705 coordinate: lat 28.68392 long 51.079867
NIMA/GNS names: Bashi , باشی ,
VARIANT names: Bashi ,

※ SOURCE for: Bashi:
« Báshi is a village with a large round tower and date grove, 11 miles to northward of Báraki.. Here the Bu Reyyál range recedes from the sea, ending a few miles to the northward; the great plain inland of Bushire commencing near this place. » #2904 The Persian Gulf Pilot 3rd edition, The Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, London, 1890, ~ p. 271

Place Name: Basht
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055725 coordinate: lat 30.361005 long 51.157351
NIMA/GNS names: Basht , Basht , باشت , بشت ,
VARIANT names: Basht ,


Place Name: Basidu
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055681 coordinate: lat 26.6484 long 55.286
NIMA/GNS names: Basa`idow , Basa`idu , Basidu , باسعيدو ,
VARIANT names: Bacido , Básidóh , Basidu , Basitou , Bassadore ,

※ SOURCE for: Bacido:
« Bacido » in {map#990 Golfe Persique. Dresse en 1758 et publie en 76, Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon, 1776, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 2603.025} see AHduGP map 75

« et qui connoiffoit le golfe Perfique pour y avoir navigué, que vers la pointe de Kefem ou Kifmis, et un peu en dedans du canal qui fe termine à Ser-Mion, … établi aux environs de cette ville; et dans Pietro-della-Valle, qui étoit en Perfe peu d'années après, il eft mention d'un Arabe des environs de Mafcate, également diftingué par le nom de Raffet. La ville dont je viens de parler fe nomme Bacido: [and who knew the Persian Gulf from having sailed there, only towards the point of Kefem or Kifmis, and a little inside the channel which ends at Ser-Mion, … established in the vicinity of this city; and in Pietro-della-Valle, which was in Perfe a few years later, there is mention of an Arab from the vicinity of Mafcate, also distinguished by the name of Raffet. The city of which I have just spoken is called Bacido:] » #2907 M. d'Anville, Recherches ge´ographiques sur le golfe Persique, et sur les bouches de l'Euphrate et du Tigre. In Mémoires de Littérature, Tirés des Registres de l'Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Tome Trentième., De l'imprimerie Royale, Paris, 1764 pp. 132-197 ~ pp. 151-2

※ SOURCE for: Básidóh:
« Abreast of Básidóh* the height of the coast range was ascer-tained, by trigonometrical measurement, to be 3498 feet above the level of the sea. Although the ascent is very laborious and difficult, it has been accomplished by several of our officers. Crossing over the maritime plain, which is here not more than three miles and a half in breadth, they found at the foot of the hills a mineral spring, the waters of which are highly beneficial for cutaneous eruptions. as well as rheumatism. scurvy, etc. Fn. * Or Básidó, as Niebuhr spells it (p. 329), is probably a corruption of the Portu-guese Buxador for Embaxador. » #1128 Whitelock, Lieut. H. H., Descriptive Sketch of the Islands and Coast at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1838 ~ p. 176

※ SOURCE for: Basidu:
« BASIDU. Anglice “ Bassadore,” a British station situated on the westernmost point, similarly named, of Qishm Island and about 25 miles east by north of Lingeh Town. It includes a native village called Bandar Singau about 1 mile to eastward of the remains of the principal settlement described- below. The village of Nakhlistan, mentioned in the article on Qishm Island, lies just outside the station and to the east of it. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 267

« Basidur, (477) Iersal (478) e Cerbil (479) fn. 477. Errato per Basidu; cf. n. 475. fn. 478. Località non identificata nell'isola di Qishm (cf. G. N. CURZON, Persia, London 1892, II, pp. 410-13). fn. 479. Non identificato. » #1572 Pinto, Olga, Viaggi d i C. Federici e G. Balbi alle Indie Orientali, Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Rome, 1962 ~ p. 117

※ SOURCE for: Basitou:
« Basitou » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

※ SOURCE for: Bassadore:
« BASIDU. Anglice “ Bassadore,” a British station situated on the westernmost point, similarly named, of Qishm Island and about 25 miles east by north of Lingeh Town. It includes a native village called Bandar Singau about 1 mile to eastward of the remains of the principal settlement described- below. The village of Nakhlistan, mentioned in the article on Qishm Island, lies just outside the station and to the east of it. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 267

« Moghu or Moghunah, is situated in the bay between Ras Bostonah and Ras Yarid on the Persian shore. Until the acquisition of Bassadore on the north-west extremity of the island of Kishm, Moghu was the station for the Indian Navy squadron. » #782 Low, Charles Rathbone, History of the Indian Navy (1613-1863), Richard Bentley and Son, 1877 ~ vol1 p. 333

Place Name: Bastak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055745 coordinate: lat 27.199076 long 54.366761
NIMA/GNS names: Bastak , Lastak , بستک , لستك ,
VARIANT names: Bastak ,


Place Name: Bast-i-Pariab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055753 coordinate: lat 27.67151 long 54.54348
NIMA/GNS names: Bast , Bast-e Faryab , Bast-e Pari Ab , Bast-e Paryab , Basti Partab , Bast-i-Pariab , بست پاریاب , بست فاریاب ,
VARIANT names: Bast-i-Pariab ,

※ SOURCE for: Bast-i-Pariab:
« Basti Pariab » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Bataneh
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.846622 long 51.835871 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Bataneh ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bataneh FOR Najiram [Jolodar],

※ SOURCE for: Bataneh:
« original Persian text omitted [Research background. This port was identified for the first time by Dr. Ali Akbar Sarfraz and Nasrullah Ebrahimi during the archaeological investigation program of Kangan city (31). In the archaeological survey that the writer conducted with Mr. Hossein Tawfiqian in 2008 under the title "Archaeological Survey and Identification ofthe Ancient Ports of the Persian Gulf in Bushehr Province" with the guidance of Mr. Nasrullah Ebrahimi,one of the experienced archaeologists of Bushehr Province, from this port. The visit was carried out andafter preliminary studies, it is assumed that this place is the ancient port of Najiram.] ... [A review of archeological studies and a comparative study show that the location of the ancient port of "Batane" near Deir port matches with the ancient port of Najiram.] » #3161 Dr. Mohammad Ismail Ismaili Jolodar, A proposal to determine the location of the ancient port of Najiram based on the written texts of Sadr Islam and archaeological studies, 2013, in rasekhoon.net/article/show/1012597/%D9%86%D8%AC%DB%8C%D8%B1%D9%85-%DA%A9%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA [accessed:09 Jan 2024]

« Bataneh » in {map#1220 in #3158 Majid Pourkerman, Nick Marriner et al, Late Holocene relative sea-level fluctuations and crustal mobility at Bataneh (Najirum) archaeological site, Persian Gulf, Iran, Geoarchaeology, 2021 ~ fig. FIGURE 2 General geomorphological map of Bataneh and its ancient sites located on a Google Earth image (2011).}

« The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between halokinesis andRSL changes using geophysical models and multidisciplinary geoarchaeologicalmethods at the ancient Sassanid–Islamic site of Bataneh (presently known as Na-jirum) located at the foothill of an active Darang salt diapir. ... The location of Najirum's harbour is still unclear. » #3158 Majid Pourkerman, Nick Marriner et al, Late Holocene relative sea-level fluctuations and crustal mobility at Bataneh (Najirum) archaeological site, Persian Gulf, Iran, Geoarchaeology, 2021 ~ p. 1

Place Name: Batrasave
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 23.67027 long 58.189106 † see notes (u, d)
VARIANT names: Batrasabbe ? , Batrasasave ? , Batrasavaves ? , Batrasave ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Batrasave AT Seeb lat 23.67027 long 58.189106 [Miles], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Batrasave AT Julfar lat 25.789527 long 55.943196 [Wilkinson],

※ SOURCE for: Batrasabbe:
« Plinius in seiner Parenthese geht nicht ab hoe latere aus, sondern verfolgt die Fahrt vom Rothen Meere her und das Omanorum Batrasabbes oppidum ist in jenem Lande zu suchen, das wir jetzt noch 'Omån heissen, und das nach den Begriffen der Alten schon am Persischen Meere liegt, und ist wahrscheinlich Sib, 25' westlich von Masqat. Wenn die ersten zwei Silben batra nicht ein Fehler für Batn sind, so sehen wir sie als eine Transscription von, bathr, vul- canische Gegend, an. Wenn die Araber 'Omân als Stadtname ge- brauchen, so meinen sie Çohar; das ist also das Omanæ des Plinius, Omnæ ist mir unbekannt, Attance ist Chatt (§ 177) in anderer Form. » [Pliny in his parenthesis does not start from hoe latere, but follows the voyage from the Red Sea and the Omanorum Batrasabbes oppidum is to be found in that country which we still call 'Omån, and according to the concepts of the ancients already on the Persian Sea lies, and is probably Sib, 25' west of Masqat. If the first two syllables batra are not a mistake for Batn, we take them as a transliteration of, bathr, volcanic region. When the Arabs use 'Omân as a city name, they mean Çohar; so this is Pliny's Omanæ, Omnæ is unknown to me, Attance is Chatt (§ 177) in another form.#1332 Sprenger, A., Die alte Geographie Arabiens, Commissionsverlag Von Huber als Comp; Meridian Publising Co., Bern; Amsterdam, 1875;1966 ~ p.124

※ SOURCE for: Batrasasave:
« The siting of the towns mentioned by the classical authors is highly debatable, but it is probable that the locations of Batrasasave and Om(m)ana (6) are to be found on the shores of the eastern Trucial Oman and show well developed trading centres to have been in existence by the first century A.D. fn. 6 Amongst the sites which offer themselves for identification are Sohar, Julfär (Ras al- Khayma) possibly Khawr Fukkan and Dabā although it is reasonable to suppose that this last is Pliny's Dabanegoris regio (Pliny, Book VI, xxxii 150). The name Batrasasave has several variants amongst which is Batrasabbe (c.f. Sprenger, p. 132) and this perhaps indicates that the name is a compound word meaning the something (rock? citadel?) of the Sabae in which case the forts on the hills at Sohar and Julfar come to mind. The author is of the opinion that Julfär is Batrasasave whilst Sohar is Omana. Sohar was the capital of Oman in pre-Islamic times and Arab authors referring to Oman often mean Sohar so it is reasonable to suppose that Oman should be the same as the ancient capital on the Batiha Coast. The stumbling block in all attempts to locate Omana is the description in the Periplus (p. 36) which says 'Sailing through the mouth of the Gulf, after a six days' course there is another market town of Persia called Ommana'. However, many early authors consider the Gulf of Oman to be part of the Persian Gulf so that the author of the Periplus probably means Ra's al-Hadd not the Straits of Hormuz when he speaks of 'the mouth of the Gulf'. This explanation supports a siting of Omana at the north end of the Batina Coast; Tarn (pp. 481-5) believes Omana to have been the port of Carmamia (Kirman) near Hormuz. The idea of its being at Abu Dhabi, or for that matter anywhere on the Trucial Coast which the editor of the Periplus suggests, is ruled out by the very nature of the country and the lack of any archaeological evidence to support the hypothesis. » #130 Wilkinson, John C., A Sketch of the Historical Geography of the Trucial Oman down to the beginning of the 16th Century, The Geographical Journal, London, 1964 ~ p. 341 and fn p. 348

※ SOURCE for: Batrasavaves:
« But to return to Meredat. By 142 Meredat had extended his control to Oman, for the single monetary issue by which he is known calls him BACIAEYZ OMAN (Figure 12). As the fragments of Isidore cited earlier attest, Oman was a region known to the inhabitants of Mesene, while the Periplus confirms that the port of Omana was in particularly close contact with the Mesenian port of Apologos. While Omana has often been sought on the southern coast of Iran, Pliny specifically states that “previous writers” were wrong in making it out to be “a famous port of Carmania”, and although I do not wish to enter deeply into this difficult problem here, I would like to point out that an almost universally neglected fragment of Glaukos’ Arabika arkhaeologia identifies Omana polis as an Arabian town in the vicinity of the Eualenoi (Jacoby 1910: 1420), whom O. Blau (1873: 322,n. 9; cf. Potts, 1985-6: 20) identified as the inhabitants of Awal, one of the traditional names of the largest of the Bahrain islands. This is a point which obviously argues for the location of Omana on the Arabian side of the Gulf. » #2854 D. T. Potts, The Parthian Presence in the Arabian Gulf, in: ed. Reade, J., The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, Kegan Paul International, London, 1996, ~ pp. 279-280

« die Emporien der Omani, Batrasave und Omana auf der arabischen Küste lagen, während man nach früheren Schiffernachrichten Omana für einen Hafen in Carmanien gehalten hatte 5). Indessen hatte schon Juba 6) von diesen beiden Stationen keine Kunde mehr, und die erstere wenigstens, Batrasave, scheint nachher überhaupt ganz verschollen 7), während Όμανα in der arabischen Archäologie des Glaucus 8) (aus der Zeit der Parther- kriege) als eine Stadt im glücklichen Arabien, in der Nähe der Völkerschaft Evahnvoi 9) genannt wird, und eine Spur derselben, die auf römische Quellen deutet, auch in Ptolemaeus vorhanden fn. 7) Geogr. Rav. 59, 1. 2 stehen Petria Sabea ais 2 Städte. Bocharts Conjectur bei Plin. a. a. O. (s. Sillig Note) Petras Sabes zu lesen, bringt uns um nichts weiter. Auch Polyb. 11, 34: Λάβα ϰαί Σάβα im Gerrhäerland passt der Lage nach nicht. Vielleicht liegt das Räthsel des Namens, wie ihn Plinius schreibt (varr. Batrasavaves, Batrasavanes) in einer Textverderbniss seiner Quellen, da „quod" sich doch nur auf ein oppidum bezieht fn. 9) Die Εύαλνοί halte ich für Bewohner der Insel أوال oder Awâl im persischen Meerbusen, Ritt. Erdk, v. Arab, I, 395 f. Jaqût s. v. Vgl. ???????? Bald Εύιλά Genes. 10, 29. » [the emporiums of the Omani, Batrasave and Omana were on the Arabian coast, while according to earlier shipping reports, Omana had been taken for a port in Carmania 5). However, Juba 6) had no more information about these two stations, and the first at least, Batrasave, seems to have disappeared completely afterwards 7), while Όμανα in the Arabic archeology of Glaucus 8) (from the time of the Parthian wars) as one city in happy Arabia, near the tribe of Evahnvoi 9), and a trace of it, pointing to Roman sources, is also present in Ptolemy fn. 7) Geogr. Rav. 59, 1. 2 stand Petria Sabea ais 2 cities. Bochart's conjectur at Plin. a. a. O. (see Sillig Note) Reading Petras Sabes does not get us anywhere. Also Polyb. 11, 34: Λάβα ϰαί Σάβα in Gerrhäerland does not fit the situation. Perhaps the riddle of the name as written by Pliny (varr. Batrasavaves, Batrasavanes) lies in a corruption of the text of its sources, since "quod" only refers to a town fn. 9) Die Εύαλνοί halte ich für Bewohner der Insel أوال oder Awâl im persischen Meerbusen, Ritt. Erdk, v. Arab, I, 395 f. Jaqût s. v. Vgl. ???????? Bald Εύιλά Genes. 10, 29. [9) I consider the Εύαλνοί to be inhabitants of the island أوال or Awâl in the Persian Gulf, ride. Erdk, v. Arab, I, 395 f. Jaqût s.v. Cf. ???????? Soon Εύιλά Genes. 10, 29] #2723 O. Blau, Altarabische Sprachstudien, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Wiesbaden, 1873 Vol. 27:No. 3:pp. 295-363 ~ p. 322

※ SOURCE for: Batrasave:
Pliny states « Beyond this, the navigation is impracticable on that side [fn. 3 « The Arabian side of the Persian Gulf"], according to Juba, on account of the rocks; and he has omitted all mention of Batrasave [fn. 4 "Considered to be close to Musandam"] a town of the Omani, and of the city of Omana, which former writers have made out to be a famous port of Carmania. » #187 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., The Persian Gulf, an historical sketch from the earliest times to the beginning of the twentieth century, George Allen and Unwin, Oxford, 1928 p. 51

« Pliny here censures Juba for not mentioning Batrasave and Omana, but though he has the merit of supplying the omission, it is clear he does not know where to locate them himself. The former is most likely Seeb, a commercial town on the shore, thirty miles from Muscat, at the embouchure of the Semail Valley, and a place of considerable trade. Batha means a river-bed or watercourse in a sandy country, and Batha Seeb is a name retained to this day, though its more frequent appellation is Batha Fanja. . » #807 Miles, Samuel Barrett, Note on Pliny's Geography of the East Coast of Arabia, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London, ~ p. 164

Place Name: Batuneh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056956 coordinate: lat 27.851935 long 51.792098
NIMA/GNS names: Banineh , Bataneh , Batuneh , Botaneh , Botkhaneh , Botuneh , بتانه , بتخانه , بتونه , بطانه ,
VARIANT names: Batuneh , Butkhāna ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Batuneh FOR Butkhāna [Ball],


※ SOURCE for: Butkhāna:
approximate location of « Butkhāna » in {map#1148 Fig. 11. Map of the Persian Gulf (ancient place names underlined)., , , #1121 Ball, Warwick, Some rock-cut monuments in Southern Iran, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1986 24:95-115 ~}

« Butkhāna lies only a short distance up the coast from Siraf, which of course was the most important port of all for the Indian trade in Sasanian and Early Islamic times. (43) There are in any case extensive mediaeval remains at Butkhana itself,(44) which may in fact represent the mediaeval port of Najiram.(45) That the name Butkhāna can be associated with Buddhist remains we know from its occurrence at the village of Qal 'a-yi Butkhāna, a village below the major Buddist stupamonastery complex of Tepe Sardar near Ghazni.(46) fn. 44 Personal observation. fn. 45 Whitehouse, personal communication 1975. Le Strange, however, p. 259), places Najiram north of the Mand River. fn. 46 M. Taddei, "Tapa Sardar. First preliminary report", EW, XIX (1968), p. 110. » #1121 Ball, Warwick, Some rock-cut monuments in Southern Iran, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1986, 24:95-115 ~

Place Name: Bay of Zufär
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 16.728711 long 54.145994
VARIANT names: Bay of Zufär ,

※ SOURCE for: Bay of Zufär:
« Der Name Zaxaλitys xóλros für die große Bucht zwischen Räs Fartak und Ras Mirbat, die aus der al-Qamar-(Mond-)Bucht und der Bucht von Zufär¹ besteht fn. 1 1 Zufar oder Dufar, heute oft Dhofar genannt » [The name Zaxaλitys xóλros [Sakhalin gulf] for the large bay between Ras Fartak and Ras Mirbat, consisting of al-Qamar (Moon) Bay and the Bay of Zufär¹, fn. 1 1 Zufar or Dufar, now often called Dhofar] #2719 Hermann von Wissmann, Walter W. Mu¨ller, Das Weihrauchland Sa’kalan, Samarum und Moscha (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch - Historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte), Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1977 ~ p. 5

Place Name: Bazar-e Vakil
NIMA/GNS feature: MKT UFI: 15341857 coordinate: lat 29.6149449 long 52.54677777
NIMA/GNS names: Bazar-e Vakil , بازار وکیل ,
VARIANT names: Bazar-e Vakil ,

※ SOURCE for: Bazar-e Vakil:
« Figure 3. Shiraz under Karim Khan: Perry, p. 273, Fig. 3. » at <referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-iranica-online/shiraz-i-history-to-1940-COM_1368>

Place Name: Bazm al Gharbi
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -782136 coordinate: lat 24.329603 long 53.08828
NIMA/GNS names: Al Bazm al Gharbi , Al-Bizm al-Gharbi , Bazam al Gharbi , Bazim-al-Gharbi Island , Bazm al Gharbi ,
VARIANT names: Basam al Gharbi , Bazm al Gharbi , Jezzum ul Gurraby ,

※ SOURCE for: Basam al Gharbi:
« Basam al Gharbi » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}


※ SOURCE for: Jezzum ul Gurraby:
« Jezzum ul Gurraby » in {map#1101 Reduced copy of chart of the Gulf of Persia, Brucks, 1830, [?531b] (2/2), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/732, p 531A, in Qatar Digital Library}

Place Name: Behbahan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055917 coordinate: lat 30.5959 long 50.2417
NIMA/GNS names: Behbahan , Behbehan , بهبهان ,
VARIANT names: Babahan , Behbahan , Bihbahān ,

※ SOURCE for: Babahan:
« Babahan is a modern town, and may contain 10,000 people; it has nothing remarkable, and stands 3 miles from the river Jerráhí, which here issues from the mountains. From this, for 12 miles, the road lies over a fine plain to the banks of the Tab, which also comes here from the mountains, about 3 miles on our left hand. For 16 miles the road is excellent, after which it lies over a steep mountain and a rough defile, though one which would easily be made practicable for artillery. » #1334 Monteith, William, Notes on the Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, etc., Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857, 27:108-19 ~ p. 113


※ SOURCE for: Bihbahān:
« Hindijan is near the tenth-twelfth century ship-building town of Rishahr (in Arrajän district; not to be confused with the Rishahr near Büshihr),(38) which itself was near the important Sasanian-Early Islamic city of Arrajan near modern Bihbahan.(39) fn. 38 Le Strange, op. cit., p. 271. fn. 39 Ibid., pp. 268-9. » #1121 Ball, Warwick, Some rock-cut monuments in Southern Iran, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1986, 24:95-115 ~ p. 271

Place Name: Behshapur
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN UFI: -3084185 coordinate: lat 29.780507 long 51.574476
NIMA/GNS names: Behshapur , Beyshapur , Shahpur , Shahr-e Beyshabur , Shahr-e Shapur , Shahr-e Tarikhi-ye Neyshabur , Shapur , بیشاپور , شهر بیشابور , شهر تاریخی نیشابور ,
VARIANT names: Behshapur , Bishapur , Naqsh-i Rustam , Shapur , Veh-Shapur ,

※ SOURCE for: Behshapur:
« In 260, he also took Syria, and the new Roman emperor, Valerian, along with senators and soldiers, was captured and deported to the city of Bishapur (Middle Persian Bēsha¯buhr ). » #3107 ed. D.T. Potts, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013 ~ p. 190

※ SOURCE for: Bishapur:
« Ibn al-Balkhi - Nahr Bishapur, arose in the mountains around Bishapur, watered the city and district of Bishapur and the villages of Khisht and Dih Malik, emptied into the Persian Gulf between Jannaba and the Mandistan area; also known as the Zirah, Khisht and Shapur river (Le Strange 1912: 871). » #3031 D.T. Potts, Sailing to Pasargadae., in: ed. T. Daryaee, A. Mousavi and K. Rezakhani, Excavating an Empire: Achaemenid Persia in Longue Durée, Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa, California, 2014, ~ p. 8



※ SOURCE for: Naqsh-i Rustam:
« Although many of the largest and most important Sasanian sites are located in Fars, there is virtually no ceramic material published from many of these sites. The best known Sasanian period ceramic assemblages are from Firuzabad, Hajjiabad, and Qasr-i A b u Nasr, while there is nothing yet published about the material from Istakhr, Naqsh-i Rustam or Bishapur (Boucharlat and Haerinck 1992b: 307). This means that the known corpus of Sasanian ceramics is relatively limited (Boucharlat and Haerinck 1992b: 306; also Huff 1991). » #3122 ed. D.T. Potts and K. Roustaei, The Mamasani Archaeological Project Stage One, Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, Tehran, 2006 ~ p. 13

※ SOURCE for: Shapur:
« The name of the district stems from that of its former capital, the city of Shapur or, as Maqdisi calls it, Shahristan.(74) As the name suggests, Shapur was founded under the Säsänids; in the tenth century it had already lost its former importance because of the rise of Kazarûn. Not far from the ruins of the city one can still see in the mountains several bas-reliefs, one of which represents the victory of Shäpür I (249-272) over the Roman emperor Valerian; there is on the same site a statue of Shapûr I, the only extant statue from the Sasanid period.(75) fn. 74 Maqdisl, p. 432. fn. 75 Istakhri, p. 150, regarding a mountain in the confines of Sabur with portraits of Persian kings, marzbans and priests (Schwarz, Iran im Mittelalter, II, 42). There is an error on the map (Shapûr is to the northwest of Kazarun, not to the northeast). ((For the Sasanid monuments in the area of Shapûr, see the bibliography in Vanden Berghe, Archéologie de l'Iran ancien, pp. 54-57, 158-59, 242; Ghirshman, Iran. Parthes et Sassanides; idem, Les mosaiques sassanides (Paris, 1956).) [Shapur is more generally known today as Bishäpür; see also for its pre-Islamic monuments, Matheson, Persia, an Archaeological Guide, pp. 236-40; Herrmann, The Iranian Revival, pp. 15-16, 23, 90, 92-94, 101-105. » #2871 W. Barthold, An Historical Geography of Iran, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1984, ~ p. 162

※ SOURCE for: Veh-Shapur:
« Veh-Shapur (Bishapur), founded by Shapur I near present-day Kazirun. Ibnal-Balkhi says that Shapur was not content with building the town itself, but also carried out construction projects in the surrounding areas.(3) fn. 33. Hamza (tr.: 35); SKZ (line 25-26); Shahristan: par. 43; Ibn al-Balkhi (tr.: 50f, 55). » #3112 Peter Christensen, The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500, Bloomsbury Publishing Limited, London, 2015 ~ #3112 Peter Christensen, The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500, Bloomsbury Publishing Limited, London, 2015 ~ p. 163

Place Name: Beriz
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056065 coordinate: lat 27.9552 long 54.3321
NIMA/GNS names: Beriz , Bizeh , Tireh , بریز ,
VARIANT names: Beeres , Beriz , Biris ,

※ SOURCE for: Beeres:
« and travelled to Beeres, a pretty large Towne, and a spacious Caravan-Sarai, the best I have yet seen on yo Road, except that at Larr. Very bad Water, but plenty of Provisions.August 15.-We rose from Beeres, »#3146 Yule, Henry Colonel, The Diary Of William Hedges, The Hakluyt Society, London, 1889 ~ vol. 1 p. 206

※ SOURCE for: Beriz:
[not to be confused with another Beriz NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056064 coordinate: lat 27.8928 long 54.083 NIMA/GNS names: Bavaz , Beriz , Biriz 25.5kms bearing 254°. PBR]

« [margin: 11 of November] On the 11th of November, we left this spot and reached Beriz early in the morning. This was another small town like the one we had left behind, and we spent just one night ther »#2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ p. 317

※ SOURCE for: Biris:
« The fine serai and little hamlet of Biris, with blue domed mosque close by, stands at the edge of a narrow flat; plain, some 10 miles long east and west, and 2 miles broad. »#1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.), 31:2:152-69 ~ p. 160

Place Name: Berkeh-ye Now
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056081 coordinate: lat 27.303969 long 55.301788
NIMA/GNS names: Berkeh-ye Now , Berkeh-ye Nuh , Birkeh Nuh , بركۀ نو , بركۀ نوح , برکه نو ,
VARIANT names: Berkeh-ye Now , Birkeh Nuh ,


※ SOURCE for: Birkeh Nuh:
« Birkeh Nuh » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicago fig. Fin G-40B 1941}

Place Name: Bibi Khatun
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056208 coordinate: lat 27.85437 long 51.83101
NIMA/GNS names: Bibi Khatun , بی بی خاتون ,
VARIANT names: Bibi Hatūn , Bibi Khatun ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bibi Khatun FOR Najiram [Aubin],

※ SOURCE for: Bibi Hatūn:
« L. locates at Bibi Hatūn, near Dayir (site visited by Sir Aurel Stein), the medieval port of Nagiram, an identification which I believe to be correct. »#3141 review: Jean Aubin, K. Lindberg. Voyage dan la sud de l'Iran, Carnet de route d'un médecin à la poursuite du vor de Médine. in Journal asiatique Volumes 244–245, pp. 128-9, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France), 1956 ~ p. 128

※ SOURCE for: Bibi Khatun:
« The day's short march took us first past a series of curious mesas, composed of strata of clay overlain by calcareous sandstone, so fanta stically undercut and eroded as to suggest action by sea-water at a period not very far distant. This suggestion seemed to accord with the local belief that most of the absolutely flat ground west of Daiyir, stretching away from the present shore to those terraces, was covered by the sea in comparatively recent times. After crossing this poorly cultivated stretch we came, at a distance of about 5 miles from Daiyir, upon a considerable debris area known as Bibi-khatun, from a ziarat marking the supposed burial-place of a holy lady. It extends for fully a mile to the west of a small hillock of calcareous sandstone by the sea-shore, up to a wide khiir or creek. This is apparently still accessible for small boats, and is likely to have afforded shelter to craft on an otherwise exposed stretch of the coast. The site is covered with completely decayed remains from structures built with rough pieces of stone and mortar, just like those of Sirar; and the plentiful fragments of glazed ware, much of it relief-decorated, to be picked up among the ruined low walls, suggested occupation approximately of the same period . Some 6 miles beyond this site we halted near the small village of Betaneh, the name of which local popular etymology derives from biit-kbiineb ('house of idols'). » #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937, ~ p. 233

Place Name: Bid Shahr
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056347 coordinate: lat 27.983288 long 53.740315
NIMA/GNS names: Bid Shahr , بید شهر ,
VARIANT names: Bid Shahr , Bidshahr ,


※ SOURCE for: Bidshahr:
« 20th March, Bidshahr, 6 farsakh-s ; 6.30 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. Our march to Bidshahr (6) next day took us over the tops of low hills, covered with camel-thorn, which looked not unlike Irish bog and heather under the cloudy sky. ... Under gentle rain we entered Bidshahr, and found it as large as Karyun, and nearly as desolate. Lutf Ali Khan's fort was a tumbledown mud edifice, and our quarters in the mihmankhana were not much better than those of the day before. fn. 6 "Willow-city." There are far more tamarisks than willows in the Bidshahr plain nowadays. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vo. 1 p.123 » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~

Place Name: Bid Zard
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056374 coordinate: lat 29.3852 long 52.6828
NIMA/GNS names: Bid Zard , Bid Zard-e Pa'in , Bid Zard-e Sofla , Bid-i-Zard , بید زرد سفلی ,
VARIANT names: Bid Zard , Bidexard ,

※ SOURCE for: Bid Zard:
« Bidzard » in {map#1180 Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars, , , #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~}

※ SOURCE for: Bidexard:
« Bidexard » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Bidakhun
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056319 coordinate: lat 27.478849 long 52.667219
NIMA/GNS names: Bid Khoon , Bidakhun , Bidkhun , بيدخون ,
VARIANT names: Bedicane , Bidakhun , Bidhün , Mimand (Fars) ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bidakhun FOR Mimand [Lindberg Aubin],

※ SOURCE for: Bedicane:
« BEDICANE, vila de-Nome por que João de Barros designa uma vila da costa oriental do golfo Pérsico, sita entre o ras Naband e Bushire, que identifica- mos com a Baidheh Khan da moderna cartografia inglesa, em 27° 28' lat. N. e 52 40' long. E., a nordeste e próximo do ras Naband. [João de Barros-Da Ásia]. [BEDICANE, named village by which João de Barros designates a village on the east coast of the Persian Gulf, located between ras Naband and Bushire, which we identify with the Baidheh Khan of modern English cartography, at 27° 28' lat. N. and 52 40' long. E., to the northeast and near ras Naband. [João de Barros-Da Asia].] » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953, ~ vol. A-C p. 100

« E dêste Cabo Nabão até vila Reixete, onde entra o rio Rodom, se faz a terra curva à maneira de enseada, na qual distância, em que haverá corenta léguas, estão estas vilas - Bedicane, Chilau, e o Cabo de Verdeitão. [And from this Cabo Nabão to Vila Reixete, where the river Rodom enters, the land curves like an inlet, in which distance, in which there will be a thousand leagues, are these villages - Bedicane, Chilau, and Cabo de Verdeitão.] » #810 Barros, Joâo de ed: Cidade, Hernâni, Ásia de João de Barros: dos feitos que os portugueses fizeram no descobrimento e conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente., Agência Geral das Colónias, Lisboa, 1945-1946, ~ vol. 3 p. 316


※ SOURCE for: Bidhün:
« De ce cap Nabao jusqu’à la ville (vila) de Reixete (RaySahr), où se jette le fleuve Rodom (Rudan), la terre se fait courbe à la manière d’une baie, distance qui sera de quarante lieues, sur laquelle sont ces villes (vilas): Bedicane (Bidhün), Chilau (Silaw) et le cap de Verdeitao (Bardistàn) » #898 Aubin, Jean, Le royaume d'Ormuz au début du XVIe siècle, Mare Luso-Indicum, Geneva, 1973 ~ p. 101

※ SOURCE for: Mimand (Fars):
« P. 98-100: L. places the Mimand of the geographical texts on the site of the current Bidhün, where, on the other hand, Néarque must have obtained supplies. »#3141 review: Jean Aubin, K. Lindberg. Voyage dan la sud de l'Iran, Carnet de route d'un médecin à la poursuite du vor de Médine. in Journal asiatique Volumes 244–245, pp. 128-9, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France), 1956 ~ p. 128

Place Name: Bid-e Payeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056274 coordinate: lat 27.85 long 52.433333
NIMA/GNS names: Bid-e Payeh , Bid-e Payeh Bagh , Bid-e Piyeh , Bid-i-Payeh , بيد پايه , بيد پايه باغ , بيد پيه ,
VARIANT names: Bid-e Payeh ,


Arch. Site in OMN name: Bidi 5
UTM: DE369059 converted to coordinate: lat 26.2714517253846 long 56.3680380622276
VARIANT names: Bidi 5 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bidi 5:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 35

Place Name: Bigdaneh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3054475 coordinate: lat 29.2879 long 52.1384
NIMA/GNS names: Bagdaneh , Bigdaneh , Yekdaneh , بگدانه ,
VARIANT names: Bigdaneh , Kaleh Musku , Qal'eh Musku ,


※ SOURCE for: Kaleh Musku:
« Kaleh Musku » #3080 Simla Drawing Office, General Staff, India, Mobilisation Routes In Persia (Vol. IV, Part II) (Fars, Laristan, Kerman And Yazd) British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, in Qatar Digital Library, ~ p. 53

※ SOURCE for: Qal'eh Musku:
« Qal'eh Musku » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} Shiraz 444 C

Place Name: Bil `Ukayrish
NIMA/GNS feature: WLL UFI: -786558 coordinate: lat 21 long 58.766667
NIMA/GNS names: Bil `Akairish , Bil `Ukayrish ,
VARIANT names: Bil `Ukayrish ,

※ SOURCE for: Bil `Ukayrish:
the site « Bil Ukayrish » in the (map [863] A map showing the Arabian Sea coast from Ras al-Hadd to Bar al-Hikman., Hélène David, 2012, #2647 Vincent Charpentier, Jean-François Berger, Rémy Crassard, Marc Lacaze and Gourguen Davtian, Prehistory and palaeo-geography of the coastal fringes of the Wahiba Sands and Bar al-Hikman, Sultanate of Oman, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 2012 vol. 42:pp. 57-78 ~) is approx 8 km heading 49º from these NIMA co-ordinates at 21.048304° 58.826575°

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bilad As Sur 33
UTM: GV 563 950 converted to coordinate: lat 22.54235 long 59.49206
VARIANT names: Bilad As Sur 33 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bilad As Sur 33:
« Cairns » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 47 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bilad Bani Bu 'All 31
UTM: GV 430 320 converted to coordinate: lat 21.97563 long 59.35329
VARIANT names: Bilad Bani Bu 'All 31 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bilad Bani Bu 'All 31:
« Flint site, cairns » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bilad Bani Bu Hasan 32
UTM: GV 342 482 converted to coordinate: lat 22.12307 long 59.27046
VARIANT names: Bilad Bani Bu Hasan 32 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bilad Bani Bu Hasan 32:
« Triliths, cairn tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Bilbana
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.52 long 50.0247222 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Bilbana ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Bilbana AT Al Qatif lat 26.52 long 50.0247222 [James], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Bilbana AT Al Qatif lat 26.52 long 50.0247222 [Cornwall],

※ SOURCE for: Bilbana:
« Bilbana is a coastal town opposite Tharro. I believe I am not audacious to equate "Tharro" with Tarot. As a consequence, Bilbana would be identified with Qatif. The archaeological evidence, previously discussed, dates both localities to the period which concerns us. » #2968 W. E. James, Anhang: On the Location of Gena in Nachträge - Das christliche Aksum, De Gruyter, Berlin ; Boston, 2018 ~ p. 54

« Magindana città 81. . 23.20 Gera città zuza 80. . 23.20 Bilbana città 80. . 24.10 » #2633 Ptolemy ed. M. Geiro Ruscelli, La geografia di Claudio Tolomeo Alessandrino, Appresso Giordano Ziletti, Venetia, 1574, ~ p. 284

« While most of the objects which I found in the ruined city io the west of the walls are medieval in date, it is possible that this was also the site of the ancient city of Bilbana, which Ptolemy locates hereabouts. In my case there can be no doubt at all that in this particular region there have becn settlements of one sort or another for thousands of years. Among the Graeco-Roman geographers Pliny gives the only detailed description of this Arabian littoral: » #773 Cornwall, P. B., Ancient Arabia: Explorations in Hasa, 1940-41, The Geographical Journal, London, 1946 (Jan., Feb.), 108:1-2:28-50 ~ p. 42

« That distance along the coast south-east from the Bay of Kuwayt falls very slightly north of al- Uqayr, with Ptolemy's Bilbana falling in the general area of al-Qatif. » #197 Groom, Nigel, Eastern Arabia in Ptolemy's map, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1986, 16:65-75 ~ p. 68

Place Name: Biledi
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.078443 long 57.029996 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Biledi ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Biledi:
Coordinates from GE overlay of Stein’s map {map#1013 Map No. II Parts of the Provinces of Kerman and Gulf coast, , 1931-2, #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~}

Place Name: Bimand
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 29.439638 long 55.465282 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Bimand ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Bimand:
« Deprived of its political status and without any large agricultural production in the surrounding enclave (because of the inadequate water supplies), Sirdjan was quickly reduced to secondary importance. In the 14th century it repeatedly suffered wartime devastations, and in 1411 it was destroyed by the Timurid Iskandar b. 'Umar Shaykh, who then deported the survivors to nearby Bimand. At the end of the 18th century a new town, Sa'idabad, was founded 10 km from Old Sirdjan, and eventually this settlement took over the name Sirdjan as well. »#3112 Peter Christensen, The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500, Bloomsbury Publishing Limited, London, 2015 ~ p. 183

« Gur fell to Ibn Amir either before or after the fall of Istakhr. Kariyan, Kazerun, and Siraf were occupied, and Yazdgerd fl ed to Kerman in 650, pursued by a Basran force that froze to death in a snowstorm at Bimand. »#3107 ed. D.T. Potts, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013 ~ p. 214

« The roads from Fars into Kirman converged on Bimand, which, as already said, lay four leagues to the west of Sirjan. From the north-east, one road from Unâs and the Rudhân district came down to Bimand (given by both Istakhri and Mukaddasi); while from Great Sahik to Bimand (and Sirjan) we have two roads, both measured in farsakhs, one by Shahr-i- Babak (given by Ibn Khurdadbih only), and another leading directly across the desert to Bimand, to which there are two alternative routes, one (Ibn Khurdadbih) by Kariyat-al-Milh, 'Salt Village,' the other by Rubat-Pusht-Kham, 'Crook-back Guard-house' (Kudâmah and Istakhri). Further, Mukaddasî gives the road from Niriz (in marches) to Bimand and Sirjân; while both he and Istakhri describe the route from the south-west which came up from Rusták-ar-Rustak in somewhat over four days' march, going direct to Sirjan(2). fn. 2 Ι. Κ. 48, 53. Kud. 195. Ist. 131, 168. Muk. 455, 473. Mst. 201 » .#895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bimmah 1 (BMH1)
UTM: GL168457 converted to coordinate: lat 23.0055620409472 long 59.115253829263
VARIANT names: Bimmah 1 (BMH1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bimmah 1 (BMH1):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bimmah 2 (BMH2)
UTM: GL203435 converted to coordinate: lat 22.9852427391976 long 59.1490694092542
VARIANT names: Bimmah 2 (BMH2) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bimmah 2 (BMH2):
« Stone structures » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Place Name: Bir
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056441 coordinate: lat 28.9319 long 53.2247
NIMA/GNS names: Bir , بیر ,
VARIANT names: Bier , Bir ,

※ SOURCE for: Bier:
« and on the other side of the stream, the village of Baradjun, entirely surrounded by green foliage. After this place Barajan (Baradjun), via villages named as Charbi, Sendjan, Sagada, Bier, Fesjun and Asmunga, (82) fn. 81 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p. 111; Thevenot, vol.II, p.127; Stodart, p. 79 (Moozaferie); Valentijn, vol. V, p. 262 (Moesaserie; Mose Faril); Speelman, p. 82 (Mosaffry); Fryer, vol. II, p. 208 (Mussaferry); Hedges, p. 207 (Mussaferee); KA 1793, fol. 998 (Mossa Ferhie); Chardin, vol. VIII, p. 460 (Mouza fari); LeBrun, vol. II, p. 312 (Mossefarie); Carmelites, loc. cit. (Musafiri). » #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 75


Arch. Site in OMN name: Bi'r Bira (BB1)
UTM: GL535028 converted to coordinate: lat 22.6131933466877 long 59.4661041358407
VARIANT names: Bi'r Bira (BB1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Bi'r Bira (BB1):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bir Sayf 24
UTM: FA 220 455 converted to coordinate: lat 23.01341 long 58.19052
VARIANT names: Bir Sayf 24 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bir Sayf 24:
« Cairn tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bir Sayf 25a
UTM: FA 175 451 converted to coordinate: lat 23.01012 long 58.14658
VARIANT names: Bir Sayf 25a ,

※ SOURCE for: Bir Sayf 25a:
« Walled hill-fortification, field system » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bir Sayf 25b
UTM: FA 174 455 converted to coordinate: lat 23.01374 long 58.14563
VARIANT names: Bir Sayf 25b ,

※ SOURCE for: Bir Sayf 25b:
« Walled hill-fortification, field system » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bir Sayf 26
UTM: FA 171 455 converted to coordinate: lat 23.01376 long 58.14271
VARIANT names: Bir Sayf 26 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bir Sayf 26:
« Settlement site, rectangular structures » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bir Sayf 27
UTM: FA 135 430 converted to coordinate: lat 22.99143 long 58.1074
VARIANT names: Bir Sayf 27 ,

※ SOURCE for: Bir Sayf 27:
« Cairn tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 46 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Biraq
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056026 coordinate: lat 27.66917 long 54.395913
NIMA/GNS names: Barak , Barraq , Berak , Biraq , براک ,
VARIANT names: Birak , Biraq ,

※ SOURCE for: Birak:
« Birak » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}


Place Name: Birunat
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.617891 long 57.100321 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Birunat ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Birunat:
« The Persians observed C. R. Boxer now ‘began to cast covetous eyes’ upon Portuguese interests, by degrees ‘filching away’ territory owing allegiance to the King of Hormuz.(10) In 1603 Allah Virdi Khan’s forces took Shamil, Minab and other districts in Birunat (figure 1). (11) fn. 10 Boxer, C R. 1929. Commentaries. London. xxi. fn. 11 Faroughy, Abbas. 1949. Histoire du Royaume de Hormuz. Brussels. 90, n1. » #1698 Faridany, E. K., Signal Defeat: the Portuguese Loss of Comorão in 1614 and its Political and Commercial Consequences at Portugal, The Persian Gulf and Safavid Persia Conference, 8-9 September 2007 The Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, Washington, 2007 ~ p. 2

Place Name: Biyaban
NIMA/GNS feature: AREA UFI: 228608 coordinate: lat 26.766667 long 57.566667
NIMA/GNS names: Biyaban ,
VARIANT names: Biyaban ,

※ SOURCE for: Biyaban:
« The Biyaban tract, between Minab and Persian Makran, is mostly sand and clay, suitable only for the grazing of sheep and goats. The exact limits of Persian sovereignty in the south of the empire at this time were vague: the furthest practical limits on the Makran coast were those set by the domain of the Khan of Kalat and the newly acquired possessions of the ruler of Muscat. » #12 Kelly, John Barrett, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880, Oxford University Press, London, 1968 ~ p. 40

« To westward of these is the Sadaich river or khor, which, like all the others on the coast, is a tidal creek with shallow bar, the ground near the mouth being swampy. The course of this river from the mountains is not known; it is the boundary of the Geh territory, or Makran* proper, the country to the west of it being named Báshakird, a very mountinous district, and little known ; the narrow plain between the coast and the mountains is called Biyaban, and belongs to the chief of Jashak, who is under the Persian government. * On the first range of hills near this river is said to be a pillar, called Malik Chedár, an ancient land-mark on the boundary line of Makran, the words mean King’s pillar. » #2904 The Persian Gulf Pilot 3rd edition, The Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, London, 1890 ~ p. 196

Arch. Site in IRN name: Bl Lengeh
UTM: 5453, 2633 converted to coordinate: lat 26.55 long 54.8833333333333
VARIANT names: Bl Lengeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Bl Lengeh:
« Other variants: Bandar-e Lengeh Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Bandar-e Lengeh, is listed and the location of this is given (USBGN: 323). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Bonari
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056618 coordinate: lat 29.3032 long 50.9912
NIMA/GNS names: Bonar Kidi , Bonar Qa'ed , Bonar-e Azadegan , Bonar-e Qa'ed , Bonar-e Qayedi , Bonari , Qa'ed , بنار آزادگان , بنار قائد , قائد ,
VARIANT names: Bonari , Bunnaury ,


※ SOURCE for: Bunnaury:
« Bunnaury » in {map#1161 Route of H.M. Mission through Persia on 1809, , , #3070 James Justinian Morier, A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1812 ~}

Place Name: Bonaruyeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055086 coordinate: lat 28.085428 long 54.04744
NIMA/GNS names: Banarooyeh , Banaru""iyeh , Banaru'iyeh , Banaruyeh , Bonaruyeh , Fathabad , بناروئیه , بنارویه ,
VARIANT names: Banaru , Benarroo , Benaru , Bonaruyeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Banaru:
« Banaru » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

« , the karavansaray at the large village of Banaru, where many ruins were situated at the foot of the mountain, came into view. The karavansaray here also had many large cisterns. (102) Banaru, was a pleasant, not very large village, with many palm groves, and there was an old karavansaray called that of Khayrat Khan (Cheirat Chan) after a Persian, who had been an envoy from Golconda. fn. 102 Thevenot, vol. II, p. 129; Stodart, pp. 81-2 (Carerow), which had a därigha. Winninx, 16 July (Bererovio). »#1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 77

※ SOURCE for: Benarroo:
« August 15. We rose from Beeres, and passing through Benarroo, lay at Bocktearee »#3146 Yule, Henry Colonel, The Diary Of William Hedges, The Hakluyt Society, London, 1889 ~ vol.1 p. 206

※ SOURCE for: Benaru:
« Benaru » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars}

※ SOURCE for: Bonaruyeh:
« Today we reached Bonāruye, a town somewhat larger than the two we had passed. It lies at the foot of a towering mountain, at the top of which [text blacked out] there stood not long ago a very strong and impregnable fortress that was surrounded by a thick wall made of stone and lime. Its ruins and its impregnable location can now be seen to cover the entire summit. It had a very large square and was spacious enough to defend a large number of people. In the center of the square was an extremely deep cistern. Encircling the wall of this fortress at the highest point of the mountain was the ancient city of Bonāruye, whose population was much larger than the town that is currently located below. »#2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ p. 317

Place Name: Borazjun
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056856 coordinate: lat 29.269896 long 51.218803
NIMA/GNS names: Borazdjan , Borazjan , Borazjun , برازجان , برزدجن ,
VARIANT names: Borasgoon , Borasgoun , Borasjoon , Borauzgoon , Borazjan , Borazjun , Burazjún ,

※ SOURCE for: Borasgoon:
« Borasgoon » in {map#1129 Map of Asia Minor Armenia and Koordistan, , 1816, #3020 John Macdonald Kinneir, Journey Through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan in the Years 1813 and 1814, John Murray, London, 1818 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Borasgoun:
[caravanserai coordinates lat. 29.267250° long 51.208444°. PBR]

« By 1876, the caravanserai was ready, so that now Borazjan was described as consisting of “a telegraph-station, a caravansarai, and a village.”(114) … The new caravanserai made quite an impression on European travellers. From afar it stood out as a landmark against the sky, looking like a two-tiered mediaeval castle with lofty and loopholed walls, ramparts, enormous towers and turrets. Everyone considered it to be the finest caravanserai in Iran, and although “it lost much of its impressiveness as one draws nearer,” it was still a magnificent building. On the inside there was “a splendid suite of rooms for the governor or other travelling officials of high rank.”(116) Although a caravanserai, the building was at the same time a stronghold “capable of being utilised as a fort, the reason why locally it was called dezh or fort. High Persian officials passing through Burazjan treat the Sarai as a residence.”(117) Apparently, later some smaller additional caravanserais were constructed in Borazjan. According to a survey by 1896, the town had one large caravanserai and three small ones.(118) fn. 114. Arnold 1877, p. 401. fn. 115. Bradley-Birt 1909, pp. 61-62; Weeks 1896, p. 127; Stack 1882, vol. 1, p. 31. fn. 116. Curzon 1892, vol. 2, p. 226 (with description); Weeks 1896, p. 127; De Vilmorin 1895, pp. 343-44. (with a detailed description and drawing); Bradley-Birt 1909, pp. 61-2; Williams 1907, p. 42; Sadid al-Saltaneh 1362, p. 30; Pirzadeh 1343, vol. 2, p. 413. fn. 117. Lorimer 1915, p. 328; Farrashbandi 1336, vol. 2, p. 224. This caravanserai was used as the headquarters of the fourth battalion of the gendarmerie as of 1913. Akhgar 1366, p. 109. fn. 118. Sadid al-Saltaneh 1362, pp. 30-31 (unless the small ones had already existed prior to 1876, but had been disregarded by Europeans, which seems unlikely). » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ pp. 41-2

« Nous arrivons à Borasgoun, l'un des plus vastes caravânséraï de la Perse, construit en pierres de taille, à une époque encore toute récente. L'aspect engageant de ce monument nous invite à y pénétrer, et même à nous y installer. » #3071 Lacoin de Vilmorin, De Paris à Bombay par la Perse, Firmin-Didot, Paris, 1895 ~ p. 343

※ SOURCE for: Borasjoon:
« Borasjoon » in {map#1161 Route of H.M. Mission through Persia on 1809, , , #3070 James Justinian Morier, A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1812 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Borauzgoon:
« Borauzgoon [name of place] | 24 [miles] | Road good, over a plain. At six miles crossed the bed of a dry river, called Kharga, breadth about fifty or sixty feet. At fifteen miles a village on the right of the road. Half a mile before Borauzgoon the road stony. Borausgoon is a large village, sur- rounded with a mud wall, flanked with towers. [remarks] » #3021 John Macdonald Kinneir, A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, John Murray, London, 1813 ~ Appendix p. 363

※ SOURCE for: Borazjan:
« Fourteen years later there was still no caravanserai, for though the road through Borazjan was a major trade route one did not find a caravanserai till one reached Daleki.106 However, there was the ruin of the old caravanserai, for in 1875 Ballantine wrote that there was a caravanserai, but it was totally tumbled down.107 This means that either between 1865 and 1875 a caravanserai had been built, which in that short period had become ruined, which seems highly unlikely, or what is more likely, that it was the ruin of the caravanserai destroyed in 1824. » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 41


※ SOURCE for: Burazjún:
« Burazjún is a large village, with walls and towers; near it we observed some cultivated land and trees. … During the twenty-ninth, we halted at Burazjún; but foupd it difficult to procure a sufficiency of. Provisions for our numerous party. … Near our camp was the tomb of some modern Imámzádah or Mohammedan saint » #2876 William Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, More Particularly Persia Vol. 1, Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819, ~ vol. 1 pp. 254 and 257

Place Name: Borm
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.534081 long 52.702419 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Borm ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Borm:
« Borm » in {map#1217 in #3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ fig. 14. Carte. Trajet de Bord-Khoun à Dar ol-Mizan.}

« On m'avait bien déjà parlé de la splendeur des pavots de Perse et pourtant, en voyant maintenant le rouge si intense et si chaud de ces fleurs élégantes, telles que je ne les ai jamais vues ailleurs, je fus plus saisi que je ne le croyais possible. Ce lieu s'appelle Borm (67, p. 250); il est inhabité, mais sert de campement aux Beloutches (nom donné à tous les nomades) pendant la saison chaude. L'adjoint et les autres SOnt là. Ils m'attendent allongés dans l'herbe et les bêtes broutent avec un plaisir évident. [I had already been told about the splendor of the Persian poppies and yet, seeing now the red so intense and so warm of these elegant flowers, such that I having never seen them elsewhere, I was more struck than I thought possible. This place is called Borm (67, p. 250); it is uninhabited, but serves as camp at Beloutches (name given to all nomads) during the hot season. The deputy and the others ARE there. They are waiting for me lying in the grass and the animals are grazing with obvious pleasure.] »#3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p. 106

Place Name: Bosara
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 16.950217 long 53.967371 † see notes (u, d)
VARIANT names: Bosara ? , Boseude , Coseude , Kosara , Koseude , Masora ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Bosara AT Raysut lat 16.950217 long 53.967371 [Spenger],

※ SOURCE for: Bosara:
« D2 | Bosara | R | Biyasara? Medieval inhabitants of Raisut according to al-Hamdani OMN | von Wissmann 1977, 14 » in #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ Map 4 Arabia-Azania directory p. 45

« Unlocated Toponyms - Bosara/Boseude/Kosara/Koseude - Roman - Sprenger 1875.129 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 51

[The above note does not specify a modern location and the location of Bosara shown in Map 4 Arabia-Azania puts it some 22 km. west of Raysut at Mughsayl. Under « Unlocated Toponyms Bosara/Boseude/Kosara/Koseude - R - [no Probable Location] - Sprenger 1875.129 » in #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ Map 4 Arabia-Azania directory p. 51, is also vague particularly as Sprenger associates these to Raysût.

Κωσεύδη πόλις = Kosseidi city « 129. Κωσεύδη πόλις, 91° 0', 20° 0' (W.B.C.; Κωσαρα, Βωσευδή, Bacapa V.; Tóλs absent in A. VADMS. Int.). Ptolemæns relocated this city about a degree NE of the Didymi montes, which in his opinion amounts to 500 stades, and its position therefore agrees with that of the port at Sahalitis, which the Periplus erroneously calls Mosha. It corresponds to Raysût, the spacious and secure port of Tzafaria. Since the initial K and B are written, we may well read Roseyde and derive the name from Raysut; but if Koseyde is the correct reading, we are tempted to associate it with the folk name Qodha'a (cf. $$ 398ff.). Now Raysût is desolate, but on the extremest promontory Carter discovered the ruins of a castle, and farther inland tombs, covering three acres of land. Fresh water can be found near the harbor, and not far away the frankincense and bdellium palms grow. Hd. 92 says: On this coast halfway between 'Oman and Adan lies Raysût. It is a hoard like a castell, and a castell has also been built on a mountain. It is surrounded by the sea except on one side where it is connected to the mainland. If one goes (coming from the west) towards 'Omån, the road leads via Raysût, and one can go in, or, leaving it on the right, travel past; for the crossroads, where the way branching off to Raysût separates from the 'Oman road, is a mile distant from the city. The inhabitants are Azdites, namely Banu Hadyd (which is an Azd tribe). » #1332 Sprenger, A., Die alte Geographie Arabiens, Commissionsverlag Von Huber als Comp; Meridian Publising Co., Bern; Amsterdam, 1875;1966 ~ pp. 94-5

« BOSARA (Βώσαρα), a town of the Sachalitae (Ptol. 6.7), at the south-east of Arabia, near the Didymi Montes. [See BASA] Forster finds it in Masora, a little to the south of Ras-el-Had. (Arabia, vol. ii. p. 182.) » #840 Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by various writers, John Murray, London, 1872 ~ vol. 1 p. 421

« In assigning an etymology to Bussorah, Dr. Vincent says, Basra, Bozra, and Bosara, is a name applicable to any town in the Desert, as it signifies rough or stony ground ; and thus we have a Bosara in Ptolemy near Muskat … since that town is really seated on rough and stony ground, and so probably was the Bosara of Ptolemy near Muskat, judging from the general character of the country there. » #1185 Buckingham, J. S., Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia, including a journey from Bagdad by Mount Zagros, to Hamadan, the ancient Ecbatana, researches in Ispahan and the ruins of Persepolis, and journey from thence by Shiraz and Shapoor to the sea-shore, Henry Colburn: Gregg International Publishers Limited, London: London, 1829:1971 ~ p. 368

« Ptolemy's Bosara, lastly, tallies so closely in name with Masora, the last sea-port west of Rasal- Hhad, that the apparent difference of site may fairly be accounted for, by the wrong drawing of the coast … » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Duncan and Malcolm; Darf Publishers Limited, 1846; 1984 ~ p. 182

« The next place mentioned by Ptolemy, viz. Bosara, may have been Sur, because it is said to have been a city, and there is no other locality hereabouts which possesses the advantages of Sur in point of position, both for such external and internal commerce as this part of Arabia could command. There has most probably always been a town where Sur now is, because there is no other place just here, where there could be one so advantageously situated. » #2662 Henry John CARTER, Art. VI. A Geographical Description of Certain Parts of the Southeast Coast of Arabia, to which is appended a short essay on the comparative geography of the whole of this coast., Reprinted from the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1851 ~ p.91

« An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 4 D2 Bosara » D.T. Potts, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Bosara: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2019 link39314 [accessed: 13 March 2023] Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 17.5, 52.5

※ SOURCE for: Boseude:
« Unlocated Toponyms | Bosara/Boseude/Kosara/Koseude | Roman | Sprenger 1875.129 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 51

※ SOURCE for: Coseude:
« Coseude » appears in text relating to Ptolemys Book 6, Chaper VIII and only on maps illustrating Ptolemy’s geography such as « COSEVDA » in {map#840 Sexta Asiae Tabula, Ptolemaeus, Claudius, 1478, ref56 map2} in #56 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in early maps: a bibliography of maps covering the peninsula of Arabia printed in western Europe from the invention of printing to the year 1751, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1978 ~ map 2.

« Coseude ah as Bojara. » in {map#846 Asiae Tabula VI: Arabiam Felicem, Carmaniam Ac Sinum Persicum, Ptolemy, 1578, }

« Bosara vel Coseude civit. » #2703 P.-F.-J. Gossellin, Recherches sur la géographie systématique et positive des anciens. Tome 3 / ; pour servir de base à l'histoire de la géographie ancienne., Impr. de la République, 1798-1813 ~ vol. 3 p. 46

« Cofeuda, altrimenti Bofara » in #2629 Claudius Ptolemaeus ed.Girolamo Ruscelli, Giuseppe Rosaccio, Geografia Di Clavdio Tolomeo Alessandrino, Tradotta di Greco nell'Idioma Volgare Italiano Da Girolamo Rvscelli, Et hora nuouamente ampliata Da Gioseffo Rosaccio ... Et vna Geografia vniuersale del medesimo, seperata da quella di Tolomeo ... Et vna breue Descrittione di tutta la Terra, distinta in quattro Libri …, Appresso gli Heredi di Melchior Sessa, 1599 ~ p. 138

« Coseude town » #2452 Claudius Ptolemy Translated And Edited By Edward Luther Stevenson, Claudius Ptolemy The Geography, Dover Publications, New York, 1932:1991 ~ p.138

« And from there you can see the Monts Didimes, from which is made the promontory which is now called Cap de deux pointes, and this whole coast is very deserted, having no town along it from Materqua to Cuoua, the space of more than sixty leagues, during which you pass the Cap des lslettes, and the Cap de Matraca, the Isle Masira, and others without name, in which those who run their fortune in this country must often rest. It is true that once under the object of Mazira was the city of Coseude, and a place called the Vaticine or the prediction of Diana, then there was the city of Abissaga, but all that is in ruins » #2249 Sebastian Münster, François de Belleforest, La cosmographie universelle de tout le monde, chez Michel Sonnius, Paris, 1575 ~ col. 1169

« The term Coseude Polis found on examples of Ptolemy's map is interpreted as a mistake in copying by ancient scribes. Sprenger correctly identified the term as Roseude (Roseyde), modern Raysut. » #2668 Lynne S. Newton and Juris Zarins, Dhofar through the ages An Ecological, Archaeological and Historical Landscape, Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, Oxford, 2019 ~ p.31

※ SOURCE for: Kosara:
« Unlocated Toponyms | Bosara/Boseude/Kosara/Koseude | Roman | Sprenger 1875.129 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 51

※ SOURCE for: Koseude:
« Unlocated Toponyms | Bosara/Boseude/Kosara/Koseude | Roman | Sprenger 1875.129 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 51

Κωσεύδη πόλις = Kosseidi city « 129. Κωσεύδη πόλις, 91° 0', 20° 0' (W.B.C.; Κωσαρα, Βωσευδή, Bacapa V.; Tóλs absent in A. VADMS. Int.). Ptolemæns relocated this city about a degree NE of the Didymi montes, which in his opinion amounts to 500 stades, and its position therefore agrees with that of the port at Sahalitis, which the Periplus erroneously calls Mosha. It corresponds to Raysût, the spacious and secure port of Tzafaria. Since the initial K and B are written, we may well read Roseyde and derive the name from Raysut; but if Koseyde is the correct reading, we are tempted to associate it with the folk name Qodha'a (cf. $$ 398ff.). Now Raysût is desolate, but on the extremest promontory Carter discovered the ruins of a castle, and farther inland tombs, covering three acres of land. Fresh water can be found near the harbor, and not far away the frankincense and bdellium palms grow. Hd. 92 says: On this coast halfway between 'Oman and Adan lies Raysût. It is a hoard like a castell, and a castell has also been built on a mountain. It is surrounded by the sea except on one side where it is connected to the mainland. If one goes (coming from the west) towards 'Omån, the road leads via Raysût, and one can go in, or, leaving it on the right, travel past; for the crossroads, where the way branching off to Raysût separates from the 'Oman road, is a mile distant from the city. The inhabitants are Azdites, namely Banu Hadyd (which is an Azd tribe). » #1332 Sprenger, A., Die alte Geographie Arabiens, Commissionsverlag Von Huber als Comp; Meridian Publising Co., Bern; Amsterdam, 1875;1966 ~ pp. 94-5

※ SOURCE for: Masora:
« MASORA (Basora), a port of Arabia Felix, near Corodamum prom. s.w. Mizi. » #682 Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Senate, London, 1851 ~ p. 219

« Masora R. » in map #2676 Andrew Crichton, History of Arabia and its people, T. Nelson and Sons, London, 1852 ~ after p. xvi

« The general aspect of this country is that of a vast soli tude, interspersed with numerous oases and fertile valleys, watered by four principal streams - two of which, the Masora and the Fel-Hadj , flow perennially ; the others , at Muscat and Sohar, only during the rainy season. » #2690 Col. Louis Du Couret, Life in the Desert or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa, Mason Brothers, New York, 1860 ~ p.462

« and, some way below them, the river Masora, or Moiesur, certainly corresponds with his flumen Mysecros. » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Duncan and Malcolm; Darf Publishers Limited, 1846; 1984 ~ p.230

« MASORA (Basora), a port of Arabia Felix, near Corodamum prom. s.w. Mizi. » p. 219 « MIZl, the people of Masora, Arabiz. » p. 230 « MYSECROS (Masora) fl., a r. of the Omanitæ, Arabia Felix, falling into the sea bet. Acilla and Daminia. Moiesar. » p. 235 #682 Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, Whittaker and Co., 1851 ~

« BOSARA (Βώσαρα), a town of the Sachalitae (Ptol. 6.7), at the south-east of Arabia, near the Didymi Montes. [See BASA] Forster finds it in Masora, a little to the south of Ras-el-Had. (Arabia, vol. ii. p. 182.) » #840 Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by various writers, John Murray, London, 1872 ~ vol. 1 p. 421

Place Name: Boveyrat
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056965 coordinate: lat 29.9775 long 50.2254
NIMA/GNS names: Boveyrat , Bovirat , بويرات ,
VARIANT names: Boveyrat , Mahmade , Mamhade ? ,


※ SOURCE for: Mahmade:
« We passed through a range of low hills about 15 miles to Hissar, a collection of six or seven villages; the road is good, and the wells here also afford good water. Fire miles farther is Mahmade, then six to Bunder Delim, » #1334 Monteith, William, Notes on the Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, etc., Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857, 27:108-19 ~

※ SOURCE for: Mamhade:
« Bunder Delum ..... [names of places] | 11 [distance] | Miserable fishing town . Half-way pass through Mamhade, a village : water tolerably good, supplied by upwards of twenty wells one mile from the town. [remarks] » #3021 John Macdonald Kinneir, A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, John Murray, London, 1813 ~ p. 456 » #3021 John Macdonald Kinneir, A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, John Murray, London, 1813 ~ p. 456

« Mamhade » in {map#1129 Map of Asia Minor Armenia and Koordistan, , 1816, #3020 John Macdonald Kinneir, Journey Through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan in the Years 1813 and 1814, John Murray, London, 1818 ~}

Place Name: Bruht
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.8586 long 56.0067 † see notes (u, p)
VARIANT names: Bruht ? , Brukth ? , Guša ? , Urukth ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Bruht AT Kusha lat 26.8586 long 56.0067 [Aubin, Curzon],

※ SOURCE for: Bruht:
« Qishm, à sa pointe orientale, n'était plus au XVIe siècle qu'une petite localité (luga- rete) (144), avec un palais royal assez vétuste (145) qui, tout comme celui de Djaroun, tenait lieu de forteresse (146). Laft, au Xe siècle ville flo- rissante (147), restait la deuxième agglomération. Le bourg de Bruht, au milieu des terres (148), s'était élevé au premier rang, d'où le nom, parfois employé d'« île de Qishm et de Bruht (149), ou simplement d' ile de Bruht » (150). Bruht avait un palais royal (151). [Qishm, at its eastern tip, in the 16th century was no more than a small locality (lugarete) (144), with a fairly dilapidated royal palace (145) which, like that of Djaroun, served as a fortress ( 146). Laft, a flourishing town in the 10th century (147), remained the second agglomeration. The town of Bruht, in the middle of the land (148), had risen to the first rank, hence the name, sometimes used of "island of Qishm and Bruht (149), or simply of island of Bruht" (150). Bruht had a royal palace (151).] fn. 144 Les Comentários (1/51, p. 187) disent Qishm hum lugar grande. Le Titolo das remdas, qui le qualifie de lugarete, et le Remdimento de Oromuz le mettent au dernier rang: Bruht [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Broct 1.000 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Broquete 600 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Laft [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Laft 610 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Llafete 400 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Harbiz ( ?) [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Carbes 200 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Garpez 130 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Qishm [Revenu en hazar de [Income in hazard of]] Queixome 130 [Titolo das remdas [rent title]] Queixa 130 [Remdimento de Oromuz [Yield of Hormuz]] Harbiz, non attesté dans FG, est mentionné par Sadidussaltana, p. 128; Brás, I/49, p. 182: Arbes; Teixeira, II, p. 65: Karuèz; cf. Balbi Cerbil (p. 117) ? Carte de l'agglomération de Qishm et de ses alentours dans J. de Morgan, II, p. 292. fn. 145 Brás, I/37, p. 137. fn. 146 Cast., II/72, p. 378. fn. 147 Hudud al-'alam, trad. Minorsky, Londres 1937, p. 57-58. fn. 148 Le site de Bruht, au centre de l'ile (Ibn Mägid, 70a), à quatre lieues de Qishm (Nimdihi, 839), est à chercher à l'emplacement de l'actuel village de Guša (FG, VIII, p- 368), où existe une mosquée dite de Burh (Sadidnssaltana, p. 676-679; Eqtedâri, p. 794-801, avec localisation fautive sur sa carte, p. 748). Le nom de Bruht est attesté dès le Xe siècle (nom d'origine d'un capitaine de navire zoroastrien de Siraf; cf. Livre des Merveilles de l'Inde, tr. Sauvaget, dans Mémorial Jean Sauvaget, I, p. 201, 207, 216,lu al-Barkhati pour “al-Brukhti”). fn. 149 Nimdihi, 820 (Qism va Bruht); Samarqandi, p. 695 (jazira-yi Kism va Bruht): Ga fari (Qism va *Bruht); Ibn Magid, 70a (gazira Burhut (sic) wa'l-*Qism; Tibbetts traduit à tort, p. 222, « Burkhut or al-Qism *). fn. 150 Teixeira, II, p. 9: l'ile de Broct que les Portugais appellent Queixome (avec la coutumière altération des noms indigènes par attraction d'un mot portugais familier, en l'espèce queixume, a plaintes). Balbi, p. 118 (ile de “Boreche “, “Boroche”). fn. 151 Nimdihi, 839. Sur le jardin royal, Titolo das remdas, p. 224. » #898 Aubin, Jean, Le royaume d'Ormuz au début du XVIe siècle, Mare Luso-Indicum, Geneva, 1973 2:IV/5:77-237 ~ p. 102

※ SOURCE for: Brukth:
« The island is fifty-four miles in length, and varies from nine to thirty-two in breadth. In its centre is the village of Brukth or Urukth, the Oaracta of Nearchus and Arrian, who says that at the time of the Greek admiral's visit the island produced corn, vines, and fruit of all description. » #1116 Curzon, George N., Persia and the Persian Question, Cass: Longmans Green and Co, 1966: 1892 ~ vol. 2 p. 410

※ SOURCE for: Guša:
see source « Bruht »

※ SOURCE for: Urukth:
« The island is fifty-four miles in length, and varies from nine to thirty-two in breadth. In its centre is the village of Brukth or Urukth, the Oaracta of Nearchus and Arrian, who says that at the time of the Greek admiral's visit the island produced corn, vines, and fruit of all description. » #1116 Curzon, George N., Persia and the Persian Question, Cass: Longmans Green and Co, 1966: 1892 ~ vol. 2 p. 410

Place Name: Bukha
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786615 coordinate: lat 26.141067 long 56.152016
NIMA/GNS names: Bakha , Bakhah , Bukha , Bukha' , بخاء ,
VARIANT names: Bakhah , Bokha , Bukha ,

※ SOURCE for: Bakhah:
« Note on Bakhah Bakhah was originally a home of the Shihuh who ruled it until the time of Shaikh Salim bin Sultan al Qasiml (circa 1880), Shaikh of Ras al Khaimah, who seized it and appointed Shaikh Sulaiman, grandfather of the present Shaikh, as his wali at Bakhah. Duing Shaikh Salaiman's time the Shaikh of Khasab attacked Bakhah, and when the Wali of Bakhah appealed to the Shaikh of Ras al Khaimah for help in repelling the invaders he refused to provide any and gave as his reason the fact that he was prohibited by his treaty obligations with the British from despatching an expedition by sea. Later Shaikh Suleiman succeeded in repelling the attacks from Khasab by his own efforts and his power gradually gained in strength. Eventually, he himself attacked and plundered Ras al Khaimah. After this the Shaikh of Ras al Khaimah abandoned all claims to Bakhah, which has since descended from father to son in the same family. 2. The present Shaikh is Muhammad bln Ahmad bin Sulaiman, Shihhi. He is about fifty years old. He appears to be a straightforward man and to be respected by his people whom he does not oppress unduly. He is married into the Dubai family, and his wife is the sister-in-law of Shaikh Said bin Maktum of Dubai. He complains that his brother-in-law does not co-operate with him, and attributes this attitude to the ill-advice of his son Rashid. He owns ten country- craft (four big and six small) which ply between India, East Africa and the Gulf ports. 3. The Shaikh claims that Bakhah consists of six inhabited coastal villages, namely Bakhah, Al Jadi and Al Jari, (north of Bakhah), Teebat, Ghamdha and Fadhgha (South of Bakhah) together with some deserted villages on the coast and in the mountains. The northern limit he claims is Ras al Jari and the southern Ras al Sha'am and part of Sha’am village. In fact, he has no authority in Sha’am and the headland is the natural boundary in that direction which is, incidentally, the end of the motor road from Ras al Khaimah. 4. The inhabitants of Bakhah are Arabs (Shihuh), and Persians who live mostly by fishing and trading. There is one Hindu. The whole population is estimated at 6,000, and it receives its food supplies from Dubai through the Sharjah Agency in the same way as the Trucial Coast Sheikhdoms. The Shaikh charges neither customs duty nor anchorage fees on boats calling at his port which is not an open anchorage. 5. The Sheikhdom is independent and pays tribute to nobody. The Shaikh mentioned that though he had been to Muscat to pay his respects to the Sultan, he owed him no allegiance and preferred the protection of the British by whom he wished to be considered independent. » #2787 'File 11/51 Shaikhdom of Bakhah [Bukha]' [?5r] (8/12 and 9/12), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/6/398, in Qatar Digital Library <www.qdl.qa/archive>/81055/vdc_100063315158.0x00000a [accessed 3 April 2023]

※ SOURCE for: Bokha:
Map created in 1832. It was written in English and Arabic.#2587 Original surveys by Lieutenants John Michael Guy, George Barnes Brucks, Robert Cogan, William Eales Rogers and Stafford Bettesworth Haines, 1821-29, 'Chart of The Gulf of Persia.' IOR/X/3635/35/1-2, James Horsburgh, Hydrographer to the Honourable East India Company, 1832 ~

※ SOURCE for: Bukha:
Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

« Dutch ships explored the coast just South from the deep inlet of A1 Khasab in 1645 and visited the villages of Qidi and Bukha. » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p.45

« Bukha (26°09'N., 56°09'E.), a village, stands on the shore of an open bight. Depths of less than 5.5m are charted up to 1.5 miles NW and up to 0.5 mile NE of the town. 13.13 A prominent white fort with a tower at one corner stands on the W entrance point. Another fort stands at the head of the bight, while a third fort is located 0.5 mile E of the village. 13.13 Anchorage can be taken, in a depth of 40m, with the fort on the W entrance point bearing 160°, distant 1 mile. In this position the tidal currents set parallel to the coast. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~

#2777 Emirates History - Dutch Era, at <www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/gulf/uae-history-dutch.htm> (accessed: 29 Mar 2023])

« Most places are already mentioned in Balbi's list of 1580. Dutch ships explored the coast just South from the deep inlet of A1 Khasab in 1645 and visited the villages of Qidi and Bukha. To the North from there, deep into a fjord, is the town of A1 Khasab, which belonged to the Portuguese until just after the fall of Muscat in 1650. The Dutch visited it in 1666 when the fortress had a garrison of the Imam of Oman.(157) fn. 157 Khasab is already mentioned in c.1541/1543 in Aubin, 'Royaume d'Ormuz', p. 219, which gives its revenue. ARA VOC vol. 1259, fol. 3367 (visit of 1666 = Floor, 'First contacts', p. 299). » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 46

« When the present Sultan of Oman replaced his falher in 1970 the school at Bukhi, run by the government of Abu Dhabi, was the only school in the region ; there were no medical services and no roads; and there was generally little evidence of central government activity. » #279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 19

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bukha 22a
UTM: DD159912 converted to coordinate: lat 26.137651192537 long 56.1586883853331
VARIANT names: Bukha 22a ,

※ SOURCE for: Bukha 22a:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 42

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bukha 22b
UTM: DD140910 converted to coordinate: lat 26.1357332322072 long 56.1396962717212
VARIANT names: Bukha 22b ,

※ SOURCE for: Bukha 22b:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 42

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bukha 22c
UTM: DD138906 converted to coordinate: lat 26.132109807493 long 56.1377222707871
VARIANT names: Bukha 22c ,

※ SOURCE for: Bukha 22c:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 42

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bukha 22d
UTM: DD140901 converted to coordinate: lat 26.1276074256836 long 56.1397558065683
VARIANT names: Bukha 22d ,

※ SOURCE for: Bukha 22d:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 44

Arch. Site in OMN name: Bukha Al Japi 22e
UTM: DD135906 converted to coordinate: lat 26.1320918209941 long 56.1347215771377
VARIANT names: Bukha Al Japi 22e ,

※ SOURCE for: Bukha Al Japi 22e:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 44

Place Name: Bundar Tibben
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3087332 coordinate: lat 27.233401 long 52.803245
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Tabin , Bandar-e Teben , Bandar-e-Teben , Bundar Tibben , Taban , Tabin , Teben , Tibin , Tibin , بندر تبن , بندر تبين , تبن , تبن , تبين , تيبين ,
VARIANT names: Bundar Tibben ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bundar Tibben FOR Apostana [Gossellin],

※ SOURCE for: Bundar Tibben:
« Tibben » in {map#1035 Tab: XIX Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A)} see AHduGP map 102

«Tibben » in {map#1035 Tab: XIX Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A)} see AHduGP map 102

Stream in grp 09M26a name: Burāza river
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 28.919725 long 52.522868
VARIANT names: Burāza river ,

※ SOURCE for: Burāza river:
« When I was there, in spring, light clouds were hanging below over the deep gorge in which the Burāza river runs. If the famous Tag i Kisra at Ctesiphon is a theatrical fake worthy of a Potemkin, this castle of Ardashir is a castle of the Holy Grail. » #3128 Herzfeld, Ernst E., Archaeological History of Iran, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1935 ~ p. 95

Place Name: Buraimi
NIMA/GNS feature: OAS UFI: -785933 coordinate: lat 24.235278 long 55.752222
NIMA/GNS names: Al Buraym , Al Buraymi , Baraimi Oasis , Braimi , Buraimi Oasis , Buraymi Oasis , Wahat al Buraymi ,
VARIANT names: Bireïmah , Buraimi , Buraymi , Tawwâm , Tu’am ,

※ SOURCE for: Bireïmah:
« Bireïmah may be approached from Schinas by two of these , Wádí Khór and Wádí Uttar. From Fidgira another road leads across the ridge to Shárga , which is two and a half days distant . » #19 Wellsted, James Raymond, Travels in Arabia, John Murray, London, 1838 ~ vol. 1 p. 237

※ SOURCE for: Buraimi:
« In Oman, at Umm an-Nar and in the Buraimi oasis, settlements and cemeteries of the third millennium BC yield material comparable with finds at Bampur (phases V and VI), Shahr-i Sokhta and other sites in Iran. Some scholars place Magan, the source of copper men- d tioned in Akkadian documents, in Oman, al- though this is by no means certain. » #411 Whitehouse, David and Ruth, Archaeological Atlas of the World, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1975 ~ p.85

« Sasanid influence was to be extended over Mazun (Oman) to a greater or lesser extent, until the expansion of the Arab tribes by migration and the coming of Islam. Meanwhile the autonomous Omanis of the desert borderland and much of northern Oman maintained their independence, with their inland capital at Tu'am (Buraimi) and their trading port of Diba. » #2784 al-Rawas, Isam Ali Ahmad, Early Islamic Oman (ca - 622/280-893) : a political history., Durham theses, Durham University, 1990 ~ p. 10

※ SOURCE for: Buraymi:
« Where the boundary between the two parts of Mazun-Oman lay, however, is far from certain. It seems farly clear that Arab territory included much of northern Oman (although the strategically important port of Julfar was almost certainly directly administered by the Persians) for it had been intensively settled by the Arabs since pre-Sasanid times as a result of being located at the end of one of the two major tribal migration routes into the region (Wilkinson 1972): Daba was its capital and main port and Tu'am (Buraymi) appears to have acquired the status of the main Arab centre in the interior. » #1072 Wilkinson, John C., Arab-Persian land relationships in Late Sasanid Oman, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1973 ~ p. 46

※ SOURCE for: Tawwâm:
« But no sooner had Muhammad-bin-Seif departed than Nasir-bin-Kátan began to collect the Bédu and Hadhr of the Benu-Yâs and other tribes, intending to attack the fort of Tawwâm, being encouraged thereto by some of the dis- affected in that place. He accordingly marched to Tawwâm -now called el-Bereimy-and invested the fort, which at that time was held by Muhammad-bin-Khalf, esh-Shákasy, on the part of the Imâm. » #482 Razik, Salil-Ibn, History of the Imâms and Seyyids of ’Omân ... from A.D. 661-1856. Translated from the original Arabic and edited, with notes, appendices, and an introduction, continuing the history down to 1870, by G. P. Badger, Darf Publishers Limited, London, 1871/1986 ~ p.71

※ SOURCE for: Tu’am:
« The tradition holds that the Sasanians established an administrative capital near Sohar and concluded a treaty with the Azd, as reported by al-Awtabi, upon with which basis J. C. Wilkinson claimed "the Arabs enjoyed full autonomy in the desert borderlands and in much of and northern Oman where their capital was at Tu'am [Buraimi] and their main trading port was at Diba." Although no Sasanian occupation at Sohar has yet been identified, the situation described by the Omani historical tradition pots is borne out by the comparison of pottery from the coast Late and interior, in which the Kush assemblage is made up of Persian imports and the Buraimi assemblage consists locally made cooking pots. This has ramifications for our understanding of Dibba. The Arab tradition relates that in the days before Islam, "the markets of the Arabs were ten ... [including] Sohar, taking place in Rajab, on its first day, and not requiring any protection. Then the Arabs would travel from Sohar to Daba [Dibba], at which Julanda and his tribe [i.e., the Azd] would collect the tithe." It is further said to have been a capital of Oman and the base of the false prophet Laqit b. Malik al-Azdi during the Ridda." Dibba, therefore, seems to have been both economically and politically important in the Late Antique period. However, no archaeological evidence from this period has yet emerged. Archaeological excavations at Dibba al-Hisn (Sharjah) unearthed tombs containing quantities of Parthian, Kushana, and Roman imports, so that Dibba may be identified as an entrepot serving the major regional center of Mleiha in the interior. The later Arabic sources imply that this role continued from the Late Pre-Islamic into the Late Antique period, though this is presently impossible to verify archaeologically. Certainly, the broader geopolitical situation circumstantially bears out the sources, for if Julfar and Sohar were controlled by the Sasanians, Arab trade would have been funnelled through Dibba. This goes some way to explaining the otherwise roundabout route by which commerce reached Tu'am: it makes sense only if the more direct routes from Julfar and Sohar were blocked or otherwise uneconomical. » #2568 Timothy Power, Julfar and the Ports of Northern Oman in The Ports of Oman Edited By Abdulrahman Alsalimi And Eric Staples, ?Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, 2017 ~ pp. 224-5

Place Name: Buraimi Oasis
NIMA/GNS feature: OAS UFI: -785933 coordinate: lat 24.235278 long 55.752222
NIMA/GNS names: Al Buraym , Al Buraymi , Baraimi Oasis , Braimi , Buraimi Oasis , Buraymi Oasis , Wahat al Buraymi ,
VARIANT names: Buraimi Oasis ,

※ SOURCE for: Buraimi Oasis:
« In Oman, at Umm an-Nar and in the Buraimi oasis, settlements and cemeteries of the third millennium BC yield material comparable with finds at Bampur (phases V and VI), Shahr-i Sokhta and other sites in Iran. Some scholars place Magan, the source of copper men- d tioned in Akkadian documents, in Oman, al- though this is by no means certain. » #411 Whitehouse, David and Ruth, Archaeological Atlas of the World, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1975 ~ p.85

Place Name: Burchik
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.01217 long 56.945709 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Burchik ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Burchik:
Coordinates from GE overlay of Stein’s map {map#1013 Map No. II Parts of the Provinces of Kerman and Gulf coast, , 1931-2, #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~}

Coordinates [ 26.981201, 56.948571] from GE overlay of Topographische Befunde Zu Alt Hormuz Nach: Stein(1937), Schweizer (1972), Kleiss (1978) in #302 Carls, Hans-Georg, Alt-Hormoz, ein historischer Hafen an der Strasse von Hormoz (Iran) : Retrospekt und Prospekt zu einem ungelosten archaologischen, geographischen und orientalischen Problem, Minerva Publikation, Munich, 1982 ~ p. 130

« Another site of the same type, known as Burchik, was visited about 4 miles to the south-west of Kumbil. On the way to it also, small shallow channels reached by tidal water were crossed. There an area measuring about 400 yards in length, but nowhere more than some lOO yards in breadth, was found to bear wall foundations of rough stones, many apparently tufa. Here, too, plentiful fragments of burnt bricks, together with a variety of potsherds, could be picked up from the salt-impregnated soil. Small, much corroded copper coins, were found in abundance. The largest among them has been recognized by Mr. ]. Allan as probably Samanid of the tenth century A.D. Among the pottery there were numerous pieces of porcelain and good stoneware, manifestly Chinese (see Bur. 11,1 2,1 4,25; PI. XXVI ), also of glazed or stamped local ware (Bur. 23) closely resembling that found at Qalat-Sarawan. A short distance to the east the stone foundations of what obviously had been a mosque, could be made out. Close to the west runs a khiir, or creek, formed by a terminal channel of the Minab river, which was said to be navigable for small boats up to a point known as Tappa-i-Jahud. A few other kharabas, or small 'debris areas' of the same type were said to be traceable farther to the east, on ground approached by tidal water. » #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~ p. 185



Place Name: Burum
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3185816 coordinate: lat 14.363611 long 48.979722
NIMA/GNS names: Burum , بروم ,
VARIANT names: Barum , Berruma , boruma , Burum , Veruma ,

※ SOURCE for: Barum:
« At 51° P.S. the Minhaj places Barum still important as one of the few safe anchorages during the SW monsoon.. » #370 Tibbetts, G. R., Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean before the coming of the Portuguese, The Royal Asiatic Society, Luzac and Co., London, 1971 ~ p. 441

※ SOURCE for: Berruma:
« BERRUMA, porto de-Nome por que João de Barros designa um porto do Hadramaut, próximo do de Ash Shehr ou Shehr, que poderia identificar-se com o actual Bander Ruweini, em 14° 32' lat. N. e 49° 10' long. E. Consideremos porém a lição de Diogo do Couto de que a galeota de D. Paio de Noronha saiu de Ash Shehr e foi tomar o porto de Berrumá, antes de Adém (Aden), de onde partiu à meia-noite e foi tomar de madrugada a baía de Adém. A meia dúzia de horas de navegação que D. Paio despendeu, segundo Couto, para ir de Berrumá a Adém exclui a identificação daquele porto com o Bander Ru- weini, quase a trezentas milhas de Adém, e conduz à presunção de que a Berrumá a que alude Couto se identifica de preferência com a actual Sheikh Abdurrahman ou Irka Village, em 13° 37' lat. N. e 47° 24' long. E., a despeito da improbabilidade de a distância a que está do golfo de Adém cerca de cento e vinte milhas- ser galgada no tempo exiguo que medeia entre a meia-noite e a madrugada. [João de Barros-Da Ásia]. » [BERRUMA, Nome port by which João de Barros designates a port in the Hadramaut, close to that of Ash Shehr or Shehr, which could be identified with the current Bander Ruweini, at 14° 32' lat. N. and 49° 10' long. E. Let us consider, however, Diogo do Couto's lesson that D. Paio de Noronha's galley left Ash Shehr and went to the port of Berrumá, before Adem (Aden), from where it left at midnight and went to take the Aden Bay. The half dozen hours of sailing that D. Paio spent, according to Couto, to go from Berrumá to Adem excludes the identification of that port with the Bander Ruweini, almost three hundred miles from Adem, and leads to the presumption that Berrumá which Couto alludes to is preferably identified with the current Sheikh Abdurrahman or Irka Village, at 13° 37' lat. N. and 47° 24' long. E., despite the improbability of the distance at which it is from the Gulf of Aden, about one hundred and twenty miles, to be climbed in the short time between midnight and dawn. [João de Barros-Da Asia].] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. A-C p. 108

Note: 27km SW of above mentioned, Bandar Ruwaini, is Ra’s Burūm, Bandar Burūm and the populated place Burūm , see {map#904 1:500,000 - World Series 1404, Great Britain. War Office and Air Ministry, 1958, al-mukalla 686-A}

※ SOURCE for: boruma:
in {map#576 15ª carta: Mar Vermelho e Golfo Pérsico, Livro De Marinharia, de João de Lisboa, anonymous, 1560, Colecção Cartográfica, n.º 166} and PMC vol. 1 EST 96A

in {map#834 Eastern Africa, Arabia, and India, Fernão Vaz Dourado, 1550-1575, The Huntington Library HM41 fol11} and PMC vol. 3 EST 269

※ SOURCE for: Burum:
Ra’s Burūm, Bandar Burūm and the populated place Burūm , see {map#904 1:500,000 - World Series 1404, Great Britain. War Office and Air Ministry, 1958, al-mukalla 686-A}

※ SOURCE for: Veruma:
« Segunda feira 19 de março em amanhecendo achamonos tanto avante com verruma (18), e o vento era leste fresco; corremos ao longuo da ribeira, e logo despedi hum catur a terra com hum criado do embaixador e com duarte leitão ... fn. 18 Trata-se de Veruma ou Berruma (Burüm), povoação da costa de Oma referida por Diogo do Couto, que Fernão Vaz Dourado, por exemplo, anota Voruma numa folha do seu Atlas de 1570, Portug. Mon. Cart., Est. 269; uma carta de c. 1560 (Idem, Est. 96A), sem nome de autor, também indica o topónimo e com a grafia boruma. » [Monday the 19th of March at dawn we found ourselves so far ahead with verruma (18), and the wind was fresh east; we ran along the river, and soon I sent a catur to land with a servant of the ambassador and with duarte leitão ... fn.18 This is Veruma or Berruma (Burüm), a village on the coast of Oman referred to by Diogo do Couto, which Fernão Vaz Dourado, for example, notes Voruma on a page of his Atlas of 1570, Portuguese. Mon. Cart., Est. 269; a letter from c. 1560 (Idem, Est. 96A), without author's name, also indicates the toponym and with the spelling boruma.] #2706 Luís de Albuquerque, Estudos de História, Volume II, Por ordem da Universidade, Coimbra, 1974 ~ p. 47

Place Name: Bushgan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057166 coordinate: lat 28.831214 long 51.699621
NIMA/GNS names: Booshakan , Bushgan , Bushkan , بوشكان ,
VARIANT names: Besh Goom , Boshakun , Bushgan , Bushkan , Bushkanat ,

※ SOURCE for: Besh Goom:
« Besh Goom » in {map#1129 Map of Asia Minor Armenia and Koordistan, , 1816, #3020 John Macdonald Kinneir, Journey Through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan in the Years 1813 and 1814, John Murray, London, 1818 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Boshakun:
« Boshakun » in {map#1188 Map of Persia (in Six Sheets), Simla Drawing Office Survey of India, 1902, Geographicus, New York}


※ SOURCE for: Bushkan:
« Bushkan » in {map#1172 Index Map to routes in Persia vol. IV part II., , 1922, [?308r] (1/2), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, f 308, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Bushkanat:
« Bashkanāt.(3)-A district that lies entirely in the hot region, where there are plantations of date-palms.Its lands are the camping-grounds of the Masidi tribe of the Shabänkarah. There is no city here, but Bushkan and Shananan [or Sauana] are both of the Bushkanat District. fn. 3 The text of Istakhri (p. 105) in error gives this name as Tushkānāt. The town of Búshgün is the present capital of the Buluk District, in old times doubtless called the Bushkanat; and Shanana of our text is the modern Sana in the Dashti District, lying 4 leagues to the north-west of Shambah (FNN. 212-13). See also below in the Itinerary. » #3077 G. Le Strange, Description of the Province of Fars, in Persia, at the Beginning of the Twelfth Century A.D. from the MS. of Ibn-al-Balkhi, in the British Museum Asiatic Society Monographs XIV, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1912 ~ pp. 39-40

Place Name: Bushire
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057164 coordinate: lat 28.9684 long 50.8385
NIMA/GNS names: Abu Shehr , Abuschehr , Bandar Abu Shehr , Bandar Bushehr , Bandar-e Bushehr , Bouchehr , Buschir , Bushehr , Bushire , بندر بوشهر , بوشهر ,
VARIANT names: Abbeseer , Abïishehr , Abou-Chahr , Abu Shahr , Alexandri , Antiochia in Persis , Bocher , Bushehr , Bushir , Bushire , Chersonesos , Mesambria , Rev Ardeshir , Seleucia on the Erythraean Sea ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bushire FOR Bascarde [Dames], POSSIBLE LOCATION at Bushire FOR Areon [Kempthorne],

※ SOURCE for: Abbeseer:
« Abbeseer (55 B) : Bushehr ? » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ index p. 412

« Abbeseer » in {map#1022 Persische Golf, Compiled by Jan de Marre. Published in Amsterdam by Johannes van Keulen, 1753, The Hague, Nationaal Archief, 4.VEL S6B 033 kaart(13)}

※ SOURCE for: Abïishehr:
« 22. Abushehr (Büshir), 28° 59' 7" N.B., 50° 49' 37" O.L. v. G., aan het uiteinde van een door zandbanken omringden landtong gelegen, is de voornaamste haven van Perzie, met omstr. 20 000 inw. Het werd reeds door Jaqüt in het midden der eeuw vermeld1), ook door Balbi (1586) Met Reixel = Rlshehr op Portug. kaarten (waarover lager), werd waarschijnlijk Büshir bedoeld. Van Loon heeft het als Abbeseer. Het bleef een onbeduidend plaatsje lot Nadir Shah (1688—1747) er, weinige jaren vóór zijn dood. aanving de vloot te bouwen waarmede hij hoopte zijn gezag over de geheele Golf te vestigen. Gamron, reeds vervallen door de aanhoudende onlusten gedurende den Afghaanschen inval, geraakte ook onder Nadir niet weder tot bloei, en zoowel de Nederl. als de Eng. O. I. Cie kozen achtereenvolgens andere havens voor hun bedrijf: Basra, Bender Rïg, het eiland Kharak. Ook te Büshir had onze Compagnie eenigen tijd een kantoor, maar de Engelschen, die er zich vestigden in 1764, voerden er met korte tusschenpoozen, wanneer weder Gamron of Basra de voorkeur kregen, van den aanvang af den boventoon. Nearchus landt hier en noemt het Mesambria (wellicht, meent Tom., de nabootsing van een verloren Perz. naam, b. v. madema vairiya — „wat zich te midden van den vloed bevindt", of wel naiwa-rauia — „Middag", in de beteekenis van den bestaanden naam van deze kust germsïr — heete landstreek). Hij beschrijft het als een „schiereiland met vele tuinen, waarin alle soorten van vruchtboomen groeien", hetgeen tot op zekere hoogte nog heden het geval is. Ptolemaeus heeft Chersonesos voor het schiereiland, zonder nadere aanduiding. Vincent (p. 395) meent dat de Grieken hiermede een woordelijke vertaling kunnen gegeven hebben van een reeds bestaanden oud-Perz. naam: Mesen — eiland, Ber — vasteland: Mesen-ber-ia, dat is dus omgekeerd Cherso nese. Dit heeft echter geen ingang gevonden. I) De Morgan (Études Géograph., II, 300.) zegt ten onrechte dat Bushïr gesticht werd door Nadir Shah en hij haar Aba Chahr = Perè des cités noemde. Ook deze afleiding is betwistbaar, want Abü is een arab. en shehr het enkelvoud van een Perz. woord, waardoor de samenkoppeling dus onaannemelijk wordt. Houtum Schindler (bij Curzon, II, 231, note) vond in den Karnamek {Boek der Daden) van Ardeshïr Babekan, den eerste der Sasaniden, dat hij, vluchtende naar de kust voor de Parthen, „toen hij de zee aanschouwde God prees en daar aan een plek den naam Bokht- (= heeft verlost) Artakhshir gaf en er een tempel, aan het vuur gewijd, stichtte." De latere verkorting tot Büshir zou dan aannemelijk zijn (vgl. Bahmishlr van Bahman Ardeshir). Het is echter niet waarschijnlijk, dat deze afleiding het raadsel voor goed heeft opgelost. [22. Abishehr (Büshir), 28° 59' 7" N., 50° 49' 37" E., situated at the extremity of a spit of land surrounded by sandbanks, is the principal port of Persia, with approx. 20 000 inh. It was already mentioned by Jaqüt in the middle of the century1), also by Balbi (1586) With Reixel = Rlshehr op Portug. cards (about which below), Büshir was probably meant. Van Loon has it as Abbeseer. It remained an insignificant place for Nadir Shah (1688-1747) a few years before his death. began to build the fleet with which he hoped to establish his authority over the entire Gulf. Gamron, already dilapidated by the continuing disturbances during the Afghan invasion, did not flourish again under Nadir either, and both the Nederl. as the Eng. O. I. Cie successively chose other ports for their company: Basra, Bender Rig, the island of Kharak. Our Company also had an office at Büshir for some time, but the English, who settled there in 1764, predominated from the outset at short intervals, when Gamron or Basra were again preferred. Nearchus lands here and calls it Mesambria (perhaps, thinks Tom., the imitation of a lost Persian name, e.g. madema vairiya — "that which is in the midst of the flood," or naiwa-rauia — "Afternoon," in the meaning of the existing name of this coast germsir — hot country). He describes it as a "peninsula with many gardens, in which all kinds of fruit trees grow," which is still the case to a certain extent today. Ptolemy has Chersonesos for the peninsula, without specifying. Vincent (p. 395) believes that the Greeks may have given a literal translation of an already existing old Persian name: Mesen — island, Ber — mainland: Mesen-ber-ia, that is the reverse Cherso nese However, this has not found acceptance. I) De Morgan (Études Géograph., II, 300.) wrongly says that Bushir was founded by Nadir Shah and he called it Aba Chahr = Perè des cités. This derivation is also debatable, because Abu is an Arab. and shehr the singular of a Persian. word, making the combination implausible. Houtum Schindler (at Curzon, II, 231, note) found in the Karnamek (Book of Deeds) of Ardeshir Babekan, the first of the Sasanids, that, fleeing to the coast of the Parthians, "when he beheld the sea he praised God and there gave a place the name Bokht- (= has redeemed) Artakhshir and founded there a temple dedicated to the fire." The later shortening to Büshir would then be plausible (cf. Bahmishlr of Bahman Ardeshir). probably, that this derivation has solved the riddle for good.] » #2863 ed. A. Hotz, Cornelis Cornelisz Roobacker's Scheeps- Journaal Gamron-Basra (1645); De Eerste Reis Der Nederlanders door de Perzische Golf. In Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ p. 386

※ SOURCE for: Abou-Chahr:
#1839 Morgan, Jacques de, Mission scientifique en Perse Tome Second Études Géographiques, Ernest Leroux, Paris, 1895 vol. 2: ~ Fig. 142. Abou-Chahr p. 299

※ SOURCE for: Abu Shahr:
« Confident of his ability to challenge the British themselves, Shaikh Salman carried out his first direct hostile act against the British on July 18, 1765. Six of his Gallivats captured two British ships on their way from Abu Shahr to Basra, a small Company ship called Sally and the Company’s yacht. A few days later they captured Fort William (286), one of the British ships trading under Company protection. The capture of these ships marked the beginning of a long and arduous struggle between the British and Kaᶜb. fn. 286 B.P.C., Vol. 28. Letter from Basra, Aug. 14, 1765. » #2977 Abdul Amir Amin, British Interests in the Persian Gulf 1747-1778 - thesis, University of Maryland, 1962 ~ p. 142

※ SOURCE for: Alexandri:
« Alexandri: ‘From the river Rhogomanis to a peninsula 500 stadia. Opposite this is an island called Alexandri’.(120) Bushehr.(121) fn. 120 Schoff, Periplus of the Outer Sea (as in n. 111) 21. fn. 121 W. Henkelman, pers. comm. » #2996 Potts, D., The islands of the XIVth Satrapy. Pp. 375-396 in Oetjen, R., ed. New perspectives in Seleucid history, archaeology and numismatics: Studies in honor of Getzel M. Cohen., Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 355, De Gruyter, 2019 ~ p. 393

※ SOURCE for: Antiochia in Persis:
#382 Potts, D.T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 pp 15-6 D. T. Potts reviews the possible locations and states that the suggestion put forward by W. W. Tarn that the city was located at Bushire has been generally accepted.

※ SOURCE for: Bocher:
« After an hour's talk with him, I re-embarked in my taranquaine, which is the name of the vessels that navigate the Persian Gulf (1). I followed our route with a light wind from the sea, which took us near the Persian coast. About four o'clock in the afternoon we saw Bocher [Bushire], a little town on the Persian coast of which I will speak in another place; and, in passing two leagues below it, we also saw Richer [Rishahr], which appears to be a large fortress on the seashore, built in former times by the Portuguese at the mouth of a little river (2). By it was a beach between two mountains and a village in a wood, the verdure of which was a pleasant sight from the sea. It was once inhabited and under Portuguese rule, but is now deserted except for some poor Persians and Arabs, subjects of the King of Persia. That night and the following day we continued on our way along the coast. fn. 1 Hamilton (1, 41) calls these boats 'trankies'. As to their nature and the supposed derivation of the word, see Sir W. Foster's note (ibid., 1, 226), and Hobson-Jobson, 937, where Couto is cited as calling them 'terranquims' in 1554, and Hanway tarranquins' in 1753. Pietro della Valle (Viaggi, IV, 437; tr. Havers, 238) also speaks of the barques on the Persian Gulf called 'terrankim'. fn. 2 This was the former fortress of the ancient town of Rishahr, mentioned by Curzon, II, 235, and Wilson, p. 74 » #385 ed. Fawcett, The Travels of the Abbe Carre in India and the near east 1672 to 1674, Hakluyt Society, London, 1947 ~ vol.1 pp. 94-5

※ SOURCE for: Bushehr:
« The two principal ports of foreign trade were Masqat and Basrah through one or other of which passed the great bulk of the goods that either entered or left the Gulf. It was calculated that more than half of the Indian imports at Bushehr and Basrah and the bulk of those into Bahrain were received through Masqat; and, similarly, the goods arriving by land from Europe, Asia Minor, etc., were distributed from Basrah as a centre. Bushehr was now practically the only port of Persia, as Basrah was of Turkish Iraq; Bahrain served Hasa and Central Arabia through Zubarah and Qatif; and Masqat was almost exclusively a port of transit. Bushehr and Kuwait were sometimes used as bases from which to smuggle goods into Turkish Iraq and even across Turkish Iraq to Europe. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 1 pt. 1 p. 166

« Bushehr is situated at the northern end of a cigar-shaped peninsula of quaterny sandstone, about 12 miles long by 4 miles broad in the widest part, running parallel to the mainland and joined to it in the middle by a sandy plain about 20 miles wide, known as the Mashilah, which in winter more resembled a marsh. The town was a little above sea level, and until the early nineteenth century it was frequently an island, from rising tides.(3) In fact, in 1673 the town was described as being “surrounded on the west by a river, which is navigable for large boats, sand on the other side is embellished by woods and palm-groves. Most of the inhabitants are Arabs, the rest are Persians.”(4) However, already by mid-nineteenth century this flooding of the marsh was a rare occurrence, while towards the end of the century Bushehr had in fact become a peninsula.(5) fn. 3. Waring 1973, p. 2; Kinneir 1973, p. 69. fn. 4. Carré 1947, vol. 3, p. 835. fn. 5. The origin of the name Bushehr is unclear. Popular etymology has it that the name means Abu Shahr or Father of the City, which is very doubtful. Equally doubtful is A. Houtum Schindler’s suggestion that the name is a contraction of Bokht Ardashir (Ardashir has delivered). Curzon 1892, vol. 1, p. 231; E`temad al-Saltaneh 1294-96/1877-80, vol. 1, p. 300 mentions that Bushehr sometimes became an island. For the situation in 1913, see Report on the Trade 1913-14, p. 1. » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 4

※ SOURCE for: Bushir:
« The stoney peninsula of Bushir, 130 miles north west of Siraf, is connected to the mainland by a marshy area. Some surface findings at the end of the 19th century. Then Pezard's excavations in 1910 and finally Williamson' s survey have shed some light on the history of the city . » #2809 R. Boucharlat, J.-F. Salles, The History and Archaeology of The Gulf From The Fifth Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D.: A Review Of The Evidence, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1981, Vol. 11:pp. 65-94 ~ p. 69

« Bushlr has been identified with Antioch of Persis (Ptolemy, VI, 4, 2) already mentioned in an inscription from Magnesia upon the Meander (Tarn 1951 : 270 note 11). » #2809 R. Boucharlat, J.-F. Salles, The History and Archaeology of The Gulf From The Fifth Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D.: A Review Of The Evidence, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1981, Vol. 11:pp. 65-94 ~ p. 70


※ SOURCE for: Chersonesos:
« 22. Abïishehr (Büshir) … Hij beschrijft het als een "schiereiland met vele tuinen, waarin alle soorten van vruchtboomen groeien", hetgeen tot op zekere hoogte nog heden het geval is. Ptolemaeus heeft Chersonesos voor het schiereiland, zonder nadere aanduiding. Vincent (p. 395) meent dat de Grieken hiermede een woordelijke vertaling kunnen gegeven hebben van een reeds bestaanden oud-Perz. naam: Mesen = eiland, Ber = vasteland: Mesen-ber-ia, dat is dus omgekeerd Cherso nese. Dit heeft echter geen ingang gevonden. [22. Abïishehr (Büshir) ... He describes it as a "peninsula with many gardens, in which grow all kinds of fruit trees", which to some extent is still the case today. Ptolemy has Chersonesos for the peninsula, without further designation. Vincent (p. 395) believes that the Greeks could have given a literal translation of an already existing old Persian name: Mesen = island, Ber = mainland: Mesen-ber-ia, which is Chersonese in reverse. However, this has not found acceptance. ] » #2863 ed. A. Hotz, Cornelis Cornelisz Roobacker's Scheeps- Journaal Gamron-Basra (1645); De Eerste Reis Der Nederlanders door de Perzische Golf. In Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907, ~ pp. 386-7

※ SOURCE for: Mesambria:
« ‘In this passage they had followed the winding of the coast round a peninsula, (on which they saw plantations and gardens, with all kinds of fruit-trees,) and anchored at a place called Mesambria.'* This, therefore, could be only descriptive of the peninsula of Bushire, to the northward of which this station is to be sought for. * Voyage of Nearchus, c. 39. » #1185 Buckingham, J. S., Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia, including a journey from Bagdad by Mount Zagros, to Hamadan, the ancient Ecbatana, researches in Ispahan and the ruins of Persepolis, and journey from thence by Shiraz and Shapoor to the sea-shore, Henry Colburn: Gregg International Publishers Limited, London: London, 1829:1971 ~

※ SOURCE for: Rev Ardeshir:
« Finally, Bushir is certainly the Sasanian Rev Ardeshir (Whitehouse and Williamson 1973: 40-2 ). It is an important foundation of Ardeahir I (22 4-242 ) on t he Coast, which emphasises, if needed, the Sasanian kings' interest in supervising the Gulf trade (Tabari, in Noldeke 1879: 19) . Rev Ardeshir was the diocesan centre of the Christian archbishop of Fars, created in 415 / 420 , but Christians were already numerous in 341 when Shapur II persecuted them (Fiey 1969: 182; 1974: 283-4) . » #2809 R. Boucharlat, J.-F. Salles, The History and Archaeology of The Gulf From The Fifth Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D.: A Review Of The Evidence, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1981, Vol. 11:pp. 65-94 ~

※ SOURCE for: Seleucia on the Erythraean Sea:
#382 Potts, D.T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 pp 15-6 Potts reviews the possible locations and states that the suggestion put forward by W. W. Tarn that the city was located at Bushire has been generally accepted.

Place Name: Bushkanat district
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 28.770427 long 51.634977
VARIANT names: Bushkanat district ,

※ SOURCE for: Bushkanat district:
« Bushkanat district » in {map#1138 , Le Strange, , #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905 ~} Map 6 Provinces of Fars and Kirman

« The district of Bushkänät lay half-way between and the Mândistân desert (see p. 255) to the north of Najiram. According to Mustawfi there were no towns here, but dates grew and were the chief crop, for Bushkânât was of the hot region of the Gulf (1). fn. 1 Mukaddasi and Vakût with many of the older authorities state that Dasht Barin was the name of the town, Ghundijan being that of the district. Originally, however, this can hardly have been the case, since the name Dasht Bârin, meaning the Plain of Bárin, is not applicable to a town. The name of a district or province in the East is very frequently taken over by the chief town, and following this rule when Ghundiján fell out of use, the name Dasht Barin may have taken its place, being used then for town or district indifferently, as Mustawfl remarks later, but contrariwise of the name Ghundijan. Ist. 106, 128, 130, 152, 153. Muk. 422, 423 432, 435, 445, 448. F. N. 73 a, 76 a, 796, 826, 86 a. Mst. 171, 177, 179, 218. Yak. i. 199, 890; ii. 576; iii. 5, 810. Tawwaj is often included in the Shapur Khurrah district by the earlier geographers. » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ p. 260

Place Name: Bustanu
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3056950 coordinate: lat 27.1205 long 53.03
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Bostanu , Bastaneh , Bostaneh , Bostanu , Bustani , Bustanu , Postanu , بندر بستانو , پستانو ,
VARIANT names: Bustanu ,

※ SOURCE for: Bustanu:
« Bustanu بسان و [name]| About 3 miles south-east of Kharabeh. [position] | 100 houses. The people are Sunnis.[houses and inhabitants] | This is the port of the surrounding districts and of Tarakameh; it is under the Nasuri Shaikh of Gābandi. There is a considerable trade with Bahrain. Tobacco and sheep from Tarakameh are exported, and about 100 bales of piece- goods and 9,000 bags of rice, etc., are imported annually from Bahrain. The inhabitants trade and cultivate grain and dates. They own 6 large boats (Sambūks, etc.) which run to Bahrain, Qatar and Qatif and are used for pearl-diving on the Bahrain banks; also 5 smaller fishing Baqarahs. [remarks] » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 pp. 1795-6

Place Name: Buziyeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057204 coordinate: lat 30.656263 long 48.724991
NIMA/GNS names: Boziyeh , Buz , Buzi , Buzi-ye Seyf , Buziyeh , بوز , بوزی , بوزی سیف ,
VARIANT names: Biziyeh , Buzi , Buziyeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Biziyeh:
« BIZIYEH بریه » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 p. 350

※ SOURCE for: Buzi:
« BUZI بوزي » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 p. 350

※ SOURCE for: Buziyeh:
« Buziyeh » in {map#1063 Kuwait State. Basra Division. Khuzistan Province. - 'Iraq, Kuwait and Persia. No. 10 B and C, Khuramshahr (Mohammerah), , , British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3737, f 76, in Qatar Digital Library}

« BUZIYEH بزیه » « The largest town in the Fallahiyeh District of Southern 'Arabistan, more populous than the capital town of Fallähiyeh, from which it is distant 3 miles eastwards. Buziyeh is situated on both banks of Khor Doraq within a mile of its head, 2 miles south of the end of the Jarrahi River at Khazineh, and at a distance of about 35 miles via Khor Doraq from Khor Musa, but it is accessible to native sea-going craft of as much as 150 tons; at Buziyeh the creek is wide enough for two good-sized native vessels to pass one another at high tide, and is spanned by a narrow timber bridge, 60 feet in length, which connects the two parts of the town. At Buziyeh the water of Khor Doraq is drinkable, but only when the sea ebbs; its level varies with the state of the tide, of which the range is about 6 feet. The Khulfi and Buziyeh canals from the Jarrahi River separate from each other about 11 miles northwards of Buziyeh and a little above the head of Khor Doraq; after dividing they pass the town at a few hundred yards distance on the east and west sides respectively and eventually both fall into Khor Doraq, the former from its left and the latter from its right bank, at some distance below the town. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 p. 350

Place Name: Casandra Island
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.6761111 long 53.6308333 † see notes (d)
VARIANT names: Casandra Island ? , Cascandrus ? , Cecandrus ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Casandra Island AT Hendorabi lat 26.6739 long 53.6321 [Findlay],

※ SOURCE for: Casandra Island:
« CASANDRA infula, contra Perfidem in eius finu. Plin. » #2204 Ortelius, Abraham, Abrahami Ortelij Antuerpiani Thesaurus geographicus. In quo omnium totius terrae regionum, montium, promontoriorum, collium, ... Multi in hoc opere auctorum veterum loci corrupti, falsi, dubij, et discrepantes, emendantur, arguuntur, enodantur et conciliantur, 1587 ~

« 4. Pline nomme plusieurs isles contra Persidem; Casandra, qui ressemble fort à Caicandros, et Aracia. Mais, quand il ajoûte au sujet de celle-ci, cum monte præalto, Neptuno sacra; cette circonstance d’une montagne élevée ne convient point à Lara, que Thévenot a remarquée être très-plate’ (d’Anville 1764:156) [4. Pliny names several isles contra Persidem; Casandra, who looks a lot like Caicandros, and Aracia. But, when he adds about this, cum monte præalto, Neptuno sacra; this circumstance of a high mountain does not suit Lara, whom Thévenot noticed to be very flat’ (d’Anville 1764:156)] #2840 D Potts, The tools of an Enlightenment geographer: Unmasking the sources in Bourguignon d’Anville’s1758 treatise on the Persian Gulf, in: Edited by Jebrael Nokandeh and Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, The Persian Gulf, an Archaeological Perspective, National Museum of Iran, Qeshm, 2019, ~

« Casandra I, Inde-rabia [place] 26 40 N [lat.] 53 40 E [long.] 24 [no. of map] » #2678 Alexander George Findlay, A classical atlas to illustrate ancient geography, W. Tegg and Company, 1847 ~ index p.11

※ SOURCE for: Cascandrus:
« fn. 121. Strabo, 1967-1969:7: p. 307: Pliny, 1961-1968: 2: pp. 422-423; Arrian, 1966: 2: P 419. According to Arrian, Nearchus (whose account is lost) stated that the fleet first passed "a small desert island," Cecandrus (Cascandrus in Pliny: ? Hindorabi) and then "another island" (Stoidis in Pliny: ? Sheykh Sho'eyb) where the inhabitants fished for pearls. Cf. Vincent, 1807: pp. 375-376 (? Schitwar). Medieval accounts refer to pearl- fishing at Kays (Qais, Kisb) and Kishm. » #2864 R. A. Donkin, Beyond Price Pearls and Pearl-fishing : Origins to the Age of Discoveries, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1998 ~ p. 72

※ SOURCE for: Cecandrus:
« fn. 121. Strabo, 1967-1969:7: p. 307: Pliny, 1961-1968: 2: pp. 422-423; Arrian, 1966: 2: P 419. According to Arrian, Nearchus (whose account is lost) stated that the fleet first passed "a small desert island," Cecandrus (Cascandrus in Pliny: ? Hindorabi) and then "another island" (Stoidis in Pliny: ? Sheykh Sho'eyb) where the inhabitants fished for pearls. Cf. Vincent, 1807: pp. 375-376 (? Schitwar). Medieval accounts refer to pearl- fishing at Kays (Qais, Kisb) and Kishm. » #2864 R. A. Donkin, Beyond Price Pearls and Pearl-fishing : Origins to the Age of Discoveries, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1998 ~ p. 72

Place Name: Casara
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.864418 long 51.478224 † see notes (u)
VARIANT names: Casara ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Casara AT Omm al-Qasar lat 27.864418 long 51.478224 [Tomaschek],

※ SOURCE for: Casara:
« 2 Miles weiter die ebenso langgestreckte Sandinsel Omm al- Qasar (von arab. qasar Las Felsbank'; vgl. bei Balbi Casar usbend, und unter den Golfinseln beim Ravennaten V, 17, p. 385 CASARA) [2 miles further the equally elongated sand island Omm al-Qasar (from Arabic qasar Las Felsbank'; cf. in Balbi Casar usbend, and under the Gulf Islands in Ravenna V, 17, p. 385 CASARA)] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890, vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 59

[ I have been unable to locate « Omm al-Qasar » in any map or other text. The coordinates given here are 2 miles west of Umm Sila, PBR ]

« [6] Casara – Müller compared Rav.’s Casara with Kaes [Qeys], a modern variant of Kish (Jazireh-ye Qeys) (Müller 1855, 360, n. 5). Tomaschek, however, noted a long, narrow, sandy island known in Arabic as Umm al-Qaṣār, called ‘Casarusuend’ by Balbi (Balbi 1590, 41), which he compared to Casara (Tomaschek 1890, 59). » #2882 Daniel T. Potts, The Persian Gulf in the Cosmographia of the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna, c. 700 AD, Digital Archive of Brief notes and Iran Review, Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture University of California, 2018, ~ p. 61#2882 Daniel T. Potts, The Persian Gulf in the Cosmographia of the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna, c. 700 AD, Digital Archive of Brief notes and Iran Review, Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture University of California, 2018, ~ p. 61

Place Name: Casarusuend
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.864418 long 51.478224 † see notes (u)
VARIANT names: Casarusuend ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Casarusuend AT Omm al-Qasar lat 27.864418 long 51.478224 [Tomaschek],

※ SOURCE for: Casarusuend:
« Et havendo navi gato per sirocco fino a mezo giorno mettemmo la prora per ostro per fuggir un'altes punta nella costa di Persia detta Casarusuend (447) e tenemmo quel cammino fino si hora, e poi mettemmo la prora di nuovo per simeco e cosi schivammo una punts, la quale nell'andar in Ormus non si vede, ma nel venire si scopre alquanto; e così navigando la mattina venimmo ad un luogo detto Silau (448) fn. 447. Dall'arabo qasr, castello, forse di una località Sund. fn. 448 Non identificato. [And having sailed by sirocco up to noon we put the prow to ostro to escape a high point on the coast of Persia called Casarusuend (447) and we kept that course up to this hour, and then we put the prow again to simeco and so we avoided a punts, which is not seen when going to Ormus, but somewhat discovered when coming; and so sailing in the morning we came to a place called Silau (448) fn. 447. From the Arabic qasr, castle, perhaps from a locality of Sund. fn. 448 Unidentified.] » #1572 Pinto, Olga, Viaggi d i C. Federici e G. Balbi alle Indie Orientali, Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Rome, 1962, ~ p. 113

« 2 Miles weiter die ebenso langgestreckte Sandinsel Omm al- Qasar (von arab. qasar Las Felsbank'; vgl. bei Balbi Casar usbend, und unter den Golfinseln beim Ravennaten V, 17, p. 385 CASARA) [2 miles further the equally elongated sand island Omm al-Qasar (from Arabic qasar Las Felsbank'; cf. in Balbi Casar usbend, and under the Gulf Islands in Ravenna V, 17, p. 385 CASARA)] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890, vol. 121:issue 8: ~ p. 59

« [6] Casara – Müller compared Rav.’s Casara with Kaes [Qeys], a modern variant of Kish (Jazireh-ye Qeys) (Müller 1855, 360, n. 5). Tomaschek, however, noted a long, narrow, sandy island known in Arabic as Umm al-Qaṣār, called ‘Casarusuend’ by Balbi (Balbi 1590, 41), which he compared to Casara (Tomaschek 1890, 59). » #2882 Daniel T. Potts, The Persian Gulf in the Cosmographia of the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna, c. 700 AD, Digital Archive of Brief notes and Iran Review, Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture University of California, 2018, ~ p. 61#2882 Daniel T. Potts, The Persian Gulf in the Cosmographia of the Anonymous Geographer of Ravenna, c. 700 AD, Digital Archive of Brief notes and Iran Review, Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture University of California, 2018, ~

Place Name: Cassar
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.153841 long 56.358594 † see notes (u, p)
VARIANT names: Cassar ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Cassar:
« Cassar » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

« e nós esperamos por elle tres dias, nos quais o vento cresseu tanto, que as (3) fes cassar sobre huma estacada, ainda que estavamos bem amarrados. f. n. (3) Videtur agi de ancoris (cf. cassar as ancoras apud BLUTEAU, litt. C, pag.182). » [and we waited for him for three days, in which the wind grew so strong that he (3) fell them on a stake, even though we were well tied. f,n, (3) It seems to be about anchors (cf. Cassar as anchors in BLUTEAU, letter C, page 182).] #1560 ed. Wicki, Josephus, Documenta Indica, Romae :Apud “Monumenta Historica Soc. Iesu”, 1948- 18 vol. ~ vol. 4 p. 577

[from the above it is possible Cassar refers to safe anchorage ?]

Place Name: Cerbil
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.788941 long 55.733559 † see notes (u,p)
VARIANT names: Cerbil ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Cerbil:
« Basidur, (477) Iersal (478) e Cerbil (479) fn. 477. Errato per Basidu; cf. n. 475. fn. 478. Località non identificata nell'isola di Qishm (cf. G. N. CURZON, Persia, London 1892, II, pp. 410-13). fn. 479. Non identificato. » #1572 Pinto, Olga, Viaggi d i C. Federici e G. Balbi alle Indie Orientali, Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Rome, 1962 ~ p. 117

[from Basidu about lat 26.655267° long 55.286187° with a heading of 67° “to the star”, would require a change of direction to “our prow to the north” at lat 26.788941° long 55.733559° to Laft. This point could be about Cerbil. Iersal would lie along that north coast of Qeshm somewhere between Basidu and Cerbil. PBR]

Place Name: Cerique
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 22.028856 long 59.668879 † see notes (a)
VARIANT names: Cerique ? , Cerrique ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Cerique:
listed « Spalheiro, Cueva, Cerique, Hor, Calajaoe, » in #2656 Sanson, Nicolas, Blome, Richard, Varenius, Bernhardus, Cosmography and geography in two parts, the first, containing the general and absolute part of cosmography and geography, being a translation from that eminent and much esteemed geographer Varenius ……, Printed by S. Roycroft, and are to be sold by William Abington at the Three Silk-worms in Ludgate-street, London, 1682 ~ p. 244

[overlay of map#835 positions « Cerrique » about Suwaih - overlay of map#928 positions « Cerrique » about Asilah - placed between the two at 22.028856° 59.668879°]

※ SOURCE for: Cerrique:
north of Masirah after « Cueva » and before « Hor » in {map#928 A Generall Mapp of Arabia, with the Red Sea and Circumjacent lands . . . 1669, Richard Blome, 1669, Barry Lawrence Ruderman, Stock# 85460}

also in {map#835 Afteekening van de PERSISCHE GOLF, Johannes van Keulen, 1753, Nationaalarchief, The Hague 4 VEL S6B 033 Kaart 13}

[

Place Name: Chabahar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055106 coordinate: lat 25.2919 long 60.643
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Beheshti , Chabahar , Chabahar , Chah Bahar , Chahbar , Chah-e-Bahar , چابهار , چاه بهار ,
VARIANT names: Chabahar ,

※ SOURCE for: Chabahar:
« Chahbär, situated at the entrance of the wide but shallow Chahbar bay, is a small port with a population of about 2,000, serving what scanty trade there is from the valleys in the eastern portion of Persian Makran. Its anchorage, poorly protected as it is, appears to be considered better than any other along the arid and desolate coast of the Ikhthyophagoi as far as it lies within the Persian border. No remains of early occupation are to be seen at Chahbär, but such had been reported at Tiz, a small village and harbour, some 5 miles farther on the east coast of the bay. So the first day of our brief halt at Chahbar was used for a preliminary visit to Tiz, paid by boat in the company of the local governor, a genial elderly officer from Tabriz who did not hide his dismay at having been recently exiled to this barren land. The rapid inspection we made of the Tiz valley after landing under the picturesque cliffs which line the shore near its narrow entrance (Fig. 25), showed that the site offered sufficient interest for a closer survey. » #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~ p. 87

Place Name: Chaghadak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058768 coordinate: lat 28.986 long 51.0364
NIMA/GNS names: Chagbadak , Chaghadak , Choghadak , Choqabak , Choqadak , چغادک , چقابك , چقادك , چگبدك ,
VARIANT names: Chaghadak ,


Place Name: Chah Khvajeh
NIMA/GNS feature: FRM UFI: 10423511 coordinate: lat 27.6978 long 54.4094
NIMA/GNS names: Chah Khvajeh , چاه خواجه ,
VARIANT names: Chah Khvajeh , Charcaph ,


※ SOURCE for: Charcaph:
« [margin: 27] The next day, three hours before dawn [text blacked out] [margin: two hours after sunrise], the caravan reached Charcaph, (29) a league from Lār, where the governor of the city sent word inviting the Ambassador to come visit him, and requesting that he not enter the city until the next day at eight or nine o’clock because he wished to offer him a reception.fn. 29 Possibly present-day Chuki. » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~

Place Name: Chah Khwa
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.990756 long 56.913711 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Chah Khwa ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chah Khwa:
Coordinates from GE overlay of Stein’s map {map#1013 Map No. II Parts of the Provinces of Kerman and Gulf coast, , 1931-2, #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~}

Place Name: Chah Kutah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057593 coordinate: lat 29.0537 long 51.1405
NIMA/GNS names: Chah Kutah , چاه كوتاه ,
VARIANT names: Chah Kutah , Charkoota ,

※ SOURCE for: Chah Kutah:
« The march of this day was twenty-four miles and a quarter. Not far from Alichangi we passed through Chahkutah, a village where lately resided the DemUkhs; an unfortunate tribe of Arabian descent, concerning whom, I had learned some particulars from Mr. Bruce » #2876 William Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, More Particularly Persia, Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819, ~ vol. 1 p. 255

※ SOURCE for: Charkoota:
« Charkoota » in {map#1161 Route of H.M. Mission through Persia on 1809, , , #3070 James Justinian Morier, A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1812 ~}

Place Name: Chah Nar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057494 coordinate: lat 28.0319 long 55.0501
NIMA/GNS names: Chah Nahr , Chah Nar , Chah-e Nahr , چاه نهر ,
VARIANT names: Chah Nar ,

※ SOURCE for: Chah Nar:
« On our left, in a hollow of the black mountains, the fields and houses of Chahnar could be seen. A roofless abambar stood in the plain. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 152

Place Name: Chah Talkh
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 28.397508 long 53.829145 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chah Talkh ? , Chatalkee ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chah Talkh:
[coordinates approximate as following two references are lacking accuracy when plotted in GE. PBR]

« 17 CHAH TALKH 15 m. General direction for the first 4 miles is N.-E. The road ari 2014 m. runs due north of a mile to the square fort of Käleh Kalün close to which is the Bigh-i-Amn bd, passed at of a mile; at 1 miles the Tang i-Kaln is entered between two hills about 400 feet high, the width of the entrance being 150 yards. The the road now turns N.-E., up a valley of a mile broad covered with grasses and scrubs and bounded on all sides by hills. At 24 miles the road enters the bad part of the tang, which is here a narrow watercourse running between lofty impassable hills, the bed being a mass of large stones and not over 6 yards broad, narrow- ing down in one place to 5 feet. The road is here passable with difficulty by mules and donkeys, but impassable for cavalry and camels. At 4 miles the road emerges from a ravine and runs up a steep watercourse between high banks of conglomerate. At 43 miles the road emerges from the ravine and debouches on to a level plain stretching south known as Yazd-i-Khist. This plain narrows rapidly to the N. and becomes the Chah Tiz valley, drained by by a broad and deep ravine with impassable banks, to the E. of which the road runs. This valley is bounded on either side by steep hills, some 1,500 feet high. The road stony, but not difficult, slopes gently upwards, crossing frequent watercourses running west to the main ravine. At 5 miles a cistern (containing water in March 1907) is passed. At 8 miles, the main stream is crossed and the road from this point keeps to the western slopes. At 9 miles the ruined huts of Ruzak are passed, a summer resort only. Water from one cistern; grazing very good; fuel plentiful; supplies nil. At 10 miles the valley divides, one branch running N.-N.-W., the other N.; the road follows the former, and constantly crosses it. At 10 miles a gap in the precipitous hills is passed, through which a footpath runs to Jüwün viz Käleh Alburd, a ruined fort in the hills, said to have been occupied by Rustum. At 15 miles the summit of the pass is reached. The plateau at the summit, about a mile broad, and covered with trees and grass, is known as Chah Talkh. »#3080 Simla Drawing Office, General Staff, India, Mobilisation Routes In Persia (Vol. IV, Part II) (Fars, Laristan, Kerman And Yazd) British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, in Qatar Digital Library, ~ p. 175

« Chah Talkh » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicago fig. Fasa H-39X 1948}

« From Jahrum to the karavansaray of Chah-Talkh, which was the first stop, it was six farsakhs. Speelman considered Chah-Talkh had been correctly named, for it was a bad, dilapidated place that was indeed a "bitter well". Thevenot, however, averred that the ChahTalkh karavansaray was small and good, standing isolated in a valley, near to which were two cisterns, one covered with a dome and the other with a pitched roof. The well near the karavansaray was bitter, hence the locality's name. Tavernier confirms this and adds that the place abounded with bitter almond and turpentine trees. There were also rähdärs who offered deer for eating, since there were many of these. The area also abounded with partridges as big as chickens. Hedges recorded that it had a spacious karavansaray with plenty of good, fresh water and provisions, but Chardin considered it a miserable place with bad water. Rich people, he wrote, took sweet water with them in goatskins or large copper flasks, in which the water remained cool. Next to the karavansaray was another one, which was partly in ruins in 1685. According to Fryer, the karavansaray was a new and ample one, with a new cistern with only slightly bitter water. It had two new and two old cisterns in 1691. LeBrun wrote that the karavansaray was a comfortable one.(93) fn. 93 Valentijn, vol. V, pp. 263-4 (Saithal; Satalk); Fryer, vol. II, p. 201 (Chawtalk); Winninx, 17 July (Schathalgh); Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, pp. 115-6 (Tsjai Talg); Thevenot, vol. II, p. 129 (Tschai-telkh); Speelman, p. 63, who also men- tions the road protection at Sjatallig, and p. 65; ?? 1793, fol. 991 (Sjattalgh); Tavernier, pp. 315-16 (Chakal); Hedges, p. 206 (Chatalkee); Chardin, vol. VIII, pp. 468-9 (Chatalk); LeBrun, vol. II, p. 315 (Ziatalk). Membré in 1540 wrote that from Lar people carried water in skins on donkeys. Membré, p. 47; Carmelites, loc. cit. » #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, p. 77 Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~

※ SOURCE for: Chatalkee:
« August 18.-We rose from Mowueseer and lodged at Chatalkee, a spacious Caravan-Sarai, with plenty of good fresh water and provisions. »#3146 Yule, Henry Colonel, The Diary Of William Hedges, The Hakluyt Society, London, 1889 ~ vol. 1 p. 206

Place Name: Chah Tiz
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3745141 coordinate: lat 28.389477 long 53.849798
NIMA/GNS names: Chah Tiz , چاه تیز ,
VARIANT names: Chah Tiz ,

※ SOURCE for: Chah Tiz:
« Chahtiz » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Chahar Taq
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057383 coordinate: lat 28.9665 long 52.0329
NIMA/GNS names: Chahar Tag , Chahar Tagh , Chahar Taq , چهارطاق ,
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq:
« The dome of the Farashband Fire Temple belongs to the Ashkanian - Sasanian period and is located in Farashband , km 12 of the Farashband - Kazeron road. This work was registered as one of Iran's national works on 24 Shahrivar 1310 with registration number 16 . » at <fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/> [Not confirmed coordinates. PBR]

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahar Taq
UTM: none NIMA/GNS dataset coordinate: lat 28.7212 long 52.4243
NIMA/GNS names: Chahar Taq , چهار طاق ,
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq , Chahar Taq (Kunar Siah) ,


※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq (Kunar Siah):
[ruins lie to 100m to west from this coordinate. PBR]

« Le Temple du feu e Kunar Siah du village, au bord du Rūd-i Shur, rivière aux eaux sauna- dressent sur un monticule, un ensemble de monuments réservés au culte du feu (pl. XXII). plan II) sont enclos dans une sorte de,, temenos" ou enceinte sacrée, dont la longueur est de 70 m. et la largeur de 45 m. Quoique les murs de l'enceinte qui avaient une épaisseur de 1,10 m. se soient écroulés au cours des siècles, il est néanmoins aisé d'en suivre le tracé. [The Fire Temple and Kunar Siah of the village, on the banks of the Rūd-i Shur, a river with sauna waters, stand on a mound a set of monuments reserved for the cult of fire (pl. XXII). plan II) are enclosed in a sort of "temenos" or sacred enclosure, the length of which is 70 m. and the width of 45 m. Although the walls of the enclosure which had a thickness of 1.10 m. collapsed over the centuries, it is nevertheless easy to follow its route. ] » #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: pp.163-198 ~ p. 175

« Of the many fire temples in this area, of particular interest is the magnificent complex near the village of Kunar Siah, discovered by Vanden Berghe in 1961, which must have been one of the principal fire worship centres of Fars, possibly even that in which the Bahram fire for the entire district was kept. Kunar Siah lies on the ancient road that formerly linked Firuzabad with Bandar Taheri (Siraf), south of Firuzabad and about 18 km. from the entrance to the Gardaneh Salvakhi gorge. Standing on high ground near the river are several buildings within a sacred enclosure measuring some 70 x 45 m. The two principal monuments, a sanctuary or Ateshgah for the fire which was only accessible to priests, and a Chahar Taq where the public worshipped, are both in excellent condition.The fire sanctuary of rough-hewn stone, 10 × 8.80 m. and 4.70 m. high under a dome that rests on massive walls, consists of an enclosed room with two doors; the eastern door, almost destroyed, led into a passage connecting with the square Chahar Taq some 14 m. to the south which is surrounded by an ambulatory. There are priests' dwellings and stores to the east and south of the Chahar Taq, while 3 km. to the south are the remains of an impressive caravanserai, probably late Sassanian in date. » #888 Matheson, S., Persia. An Archaeological Guide, Faber and Faber Limited, 1979, ~ p. 253

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahar Taq Farashband
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.864996 long 52.10547 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Farashband ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Farashband:
« Chahar Taq Farashband » in {map#1195 in #3129 Milad and Tedai, Archaeological investigation and analysis of the four-arched Farashband dome complex, Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, 2017 fig. Map.1 Aerial image of the location of the dome complex and its distance from Basher Farashband and the other four arches region (Google Erath)}

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahar Taq Gonbad
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.953286 long 52.033948 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Gonbad ? , Chahar Taq-e Gumbad ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Gonbad:
« Chahar Taq Gonbad » in {map#1195 in #3129 Milad and Tedai, Archaeological investigation and analysis of the four-arched Farashband dome complex, Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, 2017 fig. Map.1 Aerial image of the location of the dome complex and its distance from Basher Farashband and the other four arches region (Google Erath)}

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq-e Gumbad:
« Namen Bevorzugter Name: Chahar Taq-e Gumbad Englisch (Transliteriert) چهار طاق گنبد Persisch Lage Breite: 29, Länge: 52 (Gerundete Koordinaten ) » at <gazetteer.dainst.org/app/#!/show/2733252>

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahar Taq Naghare Khane
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.781493 long 52.087302 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Naghare Khane ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Naghare Khane:
« Chahar Taq Naghare Khane » in {map#1195 in #3129 Milad and Tedai, Archaeological investigation and analysis of the four-arched Farashband dome complex, Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, 2017 fig. Map.1 Aerial image of the location of the dome complex and its distance from Basher Farashband and the other four arches region (Google Erath)}

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahar Taq Poze kamrroee
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.801684 long 52.107433 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Poze kamrroee ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Poze kamrroee:
« Chahar Taq Poze kamrroee » in {map#1195 in #3129 Milad and Tedai, Archaeological investigation and analysis of the four-arched Farashband dome complex, Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, 2017 fig. Map.1 Aerial image of the location of the dome complex and its distance from Basher Farashband and the other four arches region (Google Erath)}

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahar Taq Zaeer Hasani
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.783043 long 52.10485 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Zaeer Hasani ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Zaeer Hasani:
« Chahar Taq Zaeer Hasani » in {map#1195 in #3129 Milad and Tedai, Archaeological investigation and analysis of the four-arched Farashband dome complex, Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, 2017 fig. Map.1 Aerial image of the location of the dome complex and its distance from Basher Farashband and the other four arches region (Google Erath)}

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chahartaq Jareh
UTM: none estimated the coordinate: lat 29.2965646434965 long 51.9673773998529 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Djirrah ? , Chahar Taq Girre ? , Chahartaq Jareh ? , Girre Cahartaq ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Djirrah:
« Le Chahar Taq dit de Djirrah (1), que nous avons étudié à l'occasion de notre visite lors de notre dernière prospection ne se trouve pas à Djirrah même, mais bien loin de là, à environ 11 km, au nord-ouest du village de Bali Dih. Situé sur une hauteur, il domine la vallée environnante, au bord de la rivière. fn. 1 A. Godard, les quatre Chahar Taks de la vallée de Djerré, dans Athar-é Iran, (1938), p. 169-173, fig. 107, 108 et fig. 12, 13. [The Chahar Taq known as Djirrah (1), which we studied during our visit during our last prospecting is not located in Djirrah itself, but far from there, about 11 km, to the northwest from the village of Bali Dih. Located on a height, it dominates the surrounding valley, on the edge of the river.] » #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ p. 188

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Girre:
« Preferred name: Chahar Taq Girre English Jareh fire temple English آتشکده جره Persian چهارطاقی جره Persian Chahartaq Jareh » at <gazetteer.dainst.org/place/2750222>

[ above coordinates given as 29.3,52 3 km west of true location ? PBR]

※ SOURCE for: Chahartaq Jareh:
« Titel: Chahartaq near Jareh 1993 - Chahartaq Jareh. Building with four barrel vaults and a dome Bildnummer: D-DAI-EUR-TEH-DIA-AWK-11143 Aufnahmedatum: 1993 Bildautor/in: Wolfram Kleiss » at <arachne.dainst.org/entity/6810639>

※ SOURCE for: Girre Cahartaq:
« Unter ihnen ist der Cahartaq von Girre, arabisiert Djirre, nicht nur der größte. Seitdem E. Herzfeld (3) anläßlich seiner Forschungsreise in Iran in den Jahren 1923/24 darauf aufmerksam gemacht hat, daß sich unter den Ruinen dieses auf der Grenze zwischen den alten Distrikten Shapur und Ardashir Khurre gelegenen Gebiets die von Tabari fn. 3 E. Herzfeld, Reisebericht, ZDMG N.F. 5, 1926, p. 256; idem. Archaeological History of Iran (London 1935), pp. 91ff. Der hier in Abb. 12/13 als Zeichnung wiedergegebene "Fire-temple Car-taq near Gira" ist der Cahartaq am Tell-i Djangi bei Farrashband.[Among them, the Cahartaq of Girre, Djirre in Arabic, is not only the largest. Since E. Herzfeld (3), on the occasion of his research trip to Iran in 1923/24, drew attention to the fact that among the ruins of this area, located on the border between the old districts of Shapur and Ardashir Khurre, there are those of Tabari fn. 3 E. Herzfeld, travel report, ZDMG N.F. 5, 1926, p. 256; idem. Archaeological History of Iran (London 1935), pp. 91ff. The "Fire-temple Car-taq near Gira" shown here as a drawing in Fig. 12/13 is the Cahartaq at Tell-i Djangi near Farrashband.] » #3100 Huff, Dietrich, Beobachtungen zum Chahartaq und zur Topographie von Girre, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1995 vol. 30:pp. 71-92 ~ p. 71

Place Name: Chah-e Pahn
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057618 coordinate: lat 27.95125 long 52.463279
NIMA/GNS names: Chah Pahn , Chah-e Pahn , Chah-i-Pahan , چاه پهن ,
VARIANT names: Chah-e Pahn , Chah-i Pain ,

※ SOURCE for: Chah-e Pahn:
« Chah-e Pahn » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

※ SOURCE for: Chah-i Pain:
« Chah-i Pain » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}

Arch. Site in IRN name: Chahr Taq Tol Jangi
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.824007 long 52.118411 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahr Taq Tol Jangi ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahr Taq Tol Jangi:
« Chahr Taq Tol Jangi » in {map#1195 in #3129 Milad and Tedai, Archaeological investigation and analysis of the four-arched Farashband dome complex, Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, 2017 fig. Map.1 Aerial image of the location of the dome complex and its distance from Basher Farashband and the other four arches region (Google Erath)}

Place Name: Chahu-ye Sharqi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 10024106 coordinate: lat 26.6916 long 55.509
NIMA/GNS names: Chahu-ye Sharqi , چاهوی شرقی ,
VARIANT names: Chaha , Chahoo , Cháhu , Chahu-ye Sharqi , Chau ,

※ SOURCE for: Chaha:
« Die Insel Kišm (Queixo me oder Broct¹)) liegt in der Nähe s der Küste des Festlandes von Persien, nur durch einen engen Meeresarm davon getrennt.... fn. 1 Teixeira kennt auf der Insel die Häfen Dargahon (heute Darguwan), Lapht (heute Laft), Chau (heute Chaha) und Sermion (auch Sirmio), sämtlich auf der Innenseite (2, 65); Lapht erwähnt er auch als Ortschaft (2, 9). Zu Teixeira's Zeit war der blühende Ackerbau der Insel durch Araber vernichtet worden. Vgl. weiter Iran (II) 82ff [The island of Kišm (Queixo me or Broct¹)) is located off the coast of mainland Persia, separated from it only by a narrow estuary.... fn. 1 Teixeira knows the ports of Dargahon (today Darguwan), Lapht (today Laft), Chau (today Chaha) and Sermion (also Sirmio) on the island, all on the interior (2, 65); He also mentions Lapht as a village (2, 9). In Teixeira's time the flourishing agriculture of the island had been destroyed by the Arabs. See also Iran (II) 82ff] »

※ SOURCE for: Chahoo:
« Chahoo » in {map#1040 Trigonometrical Survey of Clarence’s Strait, Gulf of Persia, Commr. G.B. Brucks and Lieutt. S.B. Haines. H.C. Marine, 1828, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3630/28/2, in Qatar Digital Library} sheet 2

※ SOURCE for: Cháhu:
« Between Gurán and Básidu are the following villages:- Cháhu, about 7 miles from Gurán, a small scattered village chiefly inhabited by fishermen, about half a mile from the coast, with a date grove to the N.W. of it; this place is opposite Kishkúh hill, already described, and there is a white tomb near it, which is seen from the strait. Dúlu and Tersai, two small villages, with date trees, about 3 miles from the last; the inhabitants are cultivators and fishermen. Kunársiya, a larger place, one mile from the last, and 94 from Básidu point, lies about a mile from the shore, and has a date grove north of it. Neither of these last three are seen from the strait. » #2904 The Persian Gulf Pilot 3rd edition, The Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, London, 1890 ~ p. 224


※ SOURCE for: Chau:
« Die Insel Kišm (Queixo me oder Broct¹)) liegt in der Nähe s der Küste des Festlandes von Persien, nur durch einen engen Meeresarm davon getrennt.... fn. 1 Teixeira kennt auf der Insel die Häfen Dargahon (heute Darguwan), Lapht (heute Laft), Chau (heute Chaha) und Sermion (auch Sirmio), sämtlich auf der Innenseite (2, 65); Lapht erwähnt er auch als Ortschaft (2, 9). Zu Teixeira's Zeit war der blühende Ackerbau der Insel durch Araber vernichtet worden. Vgl. weiter Iran (II) 82ff [The island of Kišm (Queixo me or Broct¹)) is located off the coast of mainland Persia, separated from it only by a narrow estuary.... fn. 1 Teixeira knows the ports of Dargahon (today Darguwan), Lapht (today Laft), Chau (today Chaha) and Sermion (also Sirmio) on the island, all on the interior (2, 65); He also mentions Lapht as a village (2, 9). In Teixeira's time the flourishing agriculture of the island had been destroyed by the Arabs. See also Iran (II) 82ff] »

Place Name: Chaki
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057739 coordinate: lat 27.59452 long 54.89943
NIMA/GNS names: Chaki , Chaki Dozdgah , چکی ,
VARIANT names: Chaki , Chuki ,


※ SOURCE for: Chuki:
« Chuki » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Stream in grp 05RS05 name: Cham Rah-e Malek
NIMA/GNS feature: STMI UFI: -3058000 coordinate: lat 29.7333 long 50.8059
NIMA/GNS names: Cham Rah Malek , Cham Rah Melek , Cham Rah-e Malek , Cham Rah-e Malek , Cham-e Deh Malek , Cham-e Rah-e Malek , چم ده ملک , چم ره ملك ,
VARIANT names: Cham Rah-e Malek ,


Place Name: Cham-e Zeydun
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057950 coordinate: lat 30.343 long 50.1669
NIMA/GNS names: Cham , Cham Zeydun , Cham-e Zeydun , Zaidan , Zeydan , چم ,
VARIANT names: Cham-e Zeydun , Zeitoun , Zeitun , Zeytun ,

※ SOURCE for: Cham-e Zeydun:
« Cham » in {map#1062 Map to illustrate Mr Layard's paper on Khuzistan, AH Layard, 1846, #2939 AH Layard, A Description of the Province of Khúzistán, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, London, 1846 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Zeitoun:
« Zeitoun » in {map#1152 Turquie d'Asie, Perse, Arabie, Caboul, Turkestan Independant., Brue, Adrien Hubert, 1826, david Rumsey Map Collection list no: 0096.000}

※ SOURCE for: Zeitun:
« The blood of the Cha'bs has also become mixed, though not perhaps directly, with that of the Persians. They have frequently intermarried with natives of Shushter, Dizful, and Behbehán; and the principal wife of Sheikh Thámir was the daughter of a chief of Zeïtún. » #2939 AH Layard, A Description of the Province of Khúzistán, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, London, 1846, ~ p. 44

※ SOURCE for: Zeytun:
« The Ka`b tribesmen also intermarried with Persians especially with natives from Shushtar, Dezful and Behbahan. The principal wife of Sheikh Thamir was the daughter of a chief of Zeytun.(219) fn. 219. Layard 1846, p. 44 (properly Zeydan, but locally pronounced as Zeytun). » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 247

Place Name: Champeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3057996 coordinate: lat 26.777328 long 54.745344
NIMA/GNS names: Champah , Champeh , چمپه ,
VARIANT names: Champeh ,


Place Name: Charak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3055110 coordinate: lat 26.730488 long 54.274828
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Charak , Band-e Charak , Charak , بند چارك , بندر چارک , چارک ,
VARIANT names: Charak , Tchârèk , Tsjærâk ,

※ SOURCE for: Charak:
« One of the Shibkuh ports on the Persian Coast ; it is situated about 43 miles s uth-east of Shivuh and 34 miles west of Charak. Chiru has a fort and a large date-grove, and lies facing the east in a small bay formed by a low sandy projection running southwards from the main line of the Persian coast; the village is a mile north of the point of the promontory. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 355

※ SOURCE for: Tchârèk:
#1839 Morgan, Jacques de, Mission scientifique en Perse Tome Second Études Géographiques, Ernest Leroux, Paris, 1895 vol. 2: ~ Fig. 140 – Tchârèk p. 297

※ SOURCE for: Tsjærâk:
« Tsjarak » in {map#1035 Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A) Tab: XIX p. 340}

« Charrack (the Tsjærâk of Niebuhr) exists very nearly in the same site (145), and is still the residence of an Arab Sheik. Fn. 145 There is just ground of suspicion that Charrack, Tsjarak, Sharak, Sarak, is actually Saraf, or Siraf. See the account of this town and its commerce in Renaudot and Harris ; and the circumstance of houses built with the bones of whales. Renaud. p. 95. Eng edit.» #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 p. 852

Arch. Site in IRQ name: Charax Area A
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 30.884298 long 47.575823 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Charax Area A ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Charax Area A:
in {map#1102 Fig. 2. Orthophoto from drone pictures with overlay of the magnetic prospection data., Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, , #2971 Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, Ancient Charax Spasinou (Iraq) – Interpreting a multi phase city based on magnetometer survey data presented at New global perspectives on archaeological prospection, 13th international conference on Archaeological prospection, Sligo, Ireland, 2019 ~ p. 203}

Arch. Site in IRQ name: Charax Area B
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 30.894551 long 47.591734 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Charax Area B ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Charax Area B:
in {map#1102 Fig. 2. Orthophoto from drone pictures with overlay of the magnetic prospection data., Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, , #2971 Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, Ancient Charax Spasinou (Iraq) – Interpreting a multi phase city based on magnetometer survey data presented at New global perspectives on archaeological prospection, 13th international conference on Archaeological prospection, Sligo, Ireland, 2019 ~ p. 203}

Arch. Site in IRQ name: Charax Area C
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 30.895949 long 47.583412 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Charax Area C ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Charax Area C:
in {map#1102 Fig. 2. Orthophoto from drone pictures with overlay of the magnetic prospection data., Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, , #2971 Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, Ancient Charax Spasinou (Iraq) – Interpreting a multi phase city based on magnetometer survey data presented at New global perspectives on archaeological prospection, 13th international conference on Archaeological prospection, Sligo, Ireland, 2019 ~ p. 203}

Place Name: Charax Spasinou
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 30.888719 long 47.583684
VARIANT names: Alexandreia in Susiana , Alexandreia on the Tigris , Antiocheia , Charax , Charax Spasini , Charax Spasinou , Naisan , Spasinou Charax , Yuluo ,

※ SOURCE for: Alexandreia in Susiana:
« Tarn identified Alexandreia/Spasinou Charax with ALEXANDREIA in Susiana (Alexander 2:241, 243; followed by Fraser, Cities 240, no. 13; see also ALEXANDREIA E?I ΣϒΣΟΙΣ, n. 3). However, the toponym Alexandreia in Susiana is apparently a modern designation. I have not found it in any ancient or Byzantine source. » #2858 Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2013, ~ p. 117

※ SOURCE for: Alexandreia on the Tigris:
« 17. For the identification of Alexandreia/Spasinou Charax with ALEXANDREIA on the Tigris see the latter entry, n. 4. A number of scholars have also suggested identifying ALEXANDREIA/Spasinou Charax with [ALEXANDREIA] near the Pallakopas as well as equating it with Alexandreia on the Tigris; see the latter entry, n. 4. Note, however, Fraser's cautionary observation that the identification of ALEXANDREIA on the Tigris with [ALEXANDREIA] near the Pallakopas is not attested in any extant ancient or Byzantine source (Cities 168 n. 120). » #2858 Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2013, ~ pp. 116-7

※ SOURCE for: Antiocheia:
« Pliny the Elder quotes Agrippa at several points in his Natural History, generally referring to the commentaries, and in a few instances to the map itself. For example, the dimensions of Mesopotamia (800 miles long, 26 Gillian Ramsey 360 miles wide) come from the commentaries (HN 6.137), while the distance of Charax Spasinou (an old Hellenistic city located at the confluence of the Tigris and Eulaeus rivers(7)) to the Persian Gulf is obtained from the map “Agrippa’s portico” (HN 6.139; cf. Dilke 1985: 50). fn.7 Pliny HN 6.138–139: originally a foundation of Alexander, the city was refounded by a Seleucid king Antiochos, and renamed Antiocheia, and then taken over by Spaosines, founder of the Characene kingdom (later known as Mesene) in the late second century bce, hence the city’s later name: Charax Spasinou, “Charax of Spasinos.” See also Potts 1990: 145–146; Fraser 1996: 168–169. » #2973 Ed. Ted Kaizer, A Companion to the Hellenistic and Roman Near East, Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, 2022 ~ pp. 25-6

※ SOURCE for: Charax:
owtrad web file OWTRAD Dataset tmcIRa0100 last updated 3may01 gives « Charax, 48.18222, 30.441944, IQ, nkn, approx, 155, tmcIRa0100_042a » [thiese coordinates are Khorramshahr. PBR]

※ SOURCE for: Charax Spasini:
« 35. Charax Spasini is the modern Mohammarah (30° 24' N., 48° 18' E.), on the Shatt-el-Arab, at its confluence with the Karun. Pliny says (VI, 31) that it was founded by Alexander the Great, whose name it bore; destroyed by inundations of the rivers, rebuilt by Antiochus Epiphanes under the name of Antiochia, again overflowed, and again restored, protected by three miles of embankments, by Spasinus, "king of the neighboring Arabians, whom Juba has incorrectly described as a satrap of King Antiochus." Formerly, Pliny says, it stood near the shore and had a harbor of its own; "but now stands a considerable distance from the sea. In no part of the world have alluvial deposits been formed by the rivers more rapidly and to a greater extent than here." (At the present day it is about 40 miles from the gulf.) » #487 W. H. Schoff, The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea ... Translated from the Greek and annotated by W. H. Schoff, Longmans Green and Co:Munshiram Manohardal Publishers Pvt Ltd, London:New Delhi, 1912:1995 ~ p. 149

※ SOURCE for: Charax Spasinou:
coordinates based on centre of in {map#1102 Fig. 2. Orthophoto from drone pictures with overlay of the magnetic prospection data., Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, , #2971 Lena Lambers, Jörg Faßbinder, Stuart Campbell, Stefan Hauser, Ancient Charax Spasinou (Iraq) – Interpreting a multi phase city based on magnetometer survey data presented at New global perspectives on archaeological prospection, 13th international conference on Archaeological prospection, Sligo, Ireland, 2019 ~ p. 203}

« The identification of Jabel Khayabir as Charax Spasinou was further confirmed when the writer enquired of the Arab inhabitants at the nearby village of AI-Suwayb if these artificial embankments were known by any other name. The villagers were unanimous in answering that the site was also called Naisan, most certainly a later modification of the early Islamic name for Charax, Maisan. » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 vol. 7:pp. 21-58 ~ p. 42

« Saint-Martin therefore concludes that Charax must have been located close to where the Haffar enters the Shatt (1). 1n. 1) Ibid., p. II7-I22. The great French geographer d'Anville suggests already in 1779 that Charax Spasinou was located beside the HafHir. But he confuses the city as belonging to "Susiana" rather than Characene. See J. d' Anville, I' Euphrate et le Tigre, Paris, 1779, Map and p. 138 sq. #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 ~ pp. 27-8

« On the location of Charax Spasinou at Khorramshahr (formerly Mohammera) Rawlinson (1839) at first agrees with the Saint-Martin theory but in a latel paper (1857) states that the site should be about ten miles above Mohammera creek (the Haffar) (3). Rawlinson alters his earlier opinion partly because he himself had found no trace of the great embankments mentioned by Pliny at the Khorramshahr site and partly because he thought the Characenean city of Forat to have been located at that place (4). A few later scholars have also shown some scepticism for the Khorramshahr site. One of the most recent of these has been Professor R. Ghirshman who suggests that the Karkheh is the Eulaeus and who further places Charax somewhere to the north of Khorramshahr (5). Despite such objection, however, almost all modern historical maps of the Hellenistic-Parthian cities of the Persian Gulf region, show Charax Spasinou at Khorramshahr (1). This then is the current state of research on the problem of Charax. fn. 3) Rawlinson, 'March from Zohab' op. cit. p. 88; 'Notes on Ancient Geography of Mohamrah' op. cit. p. 187. On Charax at Khorramshahr see F. Andreas in Pauly- Wissowa I, 1394 sq.; Herzfeld in F. Sarre and E. Herzfeld, Archäologische Reise, I, p. 251; and Streck op. cit. p. 153. fn. 4) Rawlinson has placed Forat at Mohammera = Khorramshahr largely because the estuary of the Karun below Khorramshahr is called Khor Bahmanshir, an Arab contraction of the Sasanian name for Forāt, Bahman Ardashir. Such reasoning would seem inconclusive. See Rawlinson' Notes on Ancient Geography'... op. cit. p. 187 5) R. Ghirshman, The Island of Kharg, Tehran 1960, p. 3. fn. 1) See maps in Debevoise op. cit. and W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge, 1951, for locations of major Hellenistic and Parthian city sites in the area of this discussion. » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 ~ pp. 34-6

※ SOURCE for: Naisan:
« 3.1.1. The Modem Site of Naisan Represents the Ruins of Ancient Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Spasinou Charax The identification of Naisan with ancient Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Spasinou Charax was worked out in convincing detail by John Hansman. (76) fn. 76 Hansman 1967; but see also Hansman 1978 and Hansman 1984 » #2979 ed. Hennann Gasche, The Persian Gulf shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach. A Joint Belgo-Iranian Project. First Progress Report – Part 3, Akkadica, Brussels, 2007 vol. 128:pp. 1-72 ~ p. 9

※ SOURCE for: Spasinou Charax:
« Close to Gabal ?ayabir in Iraq, this site was an important mercantile center of southern Mesopotamia and capital of Characene. The ancient site is located close to Gabal ?ayabir. » A. Hausleiter, M. Roaf, St J. Simpson, R. Wenke, DARMC, R. Talbert, Brady Kiesling, P. Flensted Jensen, Jeffrey Becker, Sean Gillies, and Tom Elliott, 'Jebel Khayabir/Alexandria?/Antiochia?/Spasinou Charax?/Karkh Maisan?/[Astarabad Ardashir]?: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2021 at <pleiades.stoa.org/places/912872> (accessed: 06 Aug 2023) Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 30.8093425, 47.562804

« E3 | Spasinou Charax? | IRQ | See Map 93 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000, ~ index Map 3 Asia Occidentalis p. 39

« 17. For the identification of Alexandreia/Spasinou Charax with ALEXANDREIA on the Tigris see the latter entry, n. 4. A number of scholars have also suggested identifying ALEXANDREIA/Spasinou Charax with [ALEXANDREIA] near the Pallakopas as well as equating it with Alexandreia on the Tigris; see the latter entry, n. 4. Note, however, Fraser's cautionary observation that the identification of ALEXANDREIA on the Tigris with [ALEXANDREIA] near the Pallakopas is not attested in any extant ancient or Byzantine source (Cities 168 n. 120). » #2858 Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2013, ~ pp. 116-7

※ SOURCE for: Yuluo:
« 3. Yuluo almost certainly represents Charax Spasinou on the Gulf, as I shall show later. 11. Yuluo [W-G: Yü-lo] = Charax Spasinou. The reconstructed pronunciation of Yuluo in the Han period (ka-ra) provides a very good transcription of the Greek ?à??, Karax, or Charax, meaning a `palisade', palisaded wall', or a `fort'. » #2969 John E. Hill, The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. The Xiyu juan. “Chapter on the Western Regions” from Hou Hanshu 88. Second Edition, 2003 ~ notes

Place Name: Charg
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058126 coordinate: lat 28.9109 long 53.3536
NIMA/GNS names: Charg , Cherg , چرگ ,
VARIANT names: Charg ,

※ SOURCE for: Charg:
« Charg » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Arch. Site in IRN name: Charkhāb
UTM: none, coordinates given coordinate: lat 29.257622 long 51.188819
VARIANT names: Charkhāb ,

※ SOURCE for: Charkhāb:
« The monument at Charkhāb consists of a main hall with two rows of six bichrome column bases, and an eastern portico with two rows of twelve bichrome column bases (figs. 1 and 2). Its plan resembles the Palace P in Pasargadae (fig. 3). All of the column bases and tori have been made of black and white stones (fig. 4) while those of the portico are probably made of white stone (fig. 5). No column shaft has so far been found. This is why the excavator believes that the building’s roof was supported either by wooden columns. The absence of column shafts and superstructures suggests that the palace was never completed. » at <irangazetteer.humspace.ucla.edu/catalogue/charkhab-%da%86%d8%b1%d8%ae%d8%a7%d8%a8/>

Arch. Site in IRN name: Charkhab BH27
UTM: 518351, 3236536 converted to coordinate: lat 29.2575564969762 long 51.188878702725 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Charkhab BH27 ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Charkhab BH27:
« The first traces of Achaemenid presence in Dashtestan (and the whole Northern coast of the Persian Gulf) were found following the discovery of Charkhab in 1971. The site lies on a flood plain and belongs to a monumental structure located 1 km West of Borazjan (Fig. 2; BH27 in Fig. 3), at a distance of 500 m from the Bushehr-Borazjan road (Sarfaraz 1973: 188; Sarfaraz, Teimouri 2009: 47). » #2870 E. Matin, The Achaemenid Settlement of Dashtestan (Borazjan): A View from Persepolis, ISMEO, 2020 ~ p. 336

coordinates converted from UTM in #2872 Carter, R.A., K. Challis, S.M.N. Priestman, H. Tofighian, The Bushehr Hinterland: Results of the First Season of the Iranian-British Archaeological Survey of Bushehr Province, November- December 2004, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 44:pp. 63-103 ~ Table 3. Site gazetteer p. 10

« These included water-mill structures (BH11D); dams (BH24); wells (BH14) excavated and bulldozed Achaemenid “palaces” (BH27 and BH48); a large square collapsed stone-built building (e.g. BH38) » #2872 Carter, R.A., K. Challis, S.M.N. Priestman, H. Tofighian, The Bushehr Hinterland: Results of the First Season of the Iranian-British Archaeological Survey of Bushehr Province, November- December 2004, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 44:pp. 63-103 ~ p. 11

« Professor A. Sarfaraz discovered several Achaemenid sites in the region, including a palace near Borazjan, Char Khab (BH27), which he dated to the later years of Cyrus the Great (Sarfaraz 1971–72; Sarfaraz 1973). This was later reinvestigated by the Bushehr Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organisation. Professor Sarfaraz investigated another Achaemenid Palace at Sang-e Siah (BH48), a site which has now been entirely bulldozed. » #2872 Carter, R.A., K. Challis, S.M.N. Priestman, H. Tofighian, The Bushehr Hinterland: Results of the First Season of the Iranian-British Archaeological Survey of Bushehr Province, November- December 2004, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 44:pp. 63-103 ~ p2

Place Name: Charma Qalandar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3194184 coordinate: lat 28.05 long 52.333333
NIMA/GNS names: Charma Qalandar , Charmeh-ye Qalandar , چرم قلندر , چرمۀ قلندر ,
VARIANT names: Charma Qalandar ,

※ SOURCE for: Charma Qalandar:
« Charma Qalandar » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

Arch. Site (fire temple) in IRN name: Chehar Tāq
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 28.800222 long 52.449313 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Chahar Taq Nowdaran ? , Chahar Taq-Imamzadah de Naudaran ? , Chehar Tāq ? , Tchehar Taq ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq Nowdaran:
« Closer to Firuzabad there is a small Chahar Taq in good condition about 10 km. south-west of the town as the crow flies, reached by passing the old city site and then driving across country, fording several streams and a river, to reach the village of Nowdaran. » #888 Matheson, S., Persia. An Archaeological Guide, Faber and Faber Limited, 1979, ~ p. 254

※ SOURCE for: Chahar Taq-Imamzadah de Naudaran:
« Nous atteignons la montagne qui, ici, porte Ie nom de Kuh-i baramzah, pres du Chahar Taq-Imamzadah de Naudaran, au lieu-dit Gardanah Salvakhi. Cette construction, appeIee Chahar-Taq 2), date de l'epoque islamique (pI. I a). Faite de moellons bien tailles, lies par un mortier, elle a 10 m. de cote et s'eleve a une hauteur de 3,50 m. Chacun des quatre cotes est perce d'une porte de 0,80 m. de large sur 1,80 m. de haut, s'ouvrant dans un mur d'une epaisseur de 0,50 m. Un escalier de neufmarches -dont chacune a 0,80 m. de large, et 0,3° m. de hauteur et de profondeur -mene a l'extremite superieure de l'edifice qui est constitue par une coupole de 2,80 m., revetue, interieurement, d'une couche de platre portant un decor peint de l'epoque sefevide. Dans les quatre cotes sont creusees des niches d'une profondeur de 0,25 m., d'une hauteur et d 'une largeur de 0,70 111. Dix-huit metres au nord de ce Chahar-Taq, on distingue les ruines d'une construction carree de 7,50 m. de cote dont seul un angle s'eleve jusqu'a 2 m. A quelque 500 metres al'est de l'Imamzadah islamique, se trouvent les restes presumes etre ceux d'un Chahar Taq d'epoque sassanide (pI. XVI b, pI. XVII a). Comme il n'a plus que deux piliers, on lui a donne Ie nom de "du lingah" ou "du mill". C'est, comme l'indique notre plan, un edifice carre, qui fait exterieurement 8,40 m. de cote et interieurement 5 m. Les arcs sont detruits ainsi que la coupole. Les deux piliers subsistants, ceux du nord et du sud, ne s'elevent pas au-dela de 4,30 m., juste endessous des trompes. Un corridor de 2 m. de large courait autour du ChaMr Taq, corridor qui etait, a en juger d'apres les traces encore visibles, voute, aune hauteur de 2,70 m., tout au moins sur les cotes sud-ouest et nord-est; rien n'apparait plus au cote sud-est. [We reach the mountain which, here, bears the name of Kuh-i baramzah, near the Chahar Taq-Imamzadah of Naudaran, at a place called Gardanah Salvakhi. This construction, called Chahar-Taq 2), dates from the Islamic era (pI. I a). Made of well-cut rubble, bound by mortar, it is 10 m long. side and rises to a height of 3.50 m. Each of the four sides has a 0.80 m door. wide by 1.80 m. high, opening into a wall with a thickness of 0.50 m. A staircase of nine steps - each of which is 0.80 m. wide, and 0.3° m. of height and depth - leading to the upper end of the building which is constituted by a dome of 2.80 m., covered, internally, with a layer of plaster bearing a painted decoration from the Safavid period. In the four sides are dug niches with a depth of 0.25 m., a height and a width of 0.70 111. Eighteen meters north of this Chahar-Taq, we can see the ruins of a 7.50 m square construction. side of which only one angle rises up to 2 m. Some 500 meters east of the Islamic Imamzadah are the remains presumed to be those of a Chahar Taq from the Sasanian period (pI. XVI b, pI. XVII a). As it only has two pillars, it was given the name "du lingah" or "du mill". It is, as our plan indicates, a square building, which externally measures 8.40 m. side and internally 5 m. The arches were destroyed as well as the dome. The two remaining pillars, those to the north and south, do not rise above 4.30 m, just below the spits. A 2 m corridor. wide ran around the ChaMr Taq, a corridor which was, judging from the traces still visible, vaulted, to a height of 2.70 m., at least on the southwest and northeast sides; nothing appears anymore on the southeast side.] » #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: pp.163-198 ~ pp. 165-6

※ SOURCE for: Chehar Tāq:
« Chehar Tāq » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicagfig. Firuzabad_H-39W_1948}

※ SOURCE for: Tchehar Taq:
« Tout droit devant moi se détachent seules, sur la plaine, au loin,des voûtes noires gigantesques, ressemblant à quelque animal préhistorique,monstreux, flanquées de deux hauts minarets. On m'a ditensuite que ce sont les ruines d'un Tchehar Taq (mausolée en formede dôme). Qal'éh Daoulatabad par contre se trouve vers l'est. Dansles récits de voyages concernant la région de Firouzabad, je n'aitrouvé aucune mention de ce Tchehar T aq, construction étonnante,de proportions démesurées. [Straight ahead of me stand out alone, on the plain, in the distance,gigantic black vaults, resembling some prehistoric animal,monstrous, flanked by two high minarets. We told methen that these are the ruins of a Tchehar Taq (mausoleum in the shapedome). Qal'éh Daoulatabad on the other hand is located towards the east. Intravel stories concerning the Firouzabad region, I have nofound no mention of this Tchehar T aq, astonishing construction,of disproportionate proportions.] »#3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p. 176

Place Name: Chenar Fariab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058392 coordinate: lat 29.5174 long 52.186
NIMA/GNS names: Chenar Fariab , Chenar Faryab , Chenar Paryab , Chenar-e Faryab , چنار فاریاب ,
VARIANT names: Chenar Fariab ,


Place Name: Chenar Rahdar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058424 coordinate: lat 29.62118009 long 52.41266437
NIMA/GNS names: Bagh-e Khowshru , Chenan-i-Rahdar , Chenar Rahdar , Chenar-i-Rahdar , Khowshru , Rahdar , باغ خوشرو , چنار راهدار , خوشرو ,
VARIANT names: Chenar Rahdar , Chinarâda ,


※ SOURCE for: Chinarâda:
« We breakfasted in the caravansarai of Chinarâda, and rode rapidly over the last eight miles to Shiraz. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ p. 46

Place Name: Chenar Shahijan
NIMA/GNS feature: LCTY UFI: -3194224 coordinate: lat 29.865403 long 51.588653
NIMA/GNS names: Chenar Shah Jan , Chenar Shahijan , Chenar Shahijan ,
VARIANT names: Chenar Shahijan , Chenosheján ,


※ SOURCE for: Chenosheján:
« At 11 h. 15 m. we swerved a little to the N.W., and at noon reached the encampment of Jehangir Khan, Mamáseni, chief of the tribe of Dushmen-ziyárí. This place of encampment is called Chenosheján. ... Chenosheján, formerly the Germesir or winter quarters of Mohammed Rizá Khán, is a plain of considerable extent, which is bounded on the E. by the prolongation of the Pír-i-zen; from N. to W. by an offset of the same chain, and on the S. by the termination of the Kútel-i-Dohter. » #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~ p. 76

Place Name: Cheshmeh-ye Khar Zahreh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058672 coordinate: lat 30.424167 long 50.528333
NIMA/GNS names: Cheshmeh-ye Khar Zahreh , Khar Zahreh , چشمۀ خر زهره , خر زهره ,
VARIANT names: Cheshmeh-ye Khar Zahreh ,


Place Name: Chiloe
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 0 long 0 † see notes (u,d)
VARIANT names: Chiloe ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Chiloe:
« In this area, there is some confusion on early European charts and descriptions concerning a place ’Chiloe‘. Near Tahiri, they recorded a place called ‘Chiru’, while more to the East, near Cape Naband, they charted a place ’Shilau’. Also more to the East, there is a rather important place Nakhilu. These seem to have been freely mixed up in old maps and descriptions. Carre calls ’Chiru’ Chirou, ‘Shilau’ Cheylo (the French ch is pronounced as sh and Nakhilu Kailo. (59) Beyond Cape Naband is the territory of a tribe called Al Haram, who were active pearl divers. The Al Haram acquired the island of Bahrain during the first half of the eighteenth century. In the eighteenth century, their westernmost village was Shilau, while Asalu was their most important settlement. The name Asalu is already mentioned in a Dutch document of 1632 as the name of a pearlbank. On a manuscript nautical chart of the Dutch East India Company of the late seventeenth century it is mentioned as a place, together with another place of the Al Haram, Nabon. Asalu was visited in 1672 by the French traveler Carre, who gives a description of the place.(60) fn. 59 ‘Chiru’ as such is first seen on Ottens’s map in Slot, Origins, plate 18. In the early nineteenth century, it was already deserted: Brucks in Bombay Selections, pp. xxiv, 591. It is not probable that Chiru is identical with the Chilu, which is a large place on early Portuguese maps, although confusion may have been caused by the difficulties the Portuguese have in distinguishing L and R. fn. 60 Kniphausen’s report fol. 4-4v (=Floor, ‘Description’, pp. 168-169). Niebuhr, Beschreibung, p. 314, is very summary but on pp. 330-331 some interesting but probably not completely reliable details about the history of the A1 Haram rule over Bahrain. Carre, Travels, vol. 3, p. 832 is the most detailed early text on Asalu. VOC vol. 1113, fol. 225v. mentions Asalu as a centre of pearldivers, already in 1632. It figures on early Dutch maps: ARA VEL 220. The important place ‘Chilau’ on early Portuguese maps probably is not Shilau but Nakhilu. » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 20

Place Name: Chiru
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058754 coordinate: lat 26.7147 long 53.7344
NIMA/GNS names: 'abruyeh , Bandar-e Chiru , Bandar-e Chiru'iyeh , Cheruyeh , Chiru , Chiruiyeh , Chiruyeh , بندر چیروئیه , چرویه ,
VARIANT names: Cailo , Cheroo , Chiroo , Chiru , Chiruyeh , Cirûh ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Chiru FOR Chisi [Badger], POSSIBLE LOCATION at Chiru FOR Hiṣn Ibn ʿUmāra [[PBR]], POSSIBLE LOCATION at Chiru FOR huzu [Le Strange],

※ SOURCE for: Cailo:
« Cailo (53 B. 54 B, 72 B, 100B): Chiruyeh? » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006, ~ index p. 416

※ SOURCE for: Cheroo:
« Cheroo » in {map#1153 Sketch map showing the Route taken from Bushire following the coast line to the Port of Lingah, WH Colvill, 1865, Royal Geographical Society, London: Map Room, Iran S. 121}

※ SOURCE for: Chiroo:
« Inderabia » and « Chiroo » in Sketch to illustrate the memoir in #253 Kempthorne, Lieut. G. B., Notes made on a Survey along the Eastern Shores of the Persian Gulf in 1828, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1835 ~ after p. 263

« The question where Sirif, Polo's Chisi, was situated is easily disposed of Polo describes it as being two hundred miles farther from "Calatu" than Hormuz, "between north-west and west." Almost precisely at that distance from Hormuz, by sea, and in the given direction, there is a place called "Cheroo" in our modern English charts. According to Dean Vincent,' the name is spelt "Sherouw or Sherouve," in the old Dutch charts, but in N. Visscher's map (Amsterdam, 1651), I find it written "Siraf." It possesses a harbour far superior to that of the island of el-Kais, from which it is separated only by a few miles. — "Cheroo," writes Captain Brucks, I.N., "is situated at the bottom of a bay, formed by the Rds or Cape of the same name. It contains about one hundred and fifty men of the Abadaly tribe; the shaikh resides at another village inland....It is the best anchorage in a north- wester in the Gulf, and affords tolerable supplies, and water. It has a few trading-boats." Another confirmatory coincidence is the existence of the small island of Hindrâby a short distance to the southward of Cheroo. This I take to be the Labeth (or Lâmeth) which el-Idrisy places in its vicinity: — "Among the islands of that sea [Fars] are the island of Kharak, the island of Labeth, which is opposite to and near Siráf and the Cape esSafân, and the island of Awal." The cape, as will be seen by a glance at the chart, is a remarkable feature in that part of the coast. fn. 2 Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, vol. i. p. 381. fn. 3 Bombay Government Selections, No. xxiv. p. 590. fn. 4 Géographie d'Edrisi, ed. Jaubert, tom. i. p. 364. » #482 Razik, Salil-Ibn, History of the Imâms and Seyyids of ’Omân ... from A.D. 661-1856. Translated from the original Arabic and edited, with notes, appendices, and an introduction, continuing the history down to 1870, by G. P. Badger, Darf Publishers Limited, London, 1871/1986 ~ 417

※ SOURCE for: Chiru:
« Chiru-Anchorage.—This fishing village, at which there is a conspicuous square fort with a large square tower at each corner, and near which is a large date grove, is situated on the western side of a bay about 7 miles westward of Kalat al Abeid. A conspicuous yellow tower, about 30 feet (9m1) in height, stands on the shore about 4 cables north-eastward of the fort. Chiru point (Lat. 26° 41' N., Long. 53° 45' E.), situated about three-quarters of a mile south-south-westward of the fort, is a low projection that is steep-to on its southern and eastern sides. A flat, over which the depths are less than 3 fathoms (5m5), extends about 3 cables offshore eastward of Chiru village. Good anchorage may be obtained off Chiru in a depth of about 8 fathoms (14m6); it is easy of access, sheltered from the shamál, but open to easterly winds. Landing may be effected, opposite the fort or the village, on a steep-to sandy beach; but during easterly winds it is bad. » #353 The Persian Gulf Pilot 1870 - 1932 8th edition, Archive Editions, Slough, 1989 ~ p. 141

Inset detail of Chíru Surveyed by Comm. H. B. T. Somerville R. N., H. M. S. Sphinx, 1903 in {map#1009 Chart 2837a. Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet, Constable, Stiffe, Guy, Brucks, 1860, 'Persian Gulf. Eastern Sheet' [?1r] (1/2), British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3828/2837a, in Qatar Digital Library}

※ SOURCE for: Chiruyeh:
« 14.4 Chiruyeh (26°43'N., 53°45'E.) is a village on the W side of a bay whose W entrance point is Sar-e Chiruyeh (26°42'N., 53°44'E.). The sea breaks on a flat extending offshore between Kalat and Sar-e Chiruyeh. 14.4 The village has a conspicuous fort with a square tower at each corner and a prominent tower standing on the shore 0.4 mile NE of the fort. Sare Chiruyeh is low and steep-to on its S and E sides. A 5.5m shoal extends off the point for about 0.5 mile and less water than is charted is reported 1.5 miles SW of the point. Landing can be made on the steep-to sandy beach opposite the village. Anchorage, open to E winds but sheltered from the shamal, can be taken off the village, in a depth of 14.6m. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022, ~ p. 294

« The most important anchorages, all open to the shamal, are in the bights fronting the villages of Bandar-e Moghuyeh, Bandar- e Charak, and Nakhilu; those off Chiruyeh, Jazireh-ye Kish, and Jazireh-ye Lavan are all sheltered from the shamal. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022, ~ p. 293

※ SOURCE for: Cirûh:
« Mit Ίλα, einem nicht persisehen, sondern phönikisch- babylonischen Namen, fallt entweder das heutige Fischerdorf Cirûh zusammen oder der kleine Ankerplatz an der Nordküste des gegenüberliegenden Eilandes Hindarâbà, welcher Bäume und Brunnen besitzt. [Either the current fishing village of Cirûh or the small anchorage on the north coast of the opposite island of Hindarâbà, which has trees and wells, coincides with Ίλα, a name that is not Persian but Phoenician-Babylonian.] » #2591 Wilhelm Tomaschek, Topographische Erläuterung der Küstenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat, In Commission bei F. Tempsky, Wien, 1890 ~ p. 54

Weiter folgen an der Küstedie Orte Tâbanah تابنه Girah und Kalât-'Obeid; der letzt-genannte liegt auf einem Hügel 250' und hiess vormals Huzû??هزو eine Zwingburg des Seikh von Kiš. Im Hintergrunde??erhebt sich als runde Landmarke der Koh-i-Turungah 5150',Citronenberg. Der letzte Ankerplatz an der Küste gegenüberKiš ist Cirûh mit einem Landvorsprung 30 Miles von Carek,wo die Küste von Karmania ihren natürlichen Abschluss fand, [Further along the coast are the towns of Tâbanah تابنه Girah and Kalât-'Obeid; The latter is located on a hill 250' and was formerly called Huzû?هزو, a stronghold of the Seikh of Kiš. In the background, the Koh-i-Turungah 5150', Citronenberg, rises as a round landmark. The last anchorage on the coast opposite Kiš is Cirûh with a headland 30 miles from Carek, where the coast of Karmania found its natural conclusion,]

Place Name: Chisi
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 0 long 0 † see notes (d)
VARIANT names: Chisi ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Chisi AT Chiru lat 26.7147 long 53.7344 [Badger],

※ SOURCE for: Chisi:
« The question where Sirif, Polo's Chisi, was situated is easily disposed of Polo describes it as being two hundred miles farther from "Calatu" than Hormuz, "between north-west and west." Almost precisely at that distance from Hormuz, by sea, and in the given direction, there is a place called "Cheroo" in our modern English charts. According to Dean Vincent,' the name is spelt "Sherouw or Sherouve," in the old Dutch charts, but in N. Visscher's map (Amsterdam, 1651), I find it written "Siraf." It possesses a harbour far superior to that of the island of el-Kais, from which it is separated only by a few miles. — "Cheroo," writes Captain Brucks, I.N., "is situated at the bottom of a bay, formed by the Rds or Cape of the same name. It contains about one hundred and fifty men of the Abadaly tribe; the shaikh resides at another village inland....It is the best anchorage in a north- wester in the Gulf, and affords tolerable supplies, and water. It has a few trading-boats." Another confirmatory coincidence is the existence of the small island of Hindrâby a short distance to the southward of Cheroo. This I take to be the Labeth (or Lâmeth) which el-Idrisy places in its vicinity: — "Among the islands of that sea [Fars] are the island of Kharak, the island of Labeth, which is opposite to and near Siráf and the Cape esSafân, and the island of Awal." The cape, as will be seen by a glance at the chart, is a remarkable feature in that part of the coast. fn. 2 Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, vol. i. p. 381. fn. 3 Bombay Government Selections, No. xxiv. p. 590. fn. 4 Géographie d'Edrisi, ed. Jaubert, tom. i. p. 364. » #482 Razik, Salil-Ibn, History of the Imâms and Seyyids of ’Omân ... from A.D. 661-1856. Translated from the original Arabic and edited, with notes, appendices, and an introduction, continuing the history down to 1870, by G. P. Badger, Darf Publishers Limited, London, 1871/1986 ~ 417

Stream in grp 32KAR07 name: Coprates
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 32.19474 long 48.379788 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Coprates ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Coprates:
« Coprates » in #2982 Michael J. Kirkby, Appendix I. Land and water resources of the Deh Luran and Khuzistan plains, in: Frank Hole with M. J. Kirkby and Colin Renfrew, Studies in the Archeological History of the Deh Luran Plain: The Excavation of Chagha Sefid, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1977, ~ p. 277

Arch. Site in IRN name: CT
UTM: 5200, 2930 converted to coordinate: lat 29.5 long 52
VARIANT names: CT ,

※ SOURCE for: CT :
« Other variants: none Details: See 113. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Cuoua
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 22.098568 long 59.701182 † see notes (u, i)
VARIANT names: Cuaua ? , Cuoua ? , Cuova ? , Guoua ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Cuaua:
« Cuaua » {map#897 Carte de l'Océan Indien, John Burston, 1665, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18E PF 213 DIV 3 P 4 RES} estimated map coordinates 21.561862, 59.246103

※ SOURCE for: Cuoua:
Extract from the table « The Ancient, and Modern Names of the Second, And Third Part Of Asia of the Provinces, Kingdoms, … and Islands: .... By Giacomo de Gastaldi, Piamontese Cofmographo, in Venetia. Bofara — Guoua — 98.30.21.50. » in #2701 Cosmografia Universale, Bertelli, Fernando, 1571 ~ p. 121. The accompanying map by Gastaldi on page 128 shows « Cuoua »

« Aussi tost qu'on a passe Mazira on paruient à Cuoua, et là commence le goulphe Sachalite a faillir venant a son autre extremité, qui est au promontoire Corodam, lequel à present on nomme Cap Refalgat, où commence le Royaume d'Ormus » [As soon as we pass Mazira we appear at Cuoua, and there the Sachalite Gulf begins to fail coming to its other extremity, which is at the promontory Corodam, which at present is called Cape Refalgat, where begins the Kingdom of Ormus,] #2249 Sebastian Münster, François de Belleforest, La cosmographie universelle de tout le monde, chez Michel Sonnius, Paris, 1575 ~ col. 1169

Cuoua above Spalheiro in {map#875 Deliniantur in hac Tabula, Orae Maritimae Abexiae, Freti Mecani: al Maris Rubri: Arabiae, Ormi, Persiae, Supra Sindam usque …, published by J.H. van Linschoten, 1596, Sanderus, Item Number: 5934}

{map#653 Aden in Il Disegno Della Seconda Parte Dell' Asia, Giacomo Gastaldi, Venice, 1561, } shows « Cuoua » with “fort”inside substantial necked bay at Qudaymah

※ SOURCE for: Cuova:
« Cuova » with no circle marker « el Gunka » and « Coutreki » both with circle markers in {map#900 L'Arabia Divisa in Petrea, Deserta, e Felice, G. Titteri ser, 1784, Atlante novissimo vol. 4} estimated map coordinates 22.108708, 59.638206

※ SOURCE for: Guoua:
Extract from the table « The Ancient, and Modern Names of the Second, And Third Part Of Asia of the Provinces, Kingdoms, … and Islands: .... By Giacomo de Gastaldi, Piamontese Cofmographo, in Venetia. Bofara — Guoua — 98.30.21.50. » in #2701 Cosmografia Universale, Bertelli, Fernando, 1571 ~ p. 121. The accompanying map by Gastaldi on page 128 shows « Cuoua ». Two spellings within same document « Guoua » and « Cuoua ».

Arch. Site in IRN name: D1
UTM: 5309, 2711 converted to coordinate: lat 27.1833333333333 long 53.15
VARIANT names: D1 ,

※ SOURCE for: D1 :
« Other variants: none Details: The precise location of D1] is marked on an annotated map from the Collection Archive marked 'Type 2 Londo’. No. of sherds: 50 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D12 Neran
UTM: 5316, 2702 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0333333333333 long 53.2666666666667
VARIANT names: D12 Neran ,

※ SOURCE for: D12 Neran:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Neran is listed in USBGN (383). The Site Card also contains the caption 'no pottery’. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D13 Neran
UTM: 5316, 2702 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0333333333333 long 53.2666666666667
VARIANT names: D13 Neran ,

※ SOURCE for: D13 Neran:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Neran is listed in USBGN (383). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D14 Moghun
UTM: 5310, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 53.1666666666667
VARIANT names: D14 Moghun ,

※ SOURCE for: D14 Moghun:
« Other variants: Mogun, Moghdan Details: A possible equivalent version of the place name, Moghdan, is marked but not listed (Adamec, 1989: Map Sheet 52-C), however the ‘d' in Moghdan is not readily expendable, which raises some doubt over the identification. No. of sherds: 71 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D15 Shiwu
UTM: 5308, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 53.1333333333333
VARIANT names: D15 Shiwu ,

※ SOURCE for: D15 Shiwu:
« Other variants: Sheyu, Shiyu Shivuh Shiu Details: Equivalent versions of the same place name, including Sheyu and Shiyu (Adamec, 1989), Shiu (USBGN: 59) and Shivnh (Lorimer, 1908: 1812), are listed and their location is given. The town, which has a fort and a tower, is described as a port for goods traded widely through the Persian Gulf and over to Oman as well as to a route leadmg inland up Gabandi valley (Lorimer, 1908: 1812). No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D16 Shiwu
UTM: 5308, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 53.1333333333333
VARIANT names: D16 Shiwu ,

※ SOURCE for: D16 Shiwu:
« Other variants: Sheyu, Shiyu Shivuh Shiu Details: See D15. No. of sherds: 23 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D17 Qalatu
UTM: 5305, 2705 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0833333333333 long 53.0833333333333
VARIANT names: D17 Qalatu ,

※ SOURCE for: D17 Qalatu :
« Other variants: Kalatu Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Kalatu, is identified as an uninhabited harbour with a few boats immediately. adjacent.to Ziyerat (Lorimer, 1908: 1796). The precise position of the site has been given where a small settlement is marked in a bay next to Ziarat (TPC Sheet H-7D). No. of sherds: 115 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D18 Ziarat
UTM: 5305, 2705 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0833333333333 long 53.0833333333333
VARIANT names: D18 Ziarat ,

※ SOURCE for: D18 Ziarat :
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Ziarat is given by USBGN (575). No. of sherds: 115 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D19 Borogla
UTM: 5304, 2707 converted to coordinate: lat 27.1166666666667 long 53.0666666666667
VARIANT names: D19 Borogla ,

※ SOURCE for: D19 Borogla:
« Other variants: Buraghleh Details: The location of an equivalent version of the place name, Buraghleh, is given within the description of the Ziarat, which is "2 miles South East of Buraghleh" (Lorimer, 1908: 1796). No. of sherds: 5 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D20 Bostanu
UTM: 5246, 2723 converted to coordinate: lat 27.3833333333333 long 52.7666666666667
VARIANT names: D20 Bostanu ,

※ SOURCE for: D20 Bostanu:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of a small village with a round tower and a covered water tank and the place name Bostanu is given (C and S: 174). There is also another village closer to the main site cluster in Region D with the toponym Bostaneh, located at E5303/N2706, but this option has been disregarded, as the first toponym corresponds precisely. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D21 Bostanu
UTM: 5246, 2723 converted to coordinate: lat 27.3833333333333 long 52.7666666666667
VARIANT names: D21 Bostanu ,

※ SOURCE for: D21 Bostanu:
« Other variants: none Details: See D20. No. of sherds: 18 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D22 Bostanu
UTM: 5246, 2723 converted to coordinate: lat 27.3833333333333 long 52.7666666666667
VARIANT names: D22 Bostanu ,

※ SOURCE for: D22 Bostanu:
« Other variants: none Details: See D20.The Site Card also contains the sub-heading 'Samarin'. No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D25 Sirjan
UTM: 5546, 2923 converted to coordinate: lat 29.3833333333333 long 55.7666666666667
VARIANT names: D25 Sirjan ,

※ SOURCE for: D25 Sirjan:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Sirjan is given by Morgan and Leatherby (1987: 25, pl. 1). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D29 Shiwu
UTM: 5308, 2704 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0666666666667 long 53.1333333333333
VARIANT names: D29 Shiwu ,

※ SOURCE for: D29 Shiwu:
« Other variants: See D15 Details: See D15. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D30 Neran
UTM: 5316, 2702 converted to coordinate: lat 27.0333333333333 long 53.2666666666667
VARIANT names: D30 Neran ,

※ SOURCE for: D30 Neran:
« Other variants: none Details: See D13. No. of sherds: 29 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: D34 Sirjan
UTM: 5546, 2923 converted to coordinate: lat 29.3833333333333 long 55.7666666666667
VARIANT names: D34 Sirjan ,

※ SOURCE for: D34 Sirjan:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Sirjan is given by Morgan and Leatherby (1987: 25, pl. 1). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Dabiran
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058932 coordinate: lat 28.406117 long 54.187974
NIMA/GNS names: Dabiran , Doboran , Dooban , Dowban , Dowbaran , Dowboran , Duboran , دوبران ,
VARIANT names: Dabiran ,


Place Name: Dadenjan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059414 coordinate: lat 29.1147 long 52.2281
NIMA/GNS names: Dadenjan , Darenjan , دادنجان ,
VARIANT names: Dadenjan , Dadijun ,


※ SOURCE for: Dadijun:
« Dadijun » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} Shiraz 444 C

Place Name: Dadin-e Bala
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3760502 coordinate: lat 29.308529 long 51.867322
NIMA/GNS names: Dadin-e `Olya , Dadin-e Bala , Hoseynabad , Hoseyn-e Zakipur , Kargah , حسین آباد , دادین بالا , دادین علیا , کارگاه ,
VARIANT names: Dadin-e Bala ,

※ SOURCE for: Dadin-e Bala:
« The Akhshin River originates from the Dadin Mountains and joins the Tawwaj River in the Jongan area (Astakhari, 120; Ibn Hawqal, 1 Dadin Bala village and Dadin Bala village are located 48 and 60 km southeast of Kazeroon, respectively. Lestrange mistakenly wrote that there is no place called Dadin on the maps of the region (Lestrange, 1912: 323) » #3088 Negin Miri, Historical Geography of Fars Rivers (in Persian) in Proceeding of the 1st Conference of Historical Geography, Tehran-March 2015 (pp.651-668), ~ p. 655

Place Name: Dadin-e Bala
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3058955 coordinate: lat 29.318304 long 51.864024
NIMA/GNS names: Dadin-e `Olya , Dadin-e Bala , Shah Manzar , دادین بالا , دادین علیا , شاه منظر ,
VARIANT names: Dadhin , Dadin-e Bala ,

※ SOURCE for: Dadhin:
« the town of Dadhin on the lower course of the Jerreh river was within this plain. » #3094 Donald Whitcomb, Trade and Tradition In Medieval Southern Iran - Thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1979 ~ p.78

※ SOURCE for: Dadin-e Bala:
« The Akhshin River originates from the Dadin Mountains and joins the Tawwaj River in the Jongan area (Astakhari, 120; Ibn Hawqal, 1 Dadin Bala village and Dadin Bala village are located 48 and 60 km southeast of Kazeroon, respectively. Lestrange mistakenly wrote that there is no place called Dadin on the maps of the region (Lestrange, 1912: 323) » #3088 Negin Miri, Historical Geography of Fars Rivers (in Persian) in Proceeding of the 1st Conference of Historical Geography, Tehran-March 2015 (pp.651-668), ~ p. 655

Place Name: Daghmar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786669 coordinate: lat 23.1833333 long 59
NIMA/GNS names: Daghmar ,
VARIANT names: Daghmar , Dagino ? , Daxnia ? ,


※ SOURCE for: Dagino:
« Dagino (Daxnia in the Spanish version, Dagina in Ribero's map). It cannot be identified with certainty in modern maps, but may possibly be the Wadi Dāghmar in the map in Badger's Imams and Sayyids of 'Oman. » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ p.70

« The distortions are perhaps most violent in Barbosa where Sur becomes Char, Qalhāt Calarate. Tiwi Terue. Daghmar Dagino. Suḥar Coquiar and Khawr Fakkān Profam. His Etem, which defeated Longworth Dames, is obviously Yiti. » #2592 Beckingham CF., Some notes on the Portuguese in Oman, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1983 vol. 6:pt. 1: ~ p.18

※ SOURCE for: Daxnia:
« Dagino (Daxnia in the Spanish version, Dagina in Ribero's map). It cannot be identified with certainty in modern maps, but may possibly be the Wadi Dāghmar in the map in Badger's Imams and Sayyids of 'Oman. » #40 Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa, an Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. Translated by M. L. Dames, Hakluyt Society:Asian Educational Services, London:New Delhi, 1918-21:2002 ~ p.70

« In the beginning of this kingdom on the coast outside of this sea of Persia, is:- First Calhat,(3) a very large town or handsome houses, and well situated; the inhabitants are rich nobles and merchants: it is forty-four leagues from Cape Fasalhat. Thirty-two leagues further on there is another small place called Tybi, which has good water with which the ships navigating all this coast provide themselves. Twenty-five leagues further on is another small place called Daxnia, also a sea-port. Thirty leagues further on is another large place which is a very good town of much trade in merchandise, which is called Curiat, (1) fn. 3 ln the German Atlas there is a place called Kellat, and another cIose by called Calajute ; Calata, Ortelius. fn. 1 Curiate in Ortelius and the German Atlas. » #2616 Duarte Barbosa, A Description of the Coasts of East Africa And Malabar in the beginning of the sixteenth century , by Duarte Barbosa, A Portuguese . Translated from an early Spanish Manuscript in the Barcelona Library with Notes and a Preface byThe Hon. Henry E. J. Stanley, printed for the Hakluyt Society, London, 1866 ~ pp. 32-3

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dagmar 1 (DG1)
UTM: GL039632 converted to coordinate: lat 23.1651808562716 long 58.9917800793248
VARIANT names: Dagmar 1 (DG1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Dagmar 1 (DG1):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dagmar 2 (DG2)
UTM: GL034642 converted to coordinate: lat 23.1742703300443 long 58.9870314283958
VARIANT names: Dagmar 2 (DG2) ,

※ SOURCE for: Dagmar 2 (DG2):
« Village » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Place Name: Daimaniyat Islands
NIMA/GNS feature: ISLS UFI: -786721 coordinate: lat 23.855446 long 58.088003
NIMA/GNS names: Al-Daymaniyyat , Daimaniyat , Daimaniyat Islands , Daymaniyat Island , Jaza'ir Daymaniyat , Juzur ad Daymaniyat , Juzur ad Dimaniyyat , Saba` Jazair , جزر الديمانيات ,
VARIANT names: A Vitória Island , Daimaniyat Islands , Demaniatte Rocks , ilhéus de Soar , Kalaiou Nesoi , Sieb islands , Ya shu tsai chi hsü ,

※ SOURCE for: A Vitória Island:
« Our journey continued in the afternoon, and before nightfall we passed the islet of A Vitória58 on the left, which is near the mainland. It is a small [text blacked out] [superscript: crag] with a very small amount of sand around it, yet quite famous because more than fifty years ago it was taken in a fight against nine Turkish galleys by D. Fernão de Noronha, son of D. António de Noronha,59 the viceroy of India. Fn. 58 A Vitória Island appears to be one of the Daymāniyāt Islands, located off the coast of Oman at 23°51'19"N, 58°05'22"E. » #2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017 ~ p. 266

※ SOURCE for: Daimaniyat Islands:
[The Daimaniyat Islands group comprise 3 distinct clusters, the central cluster being 16 km off the coastline and about 7 km ling. The western cluster includes al Jun some 7.5 km from the central cluster and the eastern cluster includes Kharaba some 6 km from the central cluster.]

« Opposite the coast, and nine miles distant between Burka and Seeb, lie a group of islands, seven in number, called the Deymanieh ; they are all sterile, waterless and uninhabited, and two only have separate names—Joon and Khararaba. (The Deymanieh group is often called by fishermen the “ Saba Jezair ” or the Seven Islands, and derives this appellation “ Devmanieh ” from a tribe of that name, of which a small remnant still exists in Oman ; the name has remained unaltered since the time of Pliny.) » #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994 ~ p.459

« 2B-12 Daimaniyat Islands.-These islands, known locally as Saba' Jazair, consist of several groups lying 72 to 9 miles offshore and paralleling the coast for a distance of 12 miles westward of the village of As Sib. They are quite barren, without water, and are visited by fishermen from the mainland. The 100-fathom curve lies 5 to 6 miles northward of the islands, and the depths for several miles southward of them are fairly regular and less than 20 fath- oms, except in the vicinity of the eastern group. In depths less than 20 fathoms the bot- tom is mud and sand, and in greater depths it is chiefly mud. » #2824 Sailing Directions for the Persian Gulf Including the Gulf of Oman and the Northern Shore of the Arabian Sea as Far Eastward as Ras Muāri H.O. Pub . No. 62 ( Formerly No. 158), U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Washington, 1960 ~ p. 76

« The middle group consists of seven islets and some detached rocks, the easternmost islet lying 3 miles west-northwestward of Jazirat Kharaba. The two largest islets of this group are 53 and 83 feet high, respectively, have low light-brown cliffs, and are difficult to distinguish at night. They are reported to be steep-to with no off-lying shoals, but soundings are no guide when a vessel is approaching them from southward. On the westernmost and largest islet are two small hills separated by a valley. The British naval vessel Hastings anchored about 900 yards southward of the eastern end of this islet in 15 fathoms, sand. This position afforded good shelter from a heavy swell, which, because of a light shamal then blowing, was setting in around the islets. Landing was easily made at two good sandy beaches near the middle of the southern side of this islet. » #2824 Sailing Directions for the Persian Gulf Including the Gulf of Oman and the Northern Shore of the Arabian Sea as Far Eastward as Ras Muāri H.O. Pub . No. 62 ( Formerly No. 158), U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Washington, 1960 ~ p. 76

※ SOURCE for: Demaniatte Rocks:
« Demaniatte Rocks » in {map#982 Chart of the Entrance to the Persian Gulf, Fergusson, from the surveys of Brucks, Haines and Grieve, 1857, British Library: Map Collections, IOR/X/3635/33, in Qatar Digital Library}

« The centre of the Daminiatte Rocks, usually called the Damiceette Rocks, is in lat. 23° 50' 48" N., long. 58° 15' 25" E. A small reef runs round these, safe to approach to ten fathoms. Between these rocks and Jazeerat Jeune the channel is a mile and three quarters wide, with soundings ten to eighteen fathoms in it. Between these rocks and the shore the channel is eight miles wide, with soundings of from seven to sixteen fathoms. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 628

※ SOURCE for: ilhéus de Soar:
« SOAR, ilhéus de - Nome dado por Diogo do Couto a uns · ilhéus do' golfo de Omão, que situa a doze léguas de Mascate ou Muskat e que assim se identificam com os ilhéus Daimaniyat, em 23° 52' lat. N. e 58° OS' longo E. [Diogo do Couto-Da Ásia]. » [SOAR, islets of - Name given by Diogo do Couto to some islanders of the Gulf of Omão, located twelve leagues from Muscat or Muskat and thus identified with the Daimaniyat islets, at 23° 52' lat. N. and 58° OS' long E. [Diogo do Couto-Da Asia]. »] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. O-Z, p. 166

※ SOURCE for: Kalaiou Nesoi:
« G5 | Kalaiou Nesoi | R | Ad Daymaniyat OMN | Potts 1990, 315 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ MAP 3 ASIA OCCIDENTALIS, p. 36

« The Periplus generally gives distances, in stadia, between one place or landmark and the next all the way along the coast of Arabia. From ’Sarapis’ (Masira Island) the next position it lists is the ’Kalaiou Islands’, which can be identified with the islands of Dayminiyit, near Muscat, since there is no other group of islands at all along that coast. These were reached ’after about 2000 stadia’ (200 miles) from Masira (9). fn. 9. 2000 stadia, or about 200 miles, is roughly correct for this stretch. I have followed Schoff‘s translation here. Huntingford translated this section to mean that the islands ’stretched along the land for about 2000 stades’, which is an absurdity as they extend over no more than 14 miles. Schoff‘s interpretation must be the right one. » #218 Groom, Nigel, Oman and the Emirates in Ptolemy's Map, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 1994 ~ p. 397

※ SOURCE for: Sieb islands:
« From the islands of Borca till the islands of Sib (44) the course is W. and half to the South for 1¾ mile. The islands of Sieb are 5 in number (45) and close to them 4 to 5 crags are to be found. They are situated 4½ miles off-shore. They are also named after a place which is situated right opposite them on-shore and which is called Sieb. (44) fn. 43 Sib. fn. 45 The islands of Barkeh and Sib are called "the Deymanieh/ Dimaniyat/; they are all sterile, waterless and unhabited, and two have seperate names - Joon and Khararba. (The Deymanieh group is often called by fishermen the "Saba Jezair" or the Seven Islands, and derives this appelation "Deymanieh" from a tribe of that name, of which a small remnant still exists in Oman; the name has remained unaltered since the time of Pliny)", MILES, p. 459. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 305

※ SOURCE for: Ya shu tsai chi hsü:
« Daimaniyat islands, 23° 51' N » #329 Ma Huan, Ying-Yai Sheng-Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores 1433, Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society, Cambridge, 1970 app. 2 p. 298

Place Name: Daiyir
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061101 coordinate: lat 27.8399 long 51.9378
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Deyyer , Daiyir , Dayer , Dayyer , Deyr , Qal'eh Dir , بندر دیر , دير , قلئه دير ,
VARIANT names: Bandar Dayyur , Daiyir , Dayah , Dayyir , Dehir , Deyer ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Dayyir FOR Najiram [Minorsky],

※ SOURCE for: Bandar Dayyur:
« Najiram and Hurushi (1)-Najiramn is a small town and Hurashi a village, both being of the dependencies of Sirāf, and lying in the very hot region. fn. 1 Spelt Hushi for the second time, and Khurashi in the Paris MS. It is not mentioned by the Arab geographers. Najiram, according to Istakhri (p. 34), Iny to the north of Sirif. Neither names now occur on the map, but Najiram is probably identical with the present harbour of Bandar Dayyur in the Dashti District (FNN. 217). » #3047 G. Le Strange, Description of the Province of Fars, in Persia, at the Beginning of the Twelfth Century A.D. Translated from the MS. of Ibn-al-Balkhi, in the British Museum, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1912 pp. 1-30, pp. 311-339, pp. 865-889 ~ p. 330

※ SOURCE for: Daiyir:
« The crossing was safely effected by dusk, and Daiyir, S miles farther on, was reached in the dark. There was good reason to feel grateful for the timely passage of the river, for in the course of the night rain-for two seasons longed for in vain descended in torrents, flooding part of the ground near the fort of Daiyir where our tents had been pitched in the dark. ... No time could be spared for a visit to some ruined walls reported on a low sandstone ridge some distance to the north of Daiyir. The specimens of glazed pottery brought thence (see Daiyir. 6, 8; PI. XXVII ) showed distinct similarity to ware found at Siraf, and the description of the ruined walls as being built with mortar also pointed to occupation in Muhammadan times. The day's short march took us first past a series of curious mesas, » #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937, ~ p. 232-3

※ SOURCE for: Dayah:
« Dayah » in {map#1113 Plate XV, Karl Müller, 1882, #2959 Karl Müller, Tabula in Geographi graeci minores, Firmin-Didot et sociis, Paris, 1882 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Dayyir:
« 8. According to the distance Najiram lay on the coast south of the Mand estuary, near the present-day Dayyir (Ist., 135: twelve farsakhs from Siraf Tomaschek, Nearch, p. 58; however, the indication of our § 6, 29. supported by the Fars-nama, p. 141, is in favour of Le Strange, who on his Map vi, places Najiram north of the Mänd river. » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937, ~ p. 377

※ SOURCE for: Dehir:
« Dehir » in {map#1111 Persian Gulf, Atlas von Asia map 12, Heinrich Berghaus, 1832-56, British Library Maps 51010.(2.)}

※ SOURCE for: Deyer:
« Deyer » in {map#1153 Sketch map showing the Route taken from Bushire following the coast line to the Port of Lingah, WH Colvill, 1865, Royal Geographical Society, London: Map Room, Iran S. 121}

Place Name: Dalaki
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059083 coordinate: lat 29.4294 long 51.2931
NIMA/GNS names: Dalaki , Daliki , دالكی ,
VARIANT names: Dalaki , Dálki , Dalky , Daulaky ,

※ SOURCE for: Dalaki:
« On the thirtieth of March, soon after three o'clock we set out from Burazjún, and by a bad and stony path, arrived at the village of Dálaki or Dálki. » #2876 William Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, More Particularly Persia Vol. 1, Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819, ~ vol. 1 pp. 257-8

※ SOURCE for: Dálki:
« On the thirtieth of March, soon after three o'clock we set out from Burazjún, and by a bad and stony path, arrived at the village of Dálaki or Dálki. » #2876 William Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, More Particularly Persia Vol. 1, Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819, ~ vol. 1 pp. 257-8

※ SOURCE for: Dalky:
« Dalky [name of place] | 12 [miles] | Road very stony, over uneven ground: the moun- tains on the right running parallel to the road, about six or seven furlongs distant. Dally is situated at the foot of the mountains. [remarks] » #3021 John Macdonald Kinneir, A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, John Murray, London, 1813 ~ Appendix p. 363

※ SOURCE for: Daulaky:
« Daulaky » in {map#1161 Route of H.M. Mission through Persia on 1809, , , #3070 James Justinian Morier, A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1812 ~}

Stream in grp 06HR11 name: Dalaki r.
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 29.391945 long 51.599678
VARIANT names: Dalaki r. ,

※ SOURCE for: Dalaki r.:
« Dalaki r. » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, Kazerun H-39P, , The University of Chicago}

Place Name: Dalma
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -782763 coordinate: lat 24.51099 long 52.308934
NIMA/GNS names: Dalma , Dalmah Island , Jazirat Dalmah ,
VARIANT names: Dalma , Dalmy , Delmephialmas , Jez Dalmah ,

※ SOURCE for: Dalma:
« The insular possessions of the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi are the islands of Arzanah, Daiyinah, Dalmah, Das, Qarnain, Salali, Yas and Zirko » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 p. 406

« Dalma is the best known of these, an island in the heart of the pearl banks which had a small permanent population, which was boosted during the pearling season, when it became an important centre. » #2817 Robert Carter, The History and Prehistory of Pearling in the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 2005 vol. 48:no. 2:pp. 139-209 ~ p. 142

« It is in these shallow waters that some of the best pearl banks in the Gulf are found, and the salt plug islands such as Dalma, which has fresh water all the year round, Sir Bani Yās, Zirkü, Dās and Halūl form natural anchorages for the pearling fleets in summer and fishing boats in winter. » #130 Wilkinson, John C., A Sketch of the Historical Geography of the Trucial Oman down to the beginning of the 16th Century, The Geographical Journal, London, 1964 130:3:337-49 ~ p. 337

« Dalma is the best known of these, an island in the heart of the pearl banks which had a small permanent population, which was boosted during the pearling season, when it became an important centre. The Hawar Islands, located 14 miles to the south east of Bahrain, may have been visited seasonally, » #2817 Robert Carter, The History and Prehistory of Pearling in the Persian Gulf, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 2005 vol. 48:no. 2:pp. 139-209 ~ p. 143

※ SOURCE for: Dalmy:
« Dalmy » in {map#1096 Persia with a part of Cabul and the adjacent countries, Arrowsmith, Aaron Jr., 1828, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 0035.027}

« Dalmy I. » in {map#910 Map of Arabia, Published by J. Walker, Geographer to the Honble East India Company, 1849, British Library, IOR/X/3206}

※ SOURCE for: Delmephialmas:
« Given the existence of so many wells there, it is hardly surprising that Balbi’s informant should have stressed the importance of Dalmaˆ for its water supplies, using words like Dalmaˆ, fiˆ maˆ’ or Dalmaˆ, fiˆ-haˆ maˆ’ or some such Arabic phrase, masked by Balbi in transliteration as Delmephialmas. » #2589 Geoffrey King, Delmephialmas and Sircorcor: Gasparo Balbi, Dalmâ , Julfâr and a problem of transliteration, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2006 pt. 17:pp. 248–252 ~ p. 250

※ SOURCE for: Jez Dalmah:
« Jez Dalmah » in {map#1033 Asia. Persian Gulf [173r], Guy, Brucks, Constable, Stiffe, 1933, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3924, f 173, in Qatar Digital Library}

Place Name: Damkut
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3185957 coordinate: lat 16.571139 long 52.836611
NIMA/GNS names: Damghut , Damkut , Damqat , Damqawt , Damqut , دمقوت ,
VARIANT names: Damkôt , Damkut , Damqūt , Neogeialla navale , Neogilla ,

※ SOURCE for: Damkôt:
« Der Stadiasmus, von Syagros angefangen, ist fast genau richtig: von Syagros quer durch die Bucht Omana 600 Stadien. Das bringt uns bis Damkôt (Neogilla navale); dann hohen Felsen entlang, deren Höhlen bewohnt werden, 500 Stadien. » #1332 Sprenger, A., Die alte Geographie Arabiens, Commissionsverlag Von Huber als Comp; Meridian Publising Co., Bern; Amsterdam, 1875;1966 ~ p. 92

※ SOURCE for: Damkut:
« We now come to Damkot. the principal sea.port, indeed the only one, in the bay of El Kamar. This is the eastern limit of the coastline of the Mahrah. Between Damkot and Ras Tbarbat AIi the ground is said to be neutral and inhabited both by Karah and Mahrah. Damkot (in lat. 16º 34." N. and long. 52º 52' E.) is situated on an irregular sandy plain about a mile square, and bounded on all sides except towards the sea by almost inaccessible mountains. » #2662 Henry John CARTER, Art. VI. A Geographical Description of Certain Parts of the Southeast Coast of Arabia, to which is appended a short essay on the comparative geography of the whole of this coast., Reprinted from the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1851 ~ p. 45

※ SOURCE for: Damqūt:
« DAMQUT- The only seaport in Qamar Bay, in Southern Arabia. It is situated in a valley at the western extreme of Jabal Qamar on an irregular plain about a mile square, and bounded on all sides, except the sea, by almost inaccessible mountains. On the western side of the plain is a salt-water khor, with a few date trees round it, and on a cliff immediately over the town, stands a ruined fort. The town consists of about 90 mud houses, with a population of about 400 souls, and there is a large burial ground there. There is a small export trade carried on in ghi, hides, and gums, and the inhabitants possess many small boats which are chiefly used for shark fishing during the fine season. A reef of rocks, on which the sea breaks, extends 11 cables from the shore; on the eastern side of this reef there is a good landing when the south-westerly swell is not too heavy, though at the same time the western side may be almost unapproachable. Damqut is the eastern limit of the coast-line of the Mahra tribe.-(Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot, 1909.) » #2726 Gazetteer of Arabia, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/2/2, 1917 ~ vol. 1 pp. 476-7

※ SOURCE for: Neogeialla navale:
Moving still eastward, the Neogeialla navale of Ptolemy answers well in relative position, though with great corruption of the Arabic name, to Ainad, a town about fifty miles E.N.E. of Hasec. It is obvious to remark, that the rare occurrence of eithcr port or town along this coast much heightens the probability of this identification. His next point, Hormanus Fl., therecan be no question, is the same with Harmin; although no river is marked in our modern maps, as falling into the sea at or near that sea-port. Abissa finds its name and site accurately represented by Abisagi; a town at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Bassa, between Harmin and Ras-al-Hhad. Inland, north of Abissa and its Gulf, the Didymi Montes of Ptolemy obviously correspond with the Palheiros mountains lying north of the Gulf of Bassas. This region is the Libanotophoros, or region of frankincense. Ptolemy's Bosara, lastly, tallies so closely in name with Masora, the last sea-port west of Rasal- Hhad, that the apparent difference of site may fairly be accounted for, by the wrong drawing of the coast; which, as represented in his map, is, here, again most confusedly contracted; but without the recurrence of another Magnum Littus, and Parvum Littus, to unfold it into its just proportions. We have now traversed the base of the Arabian peninsula, from its south-western to its southeastern extremity; where, beginning from the Corodanum Promontorium of Ptolemy, or Ras-al- Hhad, commences its eastern side, running, in a north-western direction, along the coast of Oman, and the Persian Gulf. #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Darf Punlishers Limited, London, 1846 ~ Vol.2 p. 181-3

D.T. Potts, DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Neogilla: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2019 link39396 [accessed: 10 March 2023] Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 16.730687, 52.785062

※ SOURCE for: Neogilla:
« D2 | Neogilla § Neogeiala | R | Damkot? OMN | Sprenger 1875.126 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ Directory MAP 4 ARABIA-AZANIA p. 48

D.T. Potts, DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Neogilla: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2019 at <pleiades.stoa.org/places/39396> (accessed: 10 Mar 2023) Pleiades Representative Point (Latitude, Longitude): 16.730687, 52.785062

Stream in grp 09M49 name: Dar al- Mizan
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 27.892399 long 52.532728 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dar al- Mizan ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dar al- Mizan:
« Dar al- Mizan » in {map#1219 in #3109 ed. St John Simpson, Sasanian Archaeology: Settlements, Environment and Material Culture, Archaeopress Archaeology, Oxford, 2022 ~ fig. Figure 4. Satellite map of the Siraf hinterlands with the map of identified sites (after Whitcomb 2009: 78)}

Place Name: Dar ol Mizan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059548 coordinate: lat 27.9411 long 52.485
NIMA/GNS names: Dar al Mizan , Dar el Mizan , Dar ol Mizan , Dara Yamizan , DarolMizan , Dehgah , دار المیزان ,
VARIANT names: Dar ol Mizan , Dar ul Mizan , Dehgah ,

※ SOURCE for: Dar ol Mizan:
« Dar ol Mizan » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

« Dar ol Mizan » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}


※ SOURCE for: Dehgah:
« Dar-ul-Mizan, reached at 17 miles and 18 miles, respectively, by alternative tracks. Dar-ul-Mizan whose old name is Dehgah has an ancient fort. Tracks diverge to Kürdeh and Garmusht each direct, also to Alā Murvdasht and Galehdär E. and Duzdgah W. »#3113 Routes in Persia. vol. III, part I., Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1918 ~ p. 162

Arch. Site in IRN name: Darūnak
UTM: 591707 E, 3247282 N converted to coordinate: lat 29.3513335221676 long 51.9447410530012
VARIANT names: Darūnak ,

※ SOURCE for: Darūnak:
« Darūnak » in {map#1174 Figure 1. Distribution of the tal-e khandaghs studied (Encarta 2009)., , , #3086 Parsa Ghasemi, Tal-e Khandagh (“Moated Mound”): A Military Structure in Ancient Fars, Near Eastern Archaeology, 2012 vol. 75:no. 4:pp. 240-251 ~}

«The Tal-e Khandagh at Darūnak » #3086 Parsa Ghasemi, Tal-e Khandagh (“Moated Mound”): A Military Structure in Ancient Fars, Near Eastern Archaeology, 2012 vol. 75:no. 4:pp. 240-251 ~ p.240

Place Name: Dara Kan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059272 coordinate: lat 28.838767 long 54.183482
NIMA/GNS names: Dara Kan , Dara Kuyeh , Daraku , Darakubeh , Darkuyeh , Deh Kooyeh , دارا کان , دارا کویه , دارکویه ,
VARIANT names: Dara Kan ,

※ SOURCE for: Dara Kan:
« This route passed Tarom, Forgh, Rustak, Darab, Darakan, Fasa, Sarvestan and then Shiraz, and from there onwards to Isfahan. This was the normal trade route prior the reign of Shah `Abbas I (1587-1629) . » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 252 and #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 67

Place Name: Darab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059243 coordinate: lat 28.751706 long 54.540646
NIMA/GNS names: Darab , Darab-e Do , داراب , داراب ? ,
VARIANT names: Darab , Darābegird , Darabgird ,

※ SOURCE for: Darab:
« This route passed Tarom, Forgh, Rustak, Darab, Darakan, Fasa, Sarvestan and then Shiraz, and from there onwards to Isfahan. This was the normal trade route prior the reign of Shah `Abbas I (1587-1629) . » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 252 and #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 67

« Darab » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars}

※ SOURCE for: Darābegird:
« Darābegird-Siraf. Darābegird 1 Tag Hasū » #1717 Schwarz, Paul, Iran im Mittelalter nach arabischen Geographen, ~ p. 201

※ SOURCE for: Darabgird:
« In the central and comparatively well-watered portion of the Darab district circular ramparts, still imposing in their decay and adjoined by a great fosse, guard the site of Darabgird, measuring fully a mile in diameter. Surface remains within clearly proved occupation extending from late pre-Muhammadan to mediaeval times. The view from a rocky hill in the centre indicated »#886 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, An Archaeological Tour in the Ancient Persis.The Persian province of Fars, The Geographical Journal, London, 1935 (Dec.), 86:6:489-97 ~ p. 495

« Darabagird VI D4 Ruines à 5 km au Sud de Darab Iran Capitale (gasaba) de la circonscription du même nom 1 97, 107, 123, 127, 128, 134, 136, Η 262, 264, 272, 278, 300, Hur 46, 47, 52, 53, Qud 242, F 196, 198, 203, 204, 208, R 106, Muq 52, 420, 422, 428, 442, 443, 447, 448, 452, 454 Yaq II, 560-61, LS 289, DKI 150, EI II 139 » #2912 Georgette Cornu, Atlas du monde arabo-islamique a l'epoque classique IXe-Xe siecles, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1985, ~ p. 48

« In Fars, a series of large, royal cities at Firuzabad, Bishapur, and Darabgird provide most of our archaeological evidence for settlement patterns in the heart of the empire. »#2357 Editor(s):D. T. Potts, A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2012, ~ p. 1079

Place Name: Darenjan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059415 coordinate: lat 29.4088 long 52.336
NIMA/GNS names: Darengan , Darengun , Darenjan , Darenjan-e Siakh , Darinjan , دارنجان , دارنگون ,
VARIANT names: Darenjan ,

※ SOURCE for: Darenjan:
3088

Place Name: Darin
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3094365 coordinate: lat 26.5469444 long 50.0769444
NIMA/GNS names: Darain , Darin ,
VARIANT names: Darin ,

※ SOURCE for: Darin:
« In A.D. 676, George, Catholicos and Patriarch of the East, attended a synod at Dārin on the island of Tārūt in Saudi Arabia. Those attending this synod included Thomas, metropolitan bishop of Bet Qatraye, Iso‘ yahb bishop of Dārin, Sergius, bishop of Trihan, Stephanus, bishop of the Mazūniye; Pousai, bishop of Hagar (Hajar; al-Hasā’, inland in Saudi Arabia) and Sahin, bishop of Haffa or Khatt (al-Qafif, Saudi Arabia). The identity of Trihan is unclear. While these clerics met at the church at Diirin, they had previously made visits to the islands and other places.» #1262 King, G. R. D., A Nestorian Monastic Settlement on the Island of Sir Bani Yas, Abu Dhabi: A Preliminary Report, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1997, 60:2:221-35 ~ p. 234

Place Name: Dariz
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -785824 coordinate: lat 23.317838 long 56.615007
NIMA/GNS names: Ad Dariz , Ad Diriz , Dariz , الدريز ,
VARIANT names: Dariz ,


Stream in grp 05RS02 name: Darreh Dun
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3760483 coordinate: lat 29.4368 long 50.7778
NIMA/GNS names: Darreh Dun , دره دون ,
VARIANT names: Darreh Dun ,


Stream in grp 01Z24 name: Darreh Gijak
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3064320 coordinate: lat 30.083333 long 51.783333
NIMA/GNS names: Darreh Gijak ,
VARIANT names: Darreh Gijak ,


Stream in grp 03DG01 name: Darreh-ye Gap
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3063466 coordinate: lat 29.534554 long 50.533118
NIMA/GNS names: Darreh Gap , Darreh-ye Gap , Rud-e Darreh Gap , Rudkhaneh-ye Darreh Gap , رود دره گپ , رودخانه دره گپ ,
VARIANT names: Darreh-ye Gap , Khalele fl. ,


※ SOURCE for: Khalele fl.:
« Khalele fl. » in {map#1143 Tab XV Nearchi Navigatio ab Indo ad Euphratum, Karl Müller, 1855, #2730 Karl Müller, Geographi graeci minores tabulae, Editore Ambrosia Firmin Didot, Paris, 1855 ~}

Place Name: Darreh-ye Khankak
NIMA/GNS feature: VAL UFI: 11793402 coordinate: lat 27.834606 long 52.386737
NIMA/GNS names: Darreh-ye Khankak , دره خنکک ,
VARIANT names: Darreh-ye Khankak ,


Stream in grp 08AB03 name: Darreh-ye Khavreh
NIMA/GNS feature: STMI UFI: -3059688 coordinate: lat 29.041428 long 51.089988
NIMA/GNS names: Darreh Khoreh , Darreh-ye Khavreh , Darreh-ye Khoreh , Darreh-ye Korreh , دَرِّۀ خَورِه , دره خره , دره کره , درۀ خره ,
VARIANT names: Darreh-ye Khavreh ,


Place Name: Darreh-ye Lir
NIMA/GNS feature: VAL UFI: 11800345 coordinate: lat 27.670852 long 52.342074
NIMA/GNS names: Darreh-ye Lir , دره لیر ,
VARIANT names: Darreh-ye Lir , Tang-i Lir ,


※ SOURCE for: Tang-i Lir:
« Tang-i Lir » in {map#1128 Plan 17 Sketch Plan of Siraf (Tahiri), , , #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~}

Place Name: Daryacheh-i-Maharlu
NIMA/GNS feature: LK UFI: -3073425 coordinate: lat 29.4491 long 52.8176
NIMA/GNS names: Daryacheh-i-Maharlu , Daryacheh-ye Maharlu , Daryacheh-ye Namak , Maharlu , Maharlu Lacke , Maharlu Lake , دریاچه مهارلو ,
VARIANT names: Daryacheh-i-Maharlu , Namakistān ,


※ SOURCE for: Namakistān:
« Near here is the Salt Lake [Namakistān] (1), where no fish or creature can exist for its saltness. fn. 1 Not marked on the map. » #3047 G. Le Strange, Description of the Province of Fars, in Persia, at the Beginning of the Twelfth Century A.D. Translated from the MS. of Ibn-al-Balkhi, in the British Museum, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1912 pp. 1-30, pp. 311-339, pp. 865-889 ~ pp. 327-8

Place Name: Daryacheh-ye Famur
NIMA/GNS feature: LK UFI: -3062622 coordinate: lat 29.518501 long 51.796384
NIMA/GNS names: D. Famur , Daryacheh-i-Famur , Daryacheh-ye Famur , Daryacheh-ye Parishan , Parishan , Pir Shun , پریشان , پیر شون , دریاچه پریشان ,
VARIANT names: Daryacheh-ye Famur , Lake Muz , Lake of Famour ,

※ SOURCE for: Daryacheh-ye Famur:
3088

※ SOURCE for: Lake Muz:
« The plain of Kazerun extends toward the southeast past Lake Famur (called Lake Muz, 1st. 121, 12), a large shallow lake well-supplied with fish and surrounded by pastureland. » #3094 Donald Whitcomb, Trade and Tradition In Medieval Southern Iran - Thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1979 ~ p. 77

※ SOURCE for: Lake of Famour:


« 325 to Robat ... ½ mile N. came in sight of Lake of Famiour » #3038 Keith E. Abbott, Notes Taken on a Journey Eastwards from Shiráz to Fessá and Darab, Thence Westwards by Jehrúm to Kazerún, in 1850, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, London, 1857 ~ p. 182

Place Name: Das
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -782778 coordinate: lat 25.15 long 52.883333
NIMA/GNS names: Das , Das , Das Island , Das Island Terminal ,
VARIANT names: Das , Dauss ,

※ SOURCE for: Das:
« The insular possessions of the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi are the islands of Arzanah, Daiyinah, Dalmah, Das, Qarnain, Salali, Yas and Zirko » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915, ~ vol. 2 p. 406

« It is in these shallow waters that some of the best pearl banks in the Gulf are found, and the salt plug islands such as Dalma, which has fresh water all the year round, Sir Bani Yās, Zirkü, Dās and Halūl form natural anchorages for the pearling fleets in summer and fishing boats in winter. » #130 Wilkinson, John C., A Sketch of the Historical Geography of the Trucial Oman down to the beginning of the 16th Century, The Geographical Journal, London, 1964 130:3:337-49 ~ p. 337

※ SOURCE for: Dauss:
« Dauss » in {map#1096 Persia with a part of Cabul and the adjacent countries, Arrowsmith, Aaron Jr., 1828, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 0035.027}

Place Name: Dasht-e Arzhan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059990 coordinate: lat 29.660709 long 51.985157
NIMA/GNS names: Dachte-Arjan , Dasht-e Arjan , Dasht-e Arzhan , Dasht-e Arzhaneh , Dasht-i- Arjan , دشت ار?ن ,
VARIANT names: Dasht-Arjun , Dasht-e Arzhan ,

※ SOURCE for: Dasht-Arjun:
« 23rd February, Dasht-Arjun, 8 farsakhs ; 6.30 a.m. to 8 p.m. The stage from Qazran to Dasht-Arjun is the best of all in point of scenery, but it is a long day's march thirty-two miles, with two kotals. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ p. 39

« Dasht-Arjun village was dimly seen at the farther end. Night fell before we reached the telegraph-station. … We were hospitably welcomed in the telegraph- office, and rejoiced in a warm fire and a good dinner. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ p. 42

※ SOURCE for: Dasht-e Arzhan:
3079 abb.5

Place Name: Dasht-e Azadegan
NIMA/GNS feature: PLN UFI: 10334818 coordinate: lat 28.5788 long 52.3949
NIMA/GNS names: Dasht-e Azadegan , دشت آزادگان ,
VARIANT names: Azadigan , Dasht-e Azadegan ,

※ SOURCE for: Azadigan:
« Azadigan » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}


Place Name: Dasht-e Barin
NIMA/GNS feature: PLNU independent coordinate: lat 29.252486 long 51.741718 † see notes (d,p)
VARIANT names: Dasht-e Barin ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dasht-e Barin:
« He is said to have come from a town (qaryah) called Abruwan(267) in the rural district of Dasht-i Bārin(268) in the province of Ardashir Khurrah. He had lofty buildings erected there and at Jirih, in the province of Sabur, because of the contiguity of that and Dasht-i Barin, fn. 267. The text has 'b.r.wan, but the form of this name is uncertain. It may possibly be the Artuwan of al-Maqdisi, Ahsan al-taqasim, 258, in the list of the towns and districts of Säsänid Persia attributed to Qubadh (I), son of Fayrüz, or the Arduwal/Arduwan of Yaqut, Buldan, I, 149, as a small town of southwestern Persia. fn. 268. The "plain of Barin" was a district of southwestern Färs whose urban center was in Islamic times Ghundijän. See Nöldeke, trans. III n. 4; Le Strange, Lands, 260, 268, 294; Schwarz, Iran, 68-70. » #3081 trans: C. E. Bosworth, The History of al-Tabari, State University of New York Press, New York, 1999 ~ vol. 5 p. 105

« According to archaeological evidence and the Early Islamic historical and geographical records, Dasht-e Barin or Ghandejan is the name for an ancient city situated between Bishapour, Firouzabad (Ardashir Khurreh), and Tavaj or Tuz (Borazjan). The oldest name for this city is Dasht-e Barin that is also the name for Sar Mashhad plain. Mehr Narseh was born at Abravan in Sar Mashhad plain, and Abravan village should be one of the archaeological sites of Sar Mashhad plain. According to Early Islamic historical and geographical documents, the city of Ghandejan was well-known for his famous scholars and virtuous people like Al-Aswad Ghandejani, the production of cotton textiles, kilim rug and Jajim weaving and cushion making, and its location in-between Shiraz to Seif (seashore) as a resting point for travelers. Ibn Khordadbeh is the first person who mentioned this city in 230 A.H. and Ibn Faghih and Ibn Khordadbeh report on the placement of the city at the western border of Ardashir Khorreh, between Jereh and Tavaj (Borazjan). » #3084 Parsa Ghasemi, Preliminary Report on the Identification of Ghandejan / Dasht-e Barin City Center on Sar Mashhad Plain, North of the Persian Gulfگزارش مقدماتی از شناسایی موقعیت شهر باستانی غندجان/ دشت بارین در دشت سر مشهد ? شمال دریای پارس, Journal of Iranian Archaeology, 2013 no. 3:65-71 ~ p. 69

Place Name: Dashti
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060048 coordinate: lat 27.496238 long 54.152326
NIMA/GNS names: Dashti , دشتی ,
VARIANT names: Dashti ,


Place Name: Dasht-i-Dal
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 28.651108 long 53.110889
VARIANT names: Dasht-i-Dal ,

※ SOURCE for: Dasht-i-Dal:
« Dasht-i-Dal » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} Shraz 444-C

« Que la vallée de Simkân, voie naturelle pour la grande rocade préislamique dont on décèle çà et là des éléments, que la vallée du Qara-Aghach aient été aménagées, des ponts anciens (pont d'Isfal, pont de Zagh, pont de Dasht-i Dal, Pul-i 'Arüs) en témoignent sans équivoque. Au sud de Laghar la route du XIIe siècle rejoignait à Kurän la médiane Däräb-Siräf. fn. 58 Sur le pont d'Isfal, cf. FJ VII, p. 67 col. b; le pont "qui a dû être restauré récemment, entre Kirateh et Zagh signalé par M. Vanden Berghe (lettre du 16.XI.1962). Pour l'emplacement des deux autres ouvrages, voir la carte donnée par M. Vanden Berghe, op. cit., entre les pages 198 et 199. Je dois à l'amabilité de M. Vanden Berghe la communication de remarquables photographies, ainsi que les renseignements suivants (lettre citée): "Le pont sur le Qara Aghadj au nord de Dasht-i Dal est situé en amont du confluent de la rivière qui vient du Kuh-i Maimand et du Qara Aghadj. Le Pul-i Arus est beaucoup mieux conservé; il est situé à 20 km au sud de Qir. Il y a aujourd'hui une piste qui conduit de Qir à Makku-Saifabad et de là vers Khundj... La partie inférieure du pont est probablement de l'époque sassanide, le reste évidemment est islamique." fn. 59 Médiane mentionnée par Muqaddasi, p. 454; cf. Le Strange, Lands, p. 296. [That the Simkân valley, a natural route for the great pre-Islamic ring road, elements of which can be detected here and there, that the Qara-Aghach valley were developed, ancient bridges (Isfal bridge, Zagh bridge, Dasht-i Dal bridge, Pul-i 'Arüs) unequivocally testify to this. South of Laghar the 12th century road joined the Däräb-Siräf median at Kurän. fn. 58 On the Isfal bridge, cf. FJ VII, p. 67 col. b; the bridge "which had to be restored recently, between Kirateh and Zagh reported by Mr. Vanden Berghe (letter of 16.XI.1962). For the location of the two other works, see the map given by Mr. Vanden Berghe, op . cit., between pages 198 and 199. I owe to the kindness of Mr. Vanden Berghe the communication of remarkable photographs, as well as the following information (letter cited): "The bridge over the Qara Aghadj north of Dasht- i Dal is located upstream of the confluence of the river which comes from the Kuh-i Maimand and the Qara Aghadj. The Pul-i Arus is much better preserved; it is located 20 km south of Qir. Today there is a track which leads from Qir to Makku-Saifabad and from there to Khundj... The lower part of the bridge is probably from the Sasanian period, the rest is obviously Islamic." fn. 59 Median mentioned by Muqaddasi, p. 454; cf. The Strange, Lands, p. 296. ] » #893 Aubin, Jean, La Survie de Shilāu et la route du Khunj-o-Fāl, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1969, 7:21-37 ~ p. 28

Place Name: Dawan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060149 coordinate: lat 29.701811 long 51.675528
NIMA/GNS names: Davan , Dawan , Dovan , دوان ,
VARIANT names: Dawan ,

※ SOURCE for: Dawan:
« fn. 2 For Ramm or Zamm see Introduction, p. 13. Dūdhin and Davvän are mentioned by Istakhri, p. 112. Davan is still the name of a village lying 21 lengues to the north of Käzirün, » #3077 G. Le Strange, Description of the Province of Fars, in Persia, at the Beginning of the Twelfth Century A.D. from the MS. of Ibn-al-Balkhi, in the British Museum Asiatic Society Monographs XIV, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1912 ~ p. 43

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dawhat al-Shisah (Biagi2)
UTM: DQ438008 converted to coordinate: lat 26.2256907922277 long 56.4373622500212
VARIANT names: Dawhat al-Shisah (Biagi2) ,

※ SOURCE for: Dawhat al-Shisah (Biagi2):
#2803 Biagi, P., New Rock Art Sites in the Musandam Peninsula, Sultanate of Oman, Bulletin of the Society for Arabian Studies, 2003 ~ p.24

Place Name: Dawhat Shisah
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -788892 coordinate: lat 26.265366 long 56.438444
NIMA/GNS names: Dawhat ash Shisah , Dawhat ash Shisha , Dawhat ash Shishah , Dawhat Shisah , Dohat ash Shisha , Duhat Shisah , دوحة شيصة ,
VARIANT names: Dawhat Shisah ,

※ SOURCE for: Dawhat Shisah:
«Shisah (Dohat) درجة شيصة On the east coast, between Musandam island and Ghubbat Shābūs. The northern entrance of this inlet is known as Ras Qabr Hindi قبر هندي Hindi a name which local tradition explains by affirming that many years ago an Indian who died on board an Indian sailing vessel was buried here by his companions. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1613

Place Name: Deh Kharabeh `Asef
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN UFI: -3053833 coordinate: lat 29.8509 long 52.5883
NIMA/GNS names: Asaf , Asef , Asefabad , Deh Kharabeh `Asef , Deh Kharabeh-ye `Asef , Deh-e Kharabeh-ye Asef , Kharabeh-ye Asaf , آصف آباد ,
VARIANT names: Deh Kharabeh `Asef ,


Place Name: Deh Kohneh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3760596 coordinate: lat 29.472351 long 50.99524
NIMA/GNS names: Deh Kohneh , Deh Kuhneh , Deh-e Kohneh , Shabankareh , ده كهنه , شبانکاره ,
VARIANT names: Deh Kohneh ,


Place Name: Deh Now
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060710 coordinate: lat 29.4458 long 52.6342
NIMA/GNS names: Deh Now , Deh-i-Nau , ده نو ,
VARIANT names: Deh Now , Deh-i-Nau ,


※ SOURCE for: Deh-i-Nau:
« 10th March, Kavar, 6 farsakhs ; 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. They unbarred the gates of Deh-i-Nau at six o'clock next morning, and drove their cattle afield » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 76

« 9th March, Deh-i-Nau, 4 farsakhs ; 1.20p.m. to 5.20 p.m. On the 9th of March I bade farewell to Dr. Odling's hospitable house, and started with five mules for Deh-i-Nau. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 72

Place Name: Deh Rud
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060832 coordinate: lat 29.030222 long 51.63128
NIMA/GNS names: Deh Rud , Dehrud-e `Olya , Dehrud-e Bala , Dehrud-e pa'in , دهرود بالا , دهرود علیا ,
VARIANT names: Deh Rud ,

※ SOURCE for: Deh Rud:
« DehRud » in {map#1139 Sketch Map of the River Mand or Kara-Aghatch, , , #1453 Ross, E. C., Notes on the River Mand, or Kara-Aghatch (The Sitakos of the Ancients) in Southern Persia, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, London, 1883 (Dec.) New Monthly Series 5:12:712-6 ~}

Place Name: Deh Shaikh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060860 coordinate: lat 29.634105 long 52.31717882
NIMA/GNS names: Deh Shaikh , Deh Sheykh , ده شیخ ,
VARIANT names: Deh Shaikh ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Deh Shaikh FOR Kala Mushir [Adamec],

※ SOURCE for: Deh Shaikh:
« Deh Shaikh » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collectiofig. Shiraz-444-C}

« DEH SHAIKΗ (1) ??ده شیخ?? 29-38 52-19 m. Elevation 5,450 feet. A village in Fars, 1 mile north of the road from Shiraz to Bushire and 21 miles west of the former town. It is also called Kaleh Mushir. The village has strong masonry walls and a grey mud fort. (Trotter, Stack; I.B., Q.M.G.; W.O., 1881, part 2; Newcomen, 1905.) » #3005 Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical gazetteer of Iran, Akademische Drucku, Verlagsanstalt, 1976-1989 ~ p. 214

« Deh Shakh (farm) » #3005 Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical gazetteer of Iran, Akademische Drucku, Verlagsanstalt, 1976-1989 ~ in map section III-38-A

Place Name: Deh-e Dombeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059156 coordinate: lat 28.216667 long 53.733333
NIMA/GNS names: Damcheh , Deh Dumbeh , Deh-e Dombeh ,
VARIANT names: Deh Dombeh , Deh-e Dombeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Deh Dombeh:
« Deh Dombeh » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars}


Place Name: Dehga
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060550 coordinate: lat 28.4885 long 52.2583
NIMA/GNS names: Deh Gah , Dehga , دهگا ,
VARIANT names: Dehga ,


Place Name: Dehistan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060522 coordinate: lat 28.4738 long 55.5697
NIMA/GNS names: Dehestan-e Bala , Dehistan , Hoseynabad , حسين آباد , دهستان بالا ,
VARIANT names: Dehistan ,

※ SOURCE for: Dehistan:
« 31st March, Dehistan, 5 farsakhs ; 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. Next day we descended the back of the mountains, down a long gently-sloping plateau, to a small half-brackish river which waters three small villages, with the help also of a qanat led from the northern heights. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 161

Place Name: Dehkuh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060625 coordinate: lat 27.8537 long 54.4237
NIMA/GNS names: Deh Kooyeh , Dehkuh , Dehkuyeh , دهکویه ,
VARIANT names: Dahkuh , Dehkuh , Dehkūyeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Dahkuh:
« Dahkuh » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}


※ SOURCE for: Dehkūyeh:
« The rest, after escaping from that terrible passage and traveling on level ground, finally arrived, with most of the caravan, in a small town consisting of just a few houses, called Dehkūyeh, next to which there was a caravanserai in partial ruins—it would be impossible for anyone to seek shelter there—and so everyone made themselves as comfortable as possible in the [fol. 212r] open air amid the cargo, the Ambassador climbing into his litter to rest a while. »#2651 trans. and ed; Jeffrey S. Turley and George Bryan Souza, The Commentaries of D. García de Silva y Figueroa on his Embassy to Shah ʿAbbās I of Persia on Behalf of Philip III, King of Spain, Brill, Leiden, 2017, ~ p. 316

Place Name: Dehram
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3060824 coordinate: lat 28.4919 long 52.3048
NIMA/GNS names: Dehram , دهرم ,
VARIANT names: Dehram ,


Place Name: Denian
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3059232 coordinate: lat 28.512844 long 53.767702
NIMA/GNS names: Danian , Danyan , Denian , Denyan , دنیان ,
VARIANT names: Denian ,


Place Name: Deris
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061058 coordinate: lat 29.685542 long 51.579956
NIMA/GNS names: Deris , Pir Deriz , Pir-i-Diriz , دریس ,
VARIANT names: Deris , Derrees ,

※ SOURCE for: Deris:
« During the first part of this dais journey, the road exhibited such numerous remains of houses, that Cazerúm, connected on the other side with Deris, by the series of buildings still visible in ruins, might be said, with its gardens, to have once occupied a line of eight or nine miles. » #2876 William Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, More Particularly Persia Vol. 1, Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819, ~ vol. 1 p. 302

« He extended his sway north and south and took the Rahdar caravanserai and the Tang-e Torkan, thus commanding the main road to Kazerun. His Kashkuli rival, Mohammad Khan, had similar ambitions regarding villages in Kamarej and Khesht and tried to take Deris near Kazerun. » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 165

※ SOURCE for: Derrees:
« Derrees » in {map#1161 Route of H.M. Mission through Persia on 1809, , , #3070 James Justinian Morier, A Journey Through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1812 ~}

Place Name: Dezh Gah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061768 coordinate: lat 28.163 long 52.2538
NIMA/GNS names: Dezh Gah , Dozgah , د? گاه ,
VARIANT names: Dezgah , Dezh Gah , Dezhgah , Dizgah , Duzdgah , Pas Rudak ,

※ SOURCE for: Dezgah:
« A 8 heures nous sommes prêts à partir. De Dar ol-Mizan à Dezgah (prononcé Dozgah) il y a deux chemins, l'un suivant la vallée, l'autre, qui serait plus court. par Kourdeh »#3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p. 122


※ SOURCE for: Dezhgah:
« Siraf; (2) to Galehdar concentrating on the western end of this long valley; (3) further examination of the Jam valley and the routes to the west and north as far as the valley of Dezhgah. » #3160 Donald Whitcomb, Archaeological Surveys in the Highlands behind Siraf, in: , Proceedings of the Intemational Congress of Siraf Port, Bushehr Branch of Iranology Foundation, Bushehr, Iran, 2005, pp. 94-108 ~ pp. 94-5

※ SOURCE for: Dizgah:
« Dizgah » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

※ SOURCE for: Duzdgah:
« ROUTE NO 33-contd. PAS RUDAK (DUZDGA). 20 m. General direction E. by S. The track, which from Ab-i-Nilü to Bunbid ... » #3113 Routes in Persia. vol. III, part I., Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1918 ~ p. 171

※ SOURCE for: Pas Rudak:
« ROUTE NO 33-contd. PAS RUDAK (DUZDGA). 20 m. General direction E. by S. The track, which from Ab-i-Nilü to Bunbid ... » #3113 Routes in Persia. vol. III, part I., Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1918 ~ p. 171

Place Name: Dhadna
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782742 coordinate: lat 25.524217 long 56.35868
NIMA/GNS names: Dadna , Dadna , Dadnah , Dhadna ,
VARIANT names: Dhadna , Reetna ,

※ SOURCE for: Dhadna:


SEE Rul Dadnah FOR CONTENT

※ SOURCE for: Reetna:
« Two miles to the southward of Ras Dibbah is the fort and village of Rual ; a mile and a half further Reema ; six miles to the southward of which is a similar place, called Chunum ; between which and Khore Fukaun are the villages of Beddya and Zebana, between which villages there is a rocky islet half a mile off shore. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p.624

Place Name: Dhahran
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3093628 coordinate: lat 26.3041667 long 50.1325
NIMA/GNS names: Az Zahran , Dahahron , Dhahram , Dhahran , Zahran ,
VARIANT names: Dhahran ,

※ SOURCE for: Dhahran:
#411 p. 84

Place Name: Dhaid
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782081 coordinate: lat 25.288123 long 55.881571
NIMA/GNS names: Adh Dhaid , Adh Dhayd , Al Daid , Al-Dhayd , Dayd , Dhaid , Dhayd , Duhayd , Ihaid , الذيد ,
VARIANT names: Dhaid ,


Place Name: Dhalqut
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -789152 coordinate: lat 16.704025 long 53.242194
NIMA/GNS names: Dalkut , Dalkut , Dhalqut , Thalfut , Zalkut , ضلكوت , ظلكوت ,
VARIANT names: Dhalqut ,

※ SOURCE for: Dhalqut:
« Palkut (Dhalqut), a grove of trees, stands about 14 miles ENE of the village of Hawf. Al Kharifut, a fertile valley, lies about 5 miles farther E. Rakhyut and Safqut, two separate villages, stand about 10 and 13 miles ENE, respectively, of Palkut. Ras Sajr is located 6 miles E of the village of Safqut. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~ p. 190

Place Name: Dhank
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786686 coordinate: lat 23.550541 long 56.257252
NIMA/GNS names: Danak , Dank , Dank , Dhank , ضنك ,
VARIANT names: Dhank ,


Place Name: Dhofar
NIMA/GNS feature: RGN UFI: -789419 coordinate: lat 17.0425 long 54.165278
NIMA/GNS names: Dhaufar , Dhofar , Dhofar Proper , Dhufar , Dhufar Plain , Dufar , Zufar ,
VARIANT names: Dhafar , Dhofar , Diufar , Dofar , Dufar , Nu-fa , Tsu-fa-ir , Zufar ,

※ SOURCE for: Dhafar:
« I bent my steps toward the ruins of Dhafar — the Saphar of Scripture, the Dufar of Marco Polo. There is another town of the same name at the foot of the Sumara Mountains, about ten miles southwest of Yerim, in the Imaumate of Sana — and the two have sometimes been Confounded by oriental geographers. But it is probable that the one to which I now took my way is that spoken of by the historian Maçoudi, who tells us that most of the Hamyarite kings used to reside at Dhafar. And as that city, enriched by its commercial relations with the Indies, was the most interesting of the towns of southern Arabia, there is reason to suppose that its namesake of western Yémen was built and so called in a spirit of rivalry by the sovereign of some petty province, whose ambition it was to say "I reign at Dhafar!" At the present day the name Dhafar — signifying metropolis — is applied no longer to any particular town here, but belongs to a series of villages situated upon or near the coast of the Indian Ocean, between the headlands of Schedjer, Merbat, and Noss. At one of these villages — El-Belid by name — I found some magnificent ruins, in the architecture of which the elliptic arch and the ogee are discernible. The stones of these ruined buildings are cut with geometrical precision, and to each house there was attached a mosque or oratory » #2690 Co. Louis Du Couret, Life in the Desert or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa, Mason Brothers, New York, 1860 ~ p.429

※ SOURCE for: Dhofar:
« For some forty years the all-powerful Turks, by the despatch of several naval expeditions, by reducing the Yemen and occupying various stations on the Arab littoral, had striven to destroy the growing power and commerce in the East, but they do not appear to have extended their hostile operations to the Persian Gulf until the year 1546, when four Turkish galliots, cruising from the Red Sea, sailed along the South Arabian Coast, and after destroying Kisheen and Dhofar, anchored at Muscat and bombarded the town. The Turkish guns were of very large calibre and threw cast-iron shot of a prodigious size into the place, causing terrible consternation and dismay but not much damage. The Turkish commander, however, did not venture to land his men, and sailed away again as emptvhanded as he came. Some days later a vessel arrived from Dhofar bringing the son of the ruler of that province as envoy from his father, to complain of the Turkish proceedings in having battered their town, and built a castle there for their own garrison. The envoy having besought the protection of the Portuguese against the Turks, the Governor of Muscat decided it politic to comply, and issued orders for the Portuguese vessels cruising in the Gulf of Aden against Moorish traders to touch occasionally at Dhofar. » #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994, ~ pp. 167-8

※ SOURCE for: Diufar:
« DIUFAR. Leaving Cape Fartach towards the coast of the open sea to the north-east by east, going along the coast L leagues off is a town of the Moors and sea-port called Diufar,(2) a city of the kingdom of Fartach, in which the Moors of Cambay trade in cotton stuffs, rice, and other goods. fn.2 Dolfar, Ortelius » #2616 Duarte Barbosa, A Description of the Coasts of East Africa And Malabar in the beginning of the sixteenth century , by Duarte Barbosa, A Portuguese . Translated from an early Spanish Manuscript in the Barcelona Library with Notes and a Preface byThe Hon. Henry E. J. Stanley, printed for the Hakluyt Society, London, 1866 ~ p.30

※ SOURCE for: Dofar:
« Em princípios de Abril, de acordo com as ordens que recebera, D. Fernando dirigiu-se para Mascate, navegando ao longo da costa da Arábia. De caminho, desembarcou em Dofar, a fim de tentar conquistar um forte que os Fartaques tinham tomado aos Arabes da região, nossos aliados. Porém, depois de vários combates, acabou por desistir por não ter possibilidade, devido à ondulação, de desembarcar a artilharia pesada necessária para o bater. » [At the beginning of April, in accordance with the orders he had received, D. Fernando headed for Muscat, sailing along the coast of Arabia. On the way, he landed at Dofar, in order to try to conquer a fort that the Phartaques had taken from the Arabs of the region, our allies. However, after several battles, he ended up giving up because he was unable, due to the swell, to land the heavy artillery needed to beat him.] #2821 Monteiro, Armando da Silva Saturnino, Batalhas e combates da Marinha Portuguesa, 1992 ~ vol. 3 p. 163

※ SOURCE for: Dufar:
« Nu-fa is Zufar, the modern Dhofar (Lib), the Dufar of Polo, about 400 miles E of Shehr Yule, op. cit., II. 441-442. Heyd, op. cit., II, 615. Ming-shi, 326, calls it Tsu-fa-ir » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 pp. 116, 121 fn.12

※ SOURCE for: Nu-fa:
« Nu-fa is Zufar, the modern Dhofar (Lib), the Dufar of Polo, about 400 miles E of Shehr Yule, op. cit., II. 441-442. Heyd, op. cit., II, 615. Ming-shi, 326, calls it Tsu-fa-ir » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 pp. 116, 121 fn.12

※ SOURCE for: Tsu-fa-ir:
« Nu-fa is Zufar, the modern Dhofar (Lib), the Dufar of Polo, about 400 miles E of Shehr Yule, op. cit., II. 441-442. Heyd, op. cit., II, 615. Ming-shi, 326, calls it Tsu-fa-ir » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 pp. 116, 121 fn.12

※ SOURCE for: Zufar:
« Nu-fa is Zufar, the modern Dhofar (Lib), the Dufar of Polo, about 400 miles E of Shehr Yule, op. cit., II. 441-442. Heyd, op. cit., II, 615. Ming-shi, 326, calls it Tsu-fa-ir » #326 Chau Ju-kua (trans. Hirth, F and Rockhill, W W), His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelth and thriteenth centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi, Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1911 pp. 116, 121 fn.12

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibab (DB1)
UTM: GL108541 converted to coordinate: lat 23.082164480659 long 59.0578953213088
VARIANT names: Dibab (DB1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibab (DB1):
« Shell midden » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Place Name: Dibba
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 25.627341 long 56.255633
VARIANT names: Daba , Dabanegoris Regio , Dibah , Dibba , Dibbah ,

※ SOURCE for: Daba:
« We do not hear anything of Ar' Riddah or apostates in Oman, with the exception of the incident transmitted by Al-Bilathuri (d 279 AH/892 AD) in Furuh Al-Buldan, Al-Tabari (d 310AH/922 AD) in his history and Ibn A'atham Al-Kufi (d 314 AH/926 AD) in Kitab Al-Futuh, as well as the writings of those scholars who transcribed from the abovementioned, such as Ibn Al-Atheer (d 630 AH/1232 AD) in his book Al-Kamel fi Al-Tarikh. They note that the Azd recanted and Luqait bin Malik Dhu'l Taj Al-Azdi withdrew to Daba. Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq dispatched Hodheifa bin Mohsen Al-Ghulfani (or Hodheifa bin Mohsen Al-Barqi) of the Azd and Akrama bin Abi Jahl bin Hisham Al- Makhzumi or Arifja Al-Barqi to meet them. Encountering Luqait and his escort they killed him and sent captives from Daba to Abu Bakr. It was said of Luqait bin Malik that he was known to the heathens as Al-Julanda. Gaifar and Abd fell back and took refuge in the mountains and the sea. Gaifar wrote to Abu Bakr informing him of what had happened and requesting assistance. Abu Bakr ondary to proceed with his troops to Oman and if they were » #2584 Peter Vine, Paula Casey-Vine, Oman in history, Immel Publishing, London, 1995 ~ pp. 39, 127-8

« A drawing of Daba bay and town was made by Speelman, head of the Dutch expedition of 1644, and there exist simple Portuguese plans of one of the fortresses.(161) fn. 161 Description of these three places in the logbooks of the Zeemeeuw (ARA, Geleynssen de Jongh papers nos. 280 and 280a) Descriptions of Lima and Kamzar in the Meerkut report, VOC vol. 1259, fo1.3369-3371 (= Floor, 'First contacts', pp. 300-302). Mentions of these places in Della Valle, Viuggio, vol. 3, p. 258. Description of the Portuguese fortresses of Daba in Descripçao, pp. 15-16. Views of Daba in Cortesao, Monumenta, vol. 5, pp. 581-582 and ARA, papers of Geleynssen de Jongh no. 280 (journal of the Zeemeeuw). » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p.47

※ SOURCE for: Dabanegoris Regio:
#47 Thomas, Bertram, The Musandam Peninsula and its people the Shihuh, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, 1928 p80

« It might, however, have been at other ports on the Gulf of Oman such as Khor Fakkan or Dibbah, though this latter was probably Pliny's Dabanegoris Regio » #6 Hawley, Donald, The Trucial States, Allen and Unwin, London, 1970 ~ p. 34

« His first point, outside Cape Mussendom, is his Dabanegoris regio: this is, evidently, Daba or Dobba, one degree south of the cape. » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Darf Punlishers Limited, London, 1846 ~ vol. 2 p.228

Jeffrey Becker, 'Dabanegoris regio: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2021 link22593692 [accessed: 10 March 2023]

※ SOURCE for: Dibah:
« The tradition holds that the Sasanians established an administrative capital near Sohar and concluded a treaty with the Azd, as reported by al-Awtabi, upon with which basis J. C. Wilkinson claimed "the Arabs enjoyed full autonomy in the desert borderlands and in much of and northern Oman where their capital was at Tu'am [Buraimi] and their main trading port was at Diba." Although no Sasanian occupation at Sohar has yet been identified, the situation described by the Omani historical tradition pots is borne out by the comparison of pottery from the coast Late and interior, in which the Kush assemblage is made up of Persian imports and the Buraimi assemblage consists locally made cooking pots. This has ramifications for our understanding of Dibba. The Arab tradition relates that in the days before Islam, "the markets of the Arabs were ten ... [including] Sohar, taking place in Rajab, on its first day, and not requiring any protection. Then the Arabs would travel from Sohar to Daba [Dibba], at which Julanda and his tribe [i.e., the Azd] would collect the tithe." It is further said to have been a capital of Oman and the base of the false prophet Laqit b. Malik al-Azdi during the Ridda." Dibba, therefore, seems to have been both economically and politically important in the Late Antique period. However, no archaeological evidence from this period has yet emerged. Archaeological excavations at Dibba al-Hisn (Sharjah) unearthed tombs containing quantities of Parthian, Kushana, and Roman imports, so that Dibba may be identified as an entrepot serving the major regional center of Mleiha in the interior. The later Arabic sources imply that this role continued from the Late Pre-Islamic into the Late Antique period, though this is presently impossible to verify archaeologically. Certainly, the broader geopolitical situation circumstantially bears out the sources, for if Julfar and Sohar were controlled by the Sasanians, Arab trade would have been funnelled through Dibba. This goes some way to explaining the otherwise roundabout route by which commerce reached Tu'am: it makes sense only if the more direct routes from Julfar and Sohar were blocked or otherwise uneconomical. » #2568 Timothy Power, Julfar and the Ports of Northern Oman in The Ports of Oman Edited By Abdulrahman Alsalimi And Eric Staples, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, 2017 ~ pp. 224-5

※ SOURCE for: Dibba:
« Dibba » retained as original site to differentiate from the new placenames « Dibba Al-Baya, Dibba Al-Fujairah, Dibba Al-Hisn »

« Dibba » located on map #411 Whitehouse, David and Ruth, Archaeological Atlas of the World, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1975 ~ p. 84

« Dibba, of course, is still the name of a major port and oasis settlement on the East Coast of the UAE which is today divided between Oman, Fujairah and Sharjah. Although the archaeology of Dibba in the late pre-Islamic era is known only from chance finds, the literary record is more ample. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 60

« Although Dibba, Julfar and Tuwwam (Al Ain/Al Buraimi) are mentioned in the Arabic sources from the arrival of Islam in the area, it is not until the ninth century AD that additional places names in the modern UAE begin to be recorded. Ibn Khurradadhbih (Ibn Khurradadhbih 1967: p 111), a former official in the Abbasid Caliphate’s postal service, writing in ca 885–6, provides a series of itineraries that reflect the main routes through the Islamic world in his day. He describes a coastal route from the Oman Peninsula(2) to Mecca, mentioning Farak, Awkalan, Habat (?), and then al-Shihr, a port of the south coast of Yemen. It is unclear where the first three places were located although it seems that they should be sought along the Batinah coast of Fujairah and the Sultanate of Oman or in Dhofar and Mahra along the south coast of Arabia. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 72

※ SOURCE for: Dibbah:
« The Shemailiya was divided into two Qasimi fiefs, one at Dibbah and one at Kalba, ruled by Shaikhs Ahmad ibn Sultan and Majid ibn Sultan, and their descendants continued to rule in these places. However, in 1903 the British government, despite divisions amongst the Qawasim and the opposition of the headman of Fujairah, specifically recognized the whole of the Shemailiyah from Dibbah to Khor Fakkan as belonging to Sharjah. But Dibbah and Kalba continued to administer themselves in practice. So independent did they remain, in fact, that Kalba was recognized as a separate shaikhdom in 1936. Kalba's short history as an independent state was stormy and full of intrigue and bloodshed. Eventually, in 1951, Shaikh Saqr ibn Sultan ibn Salim, the son of the ruler of Ras al Khaimah deposed in 1948, murdered the ruler of Kalba and seized power. Recognition was withheld, however, and with the unanimous agreement of the rulers in the Trucial States Council, Kalba was re incorporated into Sharjah in 1952. » #6 Hawley, Donald, The Trucial States, Allen and Unwin, London, 1970 ~ p.333 see also pp. 34,44-50, 56, 63, 75, 96-7, 133, 176, 272, 281, 294, 333, 339, 343, 345, 356

« The Persians also seized Khor Fakkan from the Portuguese in 1622, but their success was short-lived. In 1623 Ruy Freire de Andrade ejected the Persians from Khor Fakkan though he was himself shortly afterwards displaced by an Arab force under the first imam of the Ya'ruba dynasty in Oman, Nasir ibn Murshid. In 1631 the Portuguese built a fort at Julfar, having apparently regained this port with a view to mounting an attack on Hormuz from it. The Portuguese also had minor forts at Kalba and Dibbah. » #6 Hawley, Donald, The Trucial States, Allen and Unwin, London, 1970 ~ p. 75

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba (Jasim1)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.615775 long 56.274659 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Jasim1) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Jasim1):
#2796 Sabah Jasim, Eisa Yousif, Dibba: an ancient port on the Gulf of Oman in the early Roman era, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2014 25:50–79 ~

« Between the first century BCE and second century AD the port at Dibba was probably equivalent in significance to the ports of Qana (Sedov 1992) and Khor Rori (Comfort 1960) on the South Arabian coast, and the Roman ports of Qaseir al-Qadim and Benerike on the Red Sea (Peacock and Blue 2006). » #2796 Sabah Jasim, Eisa Yousif, Dibba: an ancient port on the Gulf of Oman in the early Roman era, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2014 25:50–79 ~ p.78

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba (Jasim2)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.616232 long 56.273126 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Jasim2) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Jasim2):
Roman-Parthian tomb #2797 Sabah A. Jasim, Trade centres and commercial routes in the Arabian Gulf: Post-Hellenistic discoveries at Dibba, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2006 17:214–237 ~

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibba (LCG-1)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.610772 long 56.257936 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (LCG-1) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (LCG-1):
The Early Iron Age collective tomb LCG-1 at Dibbā al-Bayah, Oman #2794 Dennys Frenez, Francesco Genchi, Hélène David-Cuny and Sultan Al-Bakri, The Early Iron Age collective tomb LCG-1 at Dibbā al-Bayah, Oman: long-distance exchange and cross-cultural interaction, Antiquity, London, 2021 vol. 95 (379):104-124 ~

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibba (Pellegrino1)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.609494 long 56.262423 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Pellegrino1) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Pellegrino1):
Dibba 1 - Daba (Dibba-Oman) long graves #2798 Maria Paola Pellegrino, Michele Degli Esposti, Marilisa Buta, Enrica Tagliamonte, Salah Ali Hassan, Grave-goods from the long chamber tomb “Dibba 76/1” (Fujairah, UAE): a first inventory, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2019 pp. 1-43 ~ index p. 2

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba (Pellegrino3)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.600721 long 56.269636 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Pellegrino3) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Pellegrino3):
Dibba 3 - al-Murabba'ah #2798 Maria Paola Pellegrino, Michele Degli Esposti, Marilisa Buta, Enrica Tagliamonte, Salah Ali Hassan, Grave-goods from the long chamber tomb “Dibba 76/1” (Fujairah, UAE): a first inventory, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2019 pp. 1-43 ~ p. 2

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba (Pellegrino4)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.616232 long 56.273126 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Pellegrino4) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Pellegrino4):
« 4 - Hellenistic tomb » #2798 Maria Paola Pellegrino, Michele Degli Esposti, Marilisa Buta, Enrica Tagliamonte, Salah Ali Hassan, Grave-goods from the long chamber tomb “Dibba 76/1” (Fujairah, UAE): a first inventory, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2019 pp. 1-43 ~ p. 2

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba (Pellegrino5)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.615775 long 56.274659 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Pellegrino5) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Pellegrino5):
« 5 - Hellenistic settlement » #2798 Maria Paola Pellegrino, Michele Degli Esposti, Marilisa Buta, Enrica Tagliamonte, Salah Ali Hassan, Grave-goods from the long chamber tomb “Dibba 76/1” (Fujairah, UAE): a first inventory, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2019 pp. 1-43 ~ p. 2

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba (Pellegrino6)
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.619002 long 56.273078 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba (Pellegrino6) ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba (Pellegrino6):
Dibba 6 - Islamic settlement #2798 Maria Paola Pellegrino, Michele Degli Esposti, Marilisa Buta, Enrica Tagliamonte, Salah Ali Hassan, Grave-goods from the long chamber tomb “Dibba 76/1” (Fujairah, UAE): a first inventory, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2019 pp. 1-43 ~ p. 2

Arch. Site in ARE name: Dibba 76/1
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 25.599144 long 56.275751 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dibba 76/1 ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba 76/1:
#2798 Maria Paola Pellegrino, Michele Degli Esposti, Marilisa Buta, Enrica Tagliamonte, Salah Ali Hassan, Grave-goods from the long chamber tomb “Dibba 76/1” (Fujairah, UAE): a first inventory, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2019 pp. 1-43 ~ p. 2

Place Name: Dibba Al Fujairah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 25.592385 long 56.267579
VARIANT names: Dibba Al Fujairah ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Al Fujairah:
« Dibba, of course, is still the name of a major port and oasis settlement on the East Coast of the UAE which is today divided between Oman, Fujairah and Sharjah. Although the archaeology of Dibba in the late pre-Islamic era is known only from chance finds, the literary record is more ample. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 60

Place Name: Dibba Al Fujairah Fort
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 25.601515 long 56.28321
VARIANT names: Dibba Al Fujairah Fort , Dvbo ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Al Fujairah Fort:
« Dibba, of course, is still the name of a major port and oasis settlement on the East Coast of the UAE which is today divided between Oman, Fujairah and Sharjah. Although the archaeology of Dibba in the late pre-Islamic era is known only from chance finds, the literary record is more ample. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 60

※ SOURCE for: Dvbo:
« The 1639 illustration (Plate 1) shows the town hemmed in on the landward side by mountainsalthough it does not indicate that in fact, compared with the high mountains of Musandam to the north, the mountains on the west and south sides of Dibba are far lower. In the foreground, anisland is shown in the bay of Dibba with trees and plantations inland from the settlements, looking much as the palm gardens around the town appear even today. In the southern part of Dibba, a settlement of huts is shown in the illustration. These appear to be carish. They are enclosed by a wall fortified by rounded buttresses and there is a two storey roundtower at the north-west corner. The walls are probably of mud. This southern area of the Dibbasettlement is termed "DVBO" in the illustration. Today, it is part of Fujairah in the United ArabEmirates. The Portuguese fortress at the centre of the Dibba settlement is recorded as "DOBA". It seems to coincide with the area of Dibba today known as Dibba al-Husn (Dibba the fortress) which lies in Sharjah Emirate territory. It is a square building with an outer wall with rounded corner towers anda circular tower to seaward. The building material is marked by rectangular blocks which are probably a convention intended to indicate the stone masonry that de Resende refers to in his text as the construction material of DOBA. The lack of these rectangular blocks representing cut stones in the illustrations of the outworks of DVBO to the south and MOCOMBI to the north suggests that their walls were of mud-brick, rather than stone. Within the outer fortress wall of DOBA, the 1639 illustration shows another inner fortress, again with the convention indicating the stone blocks that we see in the outer wall. There are nine small towers marked in the empty ground between the inner and the outer wall. Inside the inner fortification is a two-storey circular tower in the centre of the courtyard. There are also three otherstructures in the courtyard. That to the south-east seems to be the house of the Portuguesecaptain commanding DOBA. On the west side of DOBA is a tower, a church and a structure to the north which I take to be the underground ammunition store. To the north of DOBA, i.e., on the right side of the map, there is yet another separate village forming a part of the Dibba settlement, the MOCOMBI mentioned above. The name MOCOMBI does not seem to relate to any place name in current usage in the Dibba oasis. It may be related to Dibba al-Bayah, the Omani portion of the town, but this is speculative. The illustration of MOCOMBI shows its fortress in a manner very similar to DVBO to the south of DOBA, with the same style of illustration convention as that of DVBO and presumably in mud-brick. At the angles of its surrounding walls were rounded towers and within the walls were a series of small buildings that appear to have been carish. The illustrations of Dibba in the Livro constitute the only record that we have of the vanished Portuguese fortress of DOBA and its immediately neighbouring settlements amidst the Dibba palm-groves. It passed into the hands of the local Arabs in the mid-17th century but its fate there after is unknown (15). The town was subsequently illustrated by Captain Speelman (16), the leader of a Dutch expedition to southeast Arabia of 1644 but his map of Dibba is only a small sketch that shows the bay and soundings of the depths of the sea but nothing of the fortresses on shore. Another Dutch skipper, Captain Vogel, described Dibba from offshore in 1666. He reports that there were four fortresses there, one more than referred to in the Livro. It may be that the central fortress at DOBA of the Livro was double counted, or that the local Arabs had built an additional fortress since the Portuguese withdrawal but as Vogel was unable to land because of the winds, his testimony on the fortresses is not conclusive. fn. 15 Slot, The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784, Leidschedam (1993), p. 47. #2776 King, Geoffrey, A 17th C. Portuguese description and map of Dibba in south-east Arabia, Tribulus, Gale Academic OneFile, 2012 ~

Place Name: Dibba Al-Baya
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 25.6345 long 56.2642
VARIANT names: Bai'ah , Bayah , Daba Castle , Dibba Al-Baya , Mocombi , Mocombira ,

※ SOURCE for: Bai'ah:
« Bai'ah » and « Dibah » shown separately in {map#923 Map of Arabia and the Persian Gulf, Captain F F Hunter, Indian Army, Survey of India in 1908, 1930, British Library Ref: IOR/L/PS/12/2160B, f 41}

« At the Northern side of Dabba there is a small fresh water river where the fishermen live. (31) From the Southern corner of Dabba till the small island which is situated in front of Lebdia (32) the course is south for 2¼ miles, while one passes over depths of 21, 20, 19, 22 fathoms of waxy sand ground. fn. 31 This refers to Bai'ah, "from the sea the two places appear to form one town, but in reality they are seperated by a water course", J. G. LORIMER: Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, 'Oman and Central Arabia. Calcutta 1915 (reprint 1970). (6 vols.) Vo!. HA, p. 264. fn. 32 Probably (al-)Bidyah is meant here. The island is called jazirah Bidyah. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 303

※ SOURCE for: Bayah:
« Bayah » adapted from « Bay'ah » in {map#926 Series K6611 Oman 1:100,000, Directorate of Military Survey, United Kingdom, 1981-, } for use in connection with Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

※ SOURCE for: Daba Castle:
« Daba Castle, also called Dibba Castle, lies in the quiet town of Dibba Al-Bayah, in the Musandam Governorate in Oman. » at <www.castles.nl/daba-castle>

Dibba Al Seba Fort ?

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Al-Baya:
« Dibba, of course, is still the name of a major port and oasis settlement on the East Coast of the UAE which is today divided between Oman, Fujairah and Sharjah. Although the archaeology of Dibba in the late pre-Islamic era is known only from chance finds, the literary record is more ample. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 60

※ SOURCE for: Mocombi:
« The 1639 illustration (Plate 1) shows the town hemmed in on the landward side by mountainsalthough it does not indicate that in fact, compared with the high mountains of Musandam to the north, the mountains on the west and south sides of Dibba are far lower. In the foreground, anisland is shown in the bay of Dibba with trees and plantations inland from the settlements, looking much as the palm gardens around the town appear even today. In the southern part of Dibba, a settlement of huts is shown in the illustration. These appear to be carish. They are enclosed by a wall fortified by rounded buttresses and there is a two storey roundtower at the north-west corner. The walls are probably of mud. This southern area of the Dibbasettlement is termed "DVBO" in the illustration. Today, it is part of Fujairah in the United ArabEmirates. The Portuguese fortress at the centre of the Dibba settlement is recorded as "DOBA". It seems to coincide with the area of Dibba today known as Dibba al-Husn (Dibba the fortress) which lies in Sharjah Emirate territory. It is a square building with an outer wall with rounded corner towers anda circular tower to seaward. The building material is marked by rectangular blocks which are probably a convention intended to indicate the stone masonry that de Resende refers to in his text as the construction material of DOBA. The lack of these rectangular blocks representing cut stones in the illustrations of the outworks of DVBO to the south and MOCOMBI to the north suggests that their walls were of mud-brick, rather than stone. Within the outer fortress wall of DOBA, the 1639 illustration shows another inner fortress, again with the convention indicating the stone blocks that we see in the outer wall. There are nine small towers marked in the empty ground between the inner and the outer wall. Inside the inner fortification is a two-storey circular tower in the centre of the courtyard. There are also three otherstructures in the courtyard. That to the south-east seems to be the house of the Portuguesecaptain commanding DOBA. On the west side of DOBA is a tower, a church and a structure to the north which I take to be the underground ammunition store. To the north of DOBA, i.e., on the right side of the map, there is yet another separate village forming a part of the Dibba settlement, the MOCOMBI mentioned above. The name MOCOMBI does not seem to relate to any place name in current usage in the Dibba oasis. It may be related to Dibba al-Bayah, the Omani portion of the town, but this is speculative. The illustration of MOCOMBI shows its fortress in a manner very similar to DVBO to the south of DOBA, with the same style of illustration convention as that of DVBO and presumably in mud-brick. At the angles of its surrounding walls were rounded towers and within the walls were a series of small buildings that appear to have been carish. The illustrations of Dibba in the Livro constitute the only record that we have of the vanished Portuguese fortress of DOBA and its immediately neighbouring settlements amidst the Dibba palm-groves. It passed into the hands of the local Arabs in the mid-17th century but its fate there after is unknown (15). The town was subsequently illustrated by Captain Speelman (16), the leader of a Dutch expedition to southeast Arabia of 1644 but his map of Dibba is only a small sketch that shows the bay and soundings of the depths of the sea but nothing of the fortresses on shore. Another Dutch skipper, Captain Vogel, described Dibba from offshore in 1666. He reports that there were four fortresses there, one more than referred to in the Livro. It may be that the central fortress at DOBA of the Livro was double counted, or that the local Arabs had built an additional fortress since the Portuguese withdrawal but as Vogel was unable to land because of the winds, his testimony on the fortresses is not conclusive. fn. 15 Slot, The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784, Leidschedam (1993), p. 47. #2776 King, Geoffrey, A 17th C. Portuguese description and map of Dibba in south-east Arabia, Tribulus, Gale Academic OneFile, 2012 ~

※ SOURCE for: Mocombira:
« MOCOMBIRA, lugar de-Localidade da costa ocidental do golfo de Omão ou Oman que Bocarro situa a três quartos de légua de Dobá ou Dibah (25° 39' lat. N. e 56° 16' long. E.) e que assim demora ou demorou a cerca de meio caminho entre aquele porto e o cabo ou ras Suvat. » [MOCOMBIRA, place of-Locality on the west coast of the Gulf of Oman or Oman which Bocarro is located three quarters of a league from Dobá or Dibah (25° 39' lat. N. and 56° 16' long. E.) and which takes so long or it took about halfway between that port and the cape or ras Suvat] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 273

Place Name: Dibba Al-Hisn
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 25.618889 long 56.273333
VARIANT names: Dibba Al-Hisn , Dibba Al-Hisn Fort , Doba , Dobba ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Al-Hisn:
« Dibba, of course, is still the name of a major port and oasis settlement on the East Coast of the UAE which is today divided between Oman, Fujairah and Sharjah. Although the archaeology of Dibba in the late pre-Islamic era is known only from chance finds, the literary record is more ample. » #1592 Abed, Ibrahim al-, Hellyer, Peter, The United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, 2001 ~ p. 60

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Al-Hisn Fort:
« Al Hisn Fort lies in the center of the town of Dibba Al Hisn, in the emirate of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates. Al Hisn Fort was built by the Portuguese during their occupation of the area between 1624 and 1648. Like Kalba Fort, Al Hisn Fort consists of a fortification on a small rectangular platform. The present rectangular tower was built in the early 20th century by Sheikh Saqr bin Moḥammad Al Qasimi. It replaced an earlier circular tower. » at <www.castles.nl/hisn-fort>

※ SOURCE for: Doba:
« haverá oitenta e sete léguas de costa, em que jazem êstes lugares do mesmo reino: Calaiate, Curiate, Mascate, Soar, Calaja, Orfação, Doba e Lima, que fica oito léguas ante de chegar ao Cabo Muçand [there will be eighty-seven leagues of coast, in which these places of the same kingdom lie: Calaiate, Curiate, Muscat, Soar, Calaja, Orfação, Doba and Lima, which is eight leagues before reaching Cabo Muçand] » #810 Barros, Joâo de ed: Cidade, Hernâni, Ásia de João de Barros: dos feitos que os portugueses fizeram no descobrimento e conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente., Agência Geral das Colónias, Lisboa, 1945-1946 ~ vol. 1 p354

« The fortress of Doba is two leagues from Libidia along the coast in front of the north, made in choadro, with four round ramparts, each in its corner, and a knight in the middle, with water power. Each flight of wall is seven fathoms long, four fathoms high, eleven palms wide, made of stone, with its parapets. It has inside the fortress for the captain and a church and a low ground floor for moniçois, the bays of the beluartes for collecting supplies. » #821 Bocarro, António, O livro das plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoac¸o~es do estado da I´ndia Oriental, Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa, 1937-40: 1992 Series: 442 3 vols. ~ vol.2 p.59

The complex of the former Portuguese Doba, a city that had 1,000 residents in 1620, today Dibba al-Hisn in the Emirate of Sharjah, was connected to Dubó, which must be the current Dibba Al Fujairah, which was at the tip of a grove of palm trees, having about 200 residents, and also to Mocumby, which must be the current Dibba Oman, who then had about 300 residents, most of them sailors, who lived from fishing like the rest, as well as palm tree groves, with the presence also of fishing for pearls in the area. #2611 Rui Carita, The network of fortifications in the Emirate of Sharjah, CEAMA, Almeida, Portugal, 2020 ~ pp. 124-5

« The 1639 illustration (Plate 1) shows the town hemmed in on the landward side by mountainsalthough it does not indicate that in fact, compared with the high mountains of Musandam to the north, the mountains on the west and south sides of Dibba are far lower. In the foreground, anisland is shown in the bay of Dibba with trees and plantations inland from the settlements, looking much as the palm gardens around the town appear even today. In the southern part of Dibba, a settlement of huts is shown in the illustration. These appear to be carish. They are enclosed by a wall fortified by rounded buttresses and there is a two storey roundtower at the north-west corner. The walls are probably of mud. This southern area of the Dibbasettlement is termed "DVBO" in the illustration. Today, it is part of Fujairah in the United ArabEmirates. The Portuguese fortress at the centre of the Dibba settlement is recorded as "DOBA". It seems to coincide with the area of Dibba today known as Dibba al-Husn (Dibba the fortress) which lies in Sharjah Emirate territory. It is a square building with an outer wall with rounded corner towers anda circular tower to seaward. The building material is marked by rectangular blocks which are probably a convention intended to indicate the stone masonry that de Resende refers to in his text as the construction material of DOBA. The lack of these rectangular blocks representing cut stones in the illustrations of the outworks of DVBO to the south and MOCOMBI to the north suggests that their walls were of mud-brick, rather than stone. Within the outer fortress wall of DOBA, the 1639 illustration shows another inner fortress, again with the convention indicating the stone blocks that we see in the outer wall. There are nine small towers marked in the empty ground between the inner and the outer wall. Inside the inner fortification is a two-storey circular tower in the centre of the courtyard. There are also three otherstructures in the courtyard. That to the south-east seems to be the house of the Portuguesecaptain commanding DOBA. On the west side of DOBA is a tower, a church and a structure to the north which I take to be the underground ammunition store. To the north of DOBA, i.e., on the right side of the map, there is yet another separate village forming a part of the Dibba settlement, the MOCOMBI mentioned above. The name MOCOMBI does not seem to relate to any place name in current usage in the Dibba oasis. It may be related to Dibba al-Bayah, the Omani portion of the town, but this is speculative. The illustration of MOCOMBI shows its fortress in a manner very similar to DVBO to the south of DOBA, with the same style of illustration convention as that of DVBO and presumably in mud-brick. At the angles of its surrounding walls were rounded towers and within the walls were a series of small buildings that appear to have been carish. The illustrations of Dibba in the Livro constitute the only record that we have of the vanished Portuguese fortress of DOBA and its immediately neighbouring settlements amidst the Dibba palm-groves. It passed into the hands of the local Arabs in the mid-17th century but its fate there after is unknown (15). The town was subsequently illustrated by Captain Speelman (16), the leader of a Dutch expedition to southeast Arabia of 1644 but his map of Dibba is only a small sketch that shows the bay and soundings of the depths of the sea but nothing of the fortresses on shore. Another Dutch skipper, Captain Vogel, described Dibba from offshore in 1666. He reports that there were four fortresses there, one more than referred to in the Livro. It may be that the central fortress at DOBA of the Livro was double counted, or that the local Arabs had built an additional fortress since the Portuguese withdrawal but as Vogel was unable to land because of the winds, his testimony on the fortresses is not conclusive. fn. 15 Slot, The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784, Leidschedam (1993), p. 47. #2776 King, Geoffrey, A 17th C. Portuguese description and map of Dibba in south-east Arabia, Tribulus, Gale Academic OneFile, 2012 ~

※ SOURCE for: Dobba:
« Das igrejas de Congo, Soar, Curiate e Dobba. » [From the churches of Congo, Soar, Curiate and Dobba.] 2857 #2857 ed. Silva Rego, A. da, Documentação para a História das Missões do Padroado Português do Oriente – Índia, Agência Geral das Ultramar, Lisboa, 1955 ~ vol. 11 p. 209

Place Name: Dibba Fort
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 25.636885 long 56.267193
VARIANT names: Dibba Fort ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Fort:
2nd Dibba Fort ? - at <www.castles.nl/dibba-fort>

« The town [Dibba] was subsequently illustrated by Captain Speelman (16), the leader of a Dutch expedition to southeast Arabia of 1644 but his map of Dibba is only a small sketch that shows the bay and soundings of the depths of the sea but nothing of the fortresses on shore. Another Dutch skipper, Captain Vogel, described Dibba from offshore in 1666. He reports that there were four fortresses there, one more than referred to in the Livro. It may be that the central fortress at DOBA of the Livro was double counted, or that the local Arabs had built an additional fortress since the Portuguese withdrawal but as Vogel was unable to land because of the winds, his testimony on the fortresses is not conclusive. #2776 King, Geoffrey, A 17th C. Portuguese description and map of Dibba in south-east Arabia, Tribulus, Gale Academic OneFile, 2012

Place Name: Dibba Rock
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 25.603027 long 56.351118 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Dibba Rock ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibba Rock:
No official placename can be found for this islet at 25.603027, 56.351118, and only the following text reference.

« DIBBA or DABA BAY. Ras Dibba is a projecting point of cliffs of moderate height, having nall islet m. off, in Int. 26° 37 N., lon. 56° 23' E., with a channel of 2 to 3 fathoms behind it. Dibba Bay is 5 m. across, and open from N.N.E. to E.; the soundings decrease regularly from fathome to the sandy beach. The town and fort are 5 m. W. by N. of Ras Dibba, and contain ut 2,000 men; there are very extensive date plantations in the valley on the S. of the town. od water may be obtained here, and supplies of cattle, vegetables, etc. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, ed. 1874 ~ p. 237

The rock in the Fortaleza de Dobá drawing of the three forts is most likely Dibba Rock. see #821 Bocarro, António, O livro das plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoac¸o~es do estado da I´ndia Oriental, Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa, 1937-40: 1992 Series: 442 3 vols. ~ vol. 3 Estampa XIV

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibik 42
UTM: FA 855 030 converted to coordinate: lat 22.62379 long 58.80491
VARIANT names: Dibik 42 ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibik 42:
« Graves » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibik 43
UTM: FA 858 033 converted to coordinate: lat 22.62647 long 58.80786
VARIANT names: Dibik 43 ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibik 43:
« Tomb kerbs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibik 44
UTM: FA 854 023 converted to coordinate: lat 22.61749 long 58.80385
VARIANT names: Dibik 44 ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibik 44:
« Cairns » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dibik 45
UTM: FA 835 058 converted to coordinate: lat 22.6493 long 58.78578
VARIANT names: Dibik 45 ,

※ SOURCE for: Dibik 45:
« Graves, areas of small flat stones » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 48 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Didymi montes
NIMA/GNS feature: MT UFI: -788622 coordinate: lat 22.417817 long 59.805275 † see notes (d)
NIMA/GNS names: Fanus , Jabal Saffan , Jabal Saffran , Jabal Sifan ,
VARIANT names: Didymi montes ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Didymi montes AT Ras Sajar lat 16.749167 long 53.585893 [Sprenger], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Didymi montes AT Jabal Saffan lat 22.417817 long 59.805275 [Carter], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Didymi montes AT Os Palheiros lat 21.902033 long 59.464385 [Forster], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Didymi montes AT Ras al Hadd lat 22.53761 long 59.79599 [Arrowsmith and Gossellin],

※ SOURCE for: Didymi montes:
Didymi Montes is shown in the Claudius Ptolemaeus, SEXTA ASIAE TABVLA, in Cosmographia, Rome: Conrad Sweynheym and Amold Buckinck, 1478 #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ map 3 pp. 52-3

Sprenger in his map places « Didymi montes » in between Raysut and Damkut at Ras Sajar and adds the words « Mondgeburge » [moon castle ?] (16.75, 53.5833333) #1332 Sprenger, A., Die alte Geographie Arabiens, Commissionsverlag Von Huber als Comp; Meridian Publising Co., Bern; Amsterdam, 1875;1966 ~ end map

« Last of all Ptolemy's places under the head of Sachalitarum in sinu and which I shall attempt to identify, are his Didymi montes. I cannot pretend to identify his Neogiala navale nor his Hormani flu. ostia. Gosellin places his Didymi montes at Ras el Had, by which he meant the eastern extremity of Arabia, and if Plolemy's appellation is to be taken literally, that is signifying "twins," his Didymi montes are identified in Jibal Saffan, which as before stated, are two mountains close together, almost exactly alike, each about 800 feet high, situated on a table-land about 100 feet above the level of the sea, and isolated for several miles from any other mountains; not as Gosellin states, the termination of the chain of mountains which passes through Oman, which do not turn from their course to the eastward, to end at Ras el Had, but continue on southwards to terminate in the moun- tains of Jallan, about twenty miles inland from the S.E. coast of Arabia. » #2662 Henry John CARTER, Art. VI. A Geographical Description of Certain Parts of the Southeast Coast of Arabia, to which is appended a short essay on the comparative geography of the whole of this coast., Reprinted from the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1851 ~ p. 90

« Inland, north of Abissa and its Gulf, the Didymi Montes of Ptolemy obviously correspond with the Palheiros mountains lying north of the Gulf of Bassas. This region is the Libanotophoros, or region of frankincense. Ptolemy's Bosara, lastly, tallies so closely in name with Masora, the last sea-port west of Ras-al-Hhad, that the apparent difference of site may fairly be accounted for ... » #365 Forster, The Rev. Charles, The Historical Geography of Arabia, Darf Punlishers Limited, London, 1846 ~ vol.2 p. 182

« Farther Northward lay Ausara, giving name to the Ausarita ; Serapidis I. , now Mazeira ;and Ras el Had, the Eastern extremity of Arabia, known to the ancients as Didymi Montes, a name which it is thought to have derived from the Greek word didvuoi gemelli, owing to two mountains presenting a similar appearance which stand upon it. Here dwelled the Omanita, whose name has been handed down to the present day in that of Oman: a part of their territory produced excellent frankincense, and was on that account called Thurifera Regio. » #2664 Aron Arrowsmith, A Compendium of Ancient and Modern Geography, for the use of Eton School., for the author by E. Williams, Eton, 1831 ~ p. 580

« LES mesures employées par cet auteur nous font découvrir les Didymi montes dans le Ras ai-Hhad, quoique ce cap, le plus oriental de l'Arabie, n'offre pas la même circonstance dans le dessin très-altéré de la carte ancienne. Mais la chaîne de montagnes qui vient former le promontoire des Didymi montes, représente trop bien celle qui parcourt l'Oman, et qui se termine au Ras al-Hhad, pour qu'il soit possible de la méconnoître, quand mêmeles mesures ne nous y auroient pas conduits. » [THE measurements employed by this author enable us to discover the Didymi mounted in the Ras ai-Hhad, although this cape, the easternmost of Arabia, does not offer the same circumstance in the very altered drawing of the old map. But the chain of mountains which forms the promontory of the Didymi montes, represents too well that which runs through Oman, and which ends at Ras al-Hhad, for it to be possible to misunderstand it, all the same the measurements wouldn't have taken us there.] #2703 P.-F.-J. Gossellin, Recherches sur la géographie systématique et positive des anciens. Tome 3 / ; pour servir de base à l'histoire de la géographie ancienne., Impr. de la République, 1798-1813 ~ vol. 3 p. 35

D.T. Potts, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Tom Elliott, and Jeffrey Becker, 'Didyma M.: a Pleiades place resource', Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, 2020 link40121 [accessed: 10 March 2023] « An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 4 unlocated Didyma M. »

Place Name: Dihak
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.967587 long 52.478971 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dihak ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dihak:
« Dihak » in {map#1217 in #3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ fig. 14. Carte. Trajet de Bord-Khoun à Dar ol-Mizan.}

Place Name: Dil
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786768 coordinate: lat 24.07832 long 56.98067
NIMA/GNS names: Dil , Dil Al Birayk , Dil Yal Burayk , ديل آل بريك ,
VARIANT names: Dayl , Diel , Dil ,

※ SOURCE for: Dayl:
see <www.castles.nl/dayl-tower>

※ SOURCE for: Diel:
« Diel » in {map#919 Map of Oman Routes of Wellsted and Whitelock, J. R. Wellsted Royal Geographical Society, 1837, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Rare 416-c Oman B-1837}

« Maykiliff is a small fort and village in lat. 24° 7' 27" N., long. 57° 4' 26" E. From Sohar to this place the coast continues low, thickly studded with date groves. The soundings off the coast are regular to five fathoms within a mile of the shore. Between this place and Ras Hayara, in lat. 24° 4' 17" N., long. 57° 9' 50" E., is the village of Diel, containing about forty inhabitants. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 626

※ SOURCE for: Dil:
« 27. Yal Breik (sing, Breiki) A tribe of the Oman Sultanate, numbering 1,500 souls; Hinävi in politics, in religion partly Sunni and partly Ibadhi; settled in Batinah at Masna'ah, Shirs, Qasbiyat Yal Breik, Dil Yal Breik Umm el-Ja'arif, and Saham town. » #2699 Admiralty War Staff, Intelligence Department, Handbook of Arabia Vol. 1 General, H.M.S.O., London, 1917, ~ vol. 1 p. 554

Place Name: Dilou
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.500025 long 52.693884 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dilou ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dilou:
« Dilou » in {map#1217 in #3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ fig. 14. Carte. Trajet de Bord-Khoun à Dar ol-Mizan.}

Place Name: Din
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3194438 coordinate: lat 26.957717 long 54.568838
NIMA/GNS names: Din , Lavardin , دين , لاوردین ,
VARIANT names: Din ,


Place Name: Dizful
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061127 coordinate: lat 32.381577 long 48.40585
NIMA/GNS names: Dezfool , Dezful , Dizful , دزفول ,
VARIANT names: Dizful ,

※ SOURCE for: Dizful:
« It is at a distance of fifteen miles in a south-west direction from Dizful that the prodigious mounds of Shush, or Susa, stand up little river Shaur (originally Shapur), which rises at no great distance to the north and flows in a deep, narrow bed below the Tomb of Daniel, and between the larger rivers Ab-i-Diz (Eulæus), six and a half miles distant on the east, and the Kerkhah (Choaspes) one and a half mile distant on the west. The latter river divided the populous quarter of the ancient city from the citadel and palace. the entire circumference of the mounds is from six to seven miles. » #1116 Curzon, George N., Persia and the Persian Question, Cass: Longmans Green and Co, 1966: 1892 ~ vol. 2 p. 309

Place Name: Doha
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLC UFI: -785169 coordinate: lat 25.2866667 long 51.5333333
NIMA/GNS names: Ad Dawha , Ad Dawhah , Ad Doha , Ad Dowhah , Dawhat al Qatar , Doha ,
VARIANT names: Doha ,

※ SOURCE for: Doha:
« Yousef Al Majid of Doha (Qatar) was still building dhows at the time of interviewing him in April 1992, travelling to Calicut to order wood and hire workmen.29 His order of timber was from 300 to 600 tons of wood which he would ship to Doha and when unloaded in his shipyard at the Al-Amiriyya, he would leave it in the sun for at least two years so that it dried out completely. » #2620 Dionisius A. Agius, Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman People of the Dhow, Taylor and Francis, 2012 ~ p. 29

« The Ruler of Qatar followed suit in 1916 after the withdrawal of the Ottoman garrison at Doha. These agreements bound the rulers into exclusive political relations with, and ceded control of their external affairs to, the British Government.23 This was the final step in the Gulf Arab states’ formal incorporation into the Indian Empire. fn. 23. For analysis of the treaties, see J. B. Kelly, “The Legal and Historical Basis of the British Position in the Persian Gulf,” St. Antony’s Papers, no. 4: Middle Eastern Affairs, vol. i (London: Chatto and Windus, 1958), 119-40; David Roberts, “The Consequences of the Exclusive Treaties: A British View,” in The Arab Gulf and the West, ed. Brian R. Pridham (London: Croom Helm, 1985), 1-14; Husain M. Al-Baharna, “The Consequences of Britain’s Exclusive Treaties: A Gulf View,” The Arab Gulf and the West, 15-37; Al-Baharna, The Legal Status of the Arabian Gulf States: A Study of Their Treaty Relations and Their International Problems (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1968). » #1672 Onley, James, Britain’s Informal Empire in the Gulf, 1820-–1971, Journal of Social Affairs, 2005 22:87: ~ p. 42

Place Name: Dohat Qabal
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -788320 coordinate: lat 26.03434 long 56.428166
NIMA/GNS names: Dawhat Qabal , Doha Qabal , Dohat Qabal , Duhat Kabal ,
VARIANT names: Dohat Qabal ,

※ SOURCE for: Dohat Qabal:
« Qabal (Dohhat) درجة قبل [name] On the east coast 6 miles north of Limah [position] Inlet 1 miles wide at the entrance: it runs inland for over 3 miles turning south as it goes. [nature] The cove teema with fish. In a valley at its head are several huts of Bani Shatair Shihah. They are herdsmen and fisher- men and their diet consists largely of shellfish (Strombus Baluchiensis), but they have only 1 boat. In a western branch of the same valley are ruins of an extensive village which was built of large stones without mortar. This place is closely connected with Limah by land, and there is said to be a route from here over the hills to Khasab. [remarks] » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1611

Stream in grp 31J03 name: Dorak canal
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 30.549724 long 48.516713
VARIANT names: Dauraq canal , Dorak canal ,

※ SOURCE for: Dauraq canal:
« b. The river of Arrajan (§ 29, 16.), which is now called Maran, flows first to the north until it joins the river of Ram-Hurmuz; then their joint stream, called Jarraḥi, flows south-westwards to Fallahiya and, through the Dauraq canal, comes into connexion with the Khor-Müsa creek (which is the terminus of the new Trans-Persian railway). » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937, ~ p. 213

※ SOURCE for: Dorak canal:
« Dorak canal » in {map#1164 Set of 12 Maps of the Euphrates-Tigris River System, Chesney, Francis Rawson, 1849, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 5662.013} maps XI and XII

Stream in grp 31J05 name: Dorak river
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 30.555243 long 48.742377 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dorah Fl. ? , Dorak river ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Dorah Fl.:
« Dora[h?] or Dora[k?] Fl. » in #2959 Karl Müller, Tabula in Geographi graeci minores, Firmin-Didot et sociis, Paris, 1882, ~ table XV

※ SOURCE for: Dorak river:
[Merging the map in {map#1063 Kuwait State. Basra Division. Khuzistan Province. - 'Iraq, Kuwait and Persia. No. 10 B and C, Khuramshahr (Mohammerah), , , British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3737, f 76, in Qatar Digital Library} with google earth, the « Dorak river » branches from the Rudkhaneh-ye Jarahi at coodinate lat 30.697158° long 48.712158°, passes Khazineh (coordinate lat 30.683333, long 48.716667), Buziyeh (coordinate lat 30.656263, long 48.724991), Hadbeh (coordinate lat 30.640457, long 48.735125), Haji Musallam (coordinate lat 30.596944, long 48.7375), Sheykh Badir (coordinate lat 30.583333, long 48.75) and Khurduraq (coordinate lat 30.561389, long 48.737222) merging with Khor Doraq at about coordinate lat 30.5552430° long 48.7423770°. PBR]

« KHOR MOOSA is a great salt water inlet, receiving the water of the Dorak river, and perhaps a branch of the Karun. It runs in a N. by W. direction, passing about 5 m. to W. of Deireh Island ; but is not sufficiently known to be attempted without a pilot. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1874, ~ p. 275

« ENTRANCE OF THE DORAK RIVER. The entrance of the Dorak river is in lat. 30° 21' 10" N., long. 48° 55' 10" E. The town of Dorak, the residence of the Chief of the Chaab Arabs, is situated thirty-three miles NE. from the entrance, but about forty-four by the river. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985, ~ p. 581

« The British and the Turks, presuming that Karim Khan was still friendly towards them and that he himself had a great interest in destroying Shaikh Salman, decided to carry their operations against Kaᶜb into Persian territory,(297) but the British fleet could not penetrate the small creek which led to Doraq. It remained, therefore, in the river of Shatt alᶜArab to protect trade and to prevent any of the Kaᶜb Gallivats from bringing supplies or from handicapping the Allies' operation in any way. Simultaneously the Turks established a camp near Doraq. Fn. 297 B.P.C., Vol. 29. Letter from Basra, June 30, 1766 » #2977 Abdul Amir Amin, British Interests in the Persian Gulf 1747-1778 - thesis, University of Maryland, 1962 ~ p. 148

Stream in grp 31J06 name: Dorak river
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 30.620407 long 48.722789 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Dorak river ? ,


Place Name: Dorakistan
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 30.103664 long 48.714725 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Daurakistan ? , Dawrakistan ? , Dorakistan ? , Dorges ? , Dorgestan ? , Dorghestan I. ? , Dorghestan, I. de ? , Margastana ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Daurakistan:
« Daurakistan (Dorakistan), westward of Khor Musa, is a low swampy tract intersected by creeks, extending to Khor Bahmishir, a distance of about 18 miles; its southeastern end is named Bu Seif (Sif). » #2932 Sailing Directions for the Persian Gulf, Including the Gulf of Oman and the Mekrán Coast, Hydrographic Office, United States, 1931 ~ p. 291

※ SOURCE for: Dawrakistan:
« The swampy area between Shadagān and the coast of the Persian Gulf is still known as Dawrakistan. The name is also preserved in the Khawr Dawrak, a northern arm of the Khawr Mūsa, the large inlet of the Gulf which bounds Dawrakistān on the east and north-east. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 181

※ SOURCE for: Dorakistan:
« Khor Musa is a great salt water inlet, receiving the water of the Dorak River, … The low coast on the West side of this creek, as far as Khor Bamishir, bears the name of Dorakistan. » #2944 Alexander G. Findlay, A Directory for the Navigation of the Indian Ocean, Published for Richard Holmes Laurie, 1866 ~ p. 702

« Dorakistan » in {map#1061 Lower Mesopotamia Between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf., War Office, London, 1915, Geographicus, New York}

※ SOURCE for: Dorges:
« Dorges (53 B, 54 B, 72 B, 100 B): [Daraqestän] Shádegin » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 419

※ SOURCE for: Dorgestan:
« Dorgestan, I. (93 B): [Daraqestän] Shadegan » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 419 « Dorgestan » in {map#1056 Map of Susiana or Khoozistan, , , #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 }

※ SOURCE for: Dorghestan I.:
« Dorghestan I. » in {map#1006 Imperii Persici In Omnes Suas Provincia, Johann Baptist Homann, 1720, Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Stock# 64524} see AHduGP map 99

« Dorghestan I. » in {map#1071 To the Right Honourable William Lord Cowper Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain This Map of Asia according to ye Newest and Most Accurate Observations …, Herman Moll, 1740, Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Stock 79953} see AHduGP map 88

※ SOURCE for: Dorghestan, I. de:
« Dorghestan, I. de » in{map#1070 l'Arabie et de la Perse Dressée sur les Memoires les plus recens rectifiéz par les Observations de Mrs de l'Académie Rle des Sciences, Paris, Guillaume Delisle, 1701, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE BB 565 (14, 2)} see AHduGP map 68

※ SOURCE for: Margastana:
« Margastana » in {map#1056 Map of Susiana or Khoozistan, , , #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 }

« Quant à la petite île Margastana, que le Périple indique dans ce golfe,nos cartes modernes, très-peu détaillées sur ces parages,nous laissent ignorer son emplacement.Le nom de Margastanaparoît être le même que Marganistan, qui, en persan, signifie un lieu où l'on trouve des perles, ou peut-être du corail, car le mot est ambigu. [As for the small island Margastana, which the Periplus indicates in this gulf, our modern maps, very little detailed on these parts, let us ignore its location. The name of Margastana appears to be the same as Marganistan, which, in Persian, means a place where one finds pearls, or perhaps coral, because the word is ambiguous.] » #2703 P.-F.-J. Gossellin, Recherches sur la géographie systématique et positive des anciens. Tome 3 / ; pour servir de base à l'histoire de la géographie ancienne., Impr. de la République, 1798-1813 ~ vol. 3 p. 84

Place Name: Dos Porcos
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 29.4405556 long 48.3347222 † see notes (u,d)
VARIANT names: Dos Porcos ? , Porca? ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Dos Porcos AT Jazirat Faylakah lat 29.4405556 long 48.3347222 [Slot],

※ SOURCE for: Dos Porcos:
« 154 — Jlha dos porcos » #2661 Luís De Albuquerque e Maria Catarina Henriques Dos Santos, Atlas de Lazaro Luis 1563 Códice da Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, A Academia, 1990 ~ Toponómos e legendas as folhas cartográficas do Atlas FOL. 5V. [O-E]

« Jlha dos porcos » in {map#884 Atlas de Lázaro Luís FOL. 5V. [O-E], Lazaro Luis, 1563, Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, atlas de dez folhas} see PMC vol. 2 EST 216 and AHduGP map 31

« dos Porcos » opposite « Isle des Aguada » in {map#988 Carte Particuliere d'une Partie d'Asie ou sont Les Isles D'Andemaon, Ceylan, Les Maldives, Pierre Mortier, 1700, Barry Lawrence Ruderman Map Collection Stock# 66433} see AHduGP map 51

« The first realistic images of the Gulf appear on nautical charts produced by Portuguese cartographers. Generally nautical charts are less pretentious though more interesting than geographical maps. The nautical charts stand closer to real observation. The earliest examples of these date from very soon after the arrival of Portuguese ships in the Gulf, but it took some time before the Portuguese obtained knowledge about the Upper Gulf. The first known Portuguese nautical charts to cover the entire Gulf are by Gasparo Viejas; both are kept in Florence. They show a number of small islands on the coastline between the Shatt al-Arab and Bahrain, but as they have no names in that area they are of no specific value for the history of Kuwait.(6) The first nautical chart to show something real in the area of Kuwait was one by Lazaro Luis in 1563.(7) Portuguese maps give two names in relation to Kuwait: off the coast there is an island called Ilha de Aguada (Island of the Well), and one or two small islands or cliffs called Dos Porcos (Two Pigs). Some maps give nautical indications near the islands, which is always a sure sign that European shipping has passed through. There can be no doubt that Ilha de Aguada is the island Faylaka, and, as such, these maps are the oldest historical maps containing indisputable references to parts of Kuwaiti territory. The reference to Dos Porcos is more difficult to locate, Awha being the most probable choice. Near Awha there is a low rocky patch two feet above the surface, which is almost a small island. This could have been the second of the 'Two Pigs'. The second Portuguese nautical chart of the Gulf to mention Aguada is by Fernão Vaz Dourado of 1570. It is slightly different from the previous in that it puts two small islands or cliffs to the south of Aguada.(8) These Portuguese maps and maps derived from them of a later date contain another name in the region of Kuwait: Sar, usually on the mainland opposite Ilha de Aguada. This name which occurs on the best maps of the Portuguese tradition which do not contain fictive names, might possibly be identified with Ras al Zor. fn. 6 Cortesão, Monumenta, vol. 1, plate 50. fn. 7 Cortesão, Monumenta, vol. 2, pl. 216, see also plate 1. fn. 8 Cortesão, Monumenta, vol. 3, pl. 580 » #2617 B. Slot, The Origins of Kuwait, Center for Research and Studies on Kuwait, Kuwait, 1998 ~ p.12

« I.l dos procos » north of and shown larger than « I.l daguado » in {map#392 Kaart van een gedeelte Persische Golf van Mascate tot Bassora, Anoniem / Anonymous, 17th C, Nationaal Archief, no. VEL0220} see AHduGP map 45

« Plate 27 - Part of the Portuguese map with the conspicuous Gulf of Kuwait in the Grote Schuur Library. Faylaka is called Dos Porcos. This might seem with this conspicuous feature a very original map, but some mutilated names of places such as Amadam [Abadan?) and Hamoha [Manahon?] indicate careless copying from a Sanson version. (Grote Schuur Library, Cape Town) » #2617 B. Slot, The Origins of Kuwait, Center for Research and Studies on Kuwait, Kuwait, 1998 ~ p. 70

※ SOURCE for: Porca?:
« Porca? » in {map#1086 Carte anglaise du Golfe Persique, Anonyme anglais, 1600-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18E PF 209 DIV 2 P 2 RES} see AHduGP map 85

Place Name: Dow Gonbadan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061393 coordinate: lat 30.3586 long 50.7981
NIMA/GNS names: Do Gonbadan , Dow Gonbadan , Du Gunbadan , Gachsaran , دو گنبدان , گچساران ,
VARIANT names: Do GonBadan , Doghúmbézún , Dow Gonbadan ,

※ SOURCE for: Do GonBadan:
« Do GonBadan » in {map#1132 Abb. 2 Karte von West- und Südwest-Iran mit Eintragung von Befunden, , , #1814 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 7:Teil 5: ~}

※ SOURCE for: Doghúmbézún:
« The high mountains to the N. are thinly sprinkled with trees, as is the valley of Doghúmbézún; but the chain which stretches to the S. is more barren and lower than the N. line of hills. Doghúmbézún is a ruined kárvánseráï, built near a spring of water, in a perfectly wild and desert place. At some distance, among the hills, is the Kal'eh Arú, a fort ... The distance from Doghúmbézún to Behbehán is generally said to be 12 farsangs (45 miles); but I doubt whether it be so much.» #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~ p. 84

["if there was a caravanserai, it seems to be destroyed now, or at least I don't have a record of it." in correspodence from the Caravanserais of Iran dataset provided by the EAMENA Project Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa, School of Archaeology, University of Oxford at <www.classics.ox.ac.uk/eamena-endangered-archaeology-middle-east-and-north-africa> ]

※ SOURCE for: Dow Gonbadan:
[caravaserai ? PBR]

Place Name: Dowhat Qabal 31a
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 26.0160046730809 long 56.3873999312569
VARIANT names: Dowhat Qabal 31a ,

※ SOURCE for: Dowhat Qabal 31a:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 50

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dowhat Qabal 31b
UTM: DD388775 converted to coordinate: lat 26.0151059717967 long 56.3884039122293
VARIANT names: Dowhat Qabal 31b ,

※ SOURCE for: Dowhat Qabal 31b:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 51

Arch. Site in OMN name: Dowhat Qabal 31c
UTM: DD389770 converted to coordinate: lat 26.0105955309925 long 56.3894265596356
VARIANT names: Dowhat Qabal 31c ,

※ SOURCE for: Dowhat Qabal 31c:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 51

Place Name: Dowlatabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061624 coordinate: lat 28.1446 long 52.2702
NIMA/GNS names: Daulatabad , Dowlat Abad Dezhgah , Dowlatabad , دولت آباد , دولت ابد د?گه ,
VARIANT names: Dowlatabad ,

※ SOURCE for: Dowlatabad:
« Dowlatabad » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}

Place Name: Dowrudgah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061551 coordinate: lat 29.3347 long 51.1125
NIMA/GNS names: Darudgah , Dorudgah , Dowrudgah , Drudgah , درودگاه , دورودگاه ,
VARIANT names: Dhurroga , Dowrudgah ,

※ SOURCE for: Dhurroga:
« Dhurroga » in {map#1129 Map of Asia Minor Armenia and Koordistan, , 1816, #3020 John Macdonald Kinneir, Journey Through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan in the Years 1813 and 1814, John Murray, London, 1818 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Dowrudgah:
« Dowrūdgāh : see Dorūdgāh [name] | PPL [design.] | 29 ° 20'N [lat.] | 51 ° 07'E [long.] | IR22 [area] | WN14 [UTM] | NH39-11 [jog. no.] » #2938 Gazetteer of Iran Names Approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names, Defence Mapping Agency, Washington D. C., 2nd ed. 1984, ~ vol. A-J p. 484

Place Name: Dubai
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782831 coordinate: lat 25.258172 long 55.304717
NIMA/GNS names: Dabei , Dibai , Dibay , Dubai , Dubai , Dubay , Dubayy , Fort Dabei , دبي ,
VARIANT names: Dubai , Oabey , Oalcy ,

※ SOURCE for: Dubai:
« Sharjah, several miles down the coast, was also ruled by a Qasimi shaikh, while the intervening ports, Jazirat al-PIamra, Umm al-Qaiwain, Hamriyah, and 'Ajman acknowledged the Qasimi supremacy. Beyond Sharjah, at the port of Dubai, the authority of the Qawasim ceased and that of the Bani Yas, the second of the two major confederacies of the Pirate Coast, began. » #12 Kelly, John Barrett, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880, Oxford University Press, London, 1968 ~ pp. 20-21

※ SOURCE for: Oabey:
« Oabey. Oalcy, dabom [Portuguese name] Dabom [Modern equivalent] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 99

※ SOURCE for: Oalcy:
« Oabey. Oalcy, dabom [Portuguese name] Dabom [Modern equivalent] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 99

Place Name: Dukhtar Pass
NIMA/GNS feature: PASS UFI: -3194455 coordinate: lat 29.566012 long 51.800555
NIMA/GNS names: Dukhtar Pass , Gardaneh-ye Dokhtar , Gardaneh-ye Kotal Dokhtar , Kotal-e Dokhtar , Kutal-i-Dukhtar , گردنه کتل دختر ,
VARIANT names: Dukhtar Pass ,

※ SOURCE for: Dukhtar Pass:
3079 abb.5

Place Name: Dulab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3808637 coordinate: lat 26.6832 long 55.4673
NIMA/GNS names: Dulab , Mahalleh-ye Sarrig , Sarig , Sarrig , دولاب , سريگ , محله سرريگ ,
VARIANT names: Dulab , Dúlu ,


※ SOURCE for: Dúlu:
« Between Gurán and Básidu are the following villages:- Cháhu, about 7 miles from Gurán, a small scattered village chiefly inhabited by fishermen, about half a mile from the coast, with a date grove to the N.W. of it; this place is opposite Kishkúh hill, already described, and there is a white tomb near it, which is seen from the strait. Dúlu and Tersai, two small villages, with date trees, about 3 miles from the last; the inhabitants are cultivators and fishermen. Kunársiya, a larger place, one mile from the last, and 94 from Básidu point, lies about a mile from the shore, and has a date grove north of it. Neither of these last three are seen from the strait. » #2904 The Persian Gulf Pilot 3rd edition, The Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, London, 1890 ~ p. 224

Place Name: Duqm
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786790 coordinate: lat 19.65 long 57.7
NIMA/GNS names: Ad Duqm , Duqm , Quwairat , Quwayrat , الدقم ,
VARIANT names: Duqm ,

※ SOURCE for: Duqm:
« With the agreement of the Duru' shaykhs to co-operate with PDO in return for assistance in their struggle against the Imam, PDO was able to move ahead. An advance base had already been established in the spring of 1954 at al-Duqm (on Oman's southern coast in the Gulf of al-Masirah) and the joint PDO/MOFF column headed north in June to establish a camp at Jahal Fahud far in the interior. In late October, after the new Imam had seized date gardens belonging to the Duru in retaliation for their co-operation with PDO, the MOFF occupied Ibri without opposition. Imam Ghalib thereupon accused the Sultan of breaking the 1920 ‘Treaty of al-Sib’ and on 25 November 1954, he sent a membership application to the Arab League. » #63 Peterson, J. E., Britain And 'the Oman War': an Arabian Entanglement, Asian Affairs, London, 1976 ~ p. 287

Place Name: Duzeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3061899 coordinate: lat 28.7014 long 52.961
NIMA/GNS names: Ab Duzuyeh , Duzeh , Duzeh-ye Vahmandeh , دوزه ,
VARIANT names: Deh Zir , Duzeh , Simkan ,

※ SOURCE for: Deh Zir:
« At 1 mile track bifurcates, north to Khafr, south to Haidarābād; take south track. At 2 miles track bifurcates again just west of Jumgun; many gardens and excellent water from qanāts. One track goes to Khafr, the S. one to Haidarābād. Take latter, and reach last named at 3 miles, walled village: water from ganāt. Track here bifurcates north to Qutbābād, S. to Bab Arab and Deh Zir; take S. track. At 10 miles date groves of Bab' Arab and Deh Zir at foot tail of Küh-i-Fasā are visible. Bāb' Arab bears S.-E., Deh Zir E. At this point track diverges direct to Deh Zir, reached at 16 miles. Ab-i- Fasā dry in summer and always fordable, crossed at 12 miles. At 14 miles pass water (brackish) and cultivation. At 16 miles walled village of Deh Zir, walled gardens. Kalantar Muhammd Hussain Khan, of bad reputati » #3113 Routes in Persia. vol. III, part I., Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1918 ~ p. 136


※ SOURCE for: Simkan:
« Simkan and Hirak.(2) Simkan is a small town but most pleasant, and the wonder of the world, for this reason, that through its midst runs a river, spanned by a bridge, and in the one half of the city which stands on the hillside along this bank of the stream the climate is of the cold region. In this quarter there are only vineyards, producing such abundance of grapes that these fetch no price, so they [dry and] press them for the most part, making a condiment (3) thereof, while some being kept are left till a syrup is formed, which after boiling down, coagulates into a block that becomes hard as stone. These blocks [of grape-raisins] are made very large, and before one can eat of them they have to be soaked in two or three times their weight of water. Further, they are sold at a very cheap rate. And as to the quarter of the city which lies on the other side of the river, this is entirely of the hot region, where fn. 2 Simkan is now the name of the district of which the chief city, doubtless older Simkan, is called Dizah. Htrak, or Habrak (for the rending is uncertain), is no longer to be found on the map. According to the Itinerary it stood half-way between Simkan (Dizah) and Kärzin (FNN. 225). fn. 3 The terms used are 'asir, "squeezed" or "expressed", and 'allagah, "hung up," that is, "oured," "preserve." » #3077 G. Le Strange, Description of the Province of Fars, in Persia, at the Beginning of the Twelfth Century A.D. from the MS. of Ibn-al-Balkhi, in the British Museum Asiatic Society Monographs XIV, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1912 ~ n p. 46

Place Name: ed-Dur
NIMA/GNS feature: ANS independent coordinate: lat 25.522222 long 55.626111 † see notes (i)
VARIANT names: Ad Dour , ed-Dur ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at ed-Dur FOR Omana [D.T. Potts],

※ SOURCE for: Ad Dour:
« Ed Dur, also known as Al Dour and Ad Dour (Arabic: ?لدُّوْر, romanized: Ad-Dūr, lit. 'The Houses')[1][2] is an Ancient Near Eastern City, today located in Umm Al Quwain, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[3] One of the largest archaeological sites in the emirates,[4] comprising an area of some 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi), the coastal settlement overlooks Al Beidha Lake. One of the most important archaeological finds in the UAE, and closely associated with the inland trading centre of Mleiha, Ed Dur has been dubbed 'one of the most significant lost cities of Arabia'.[5] » wikipedia

※ SOURCE for: ed-Dur:
« Today, ed-Dur occupies an area behind some large dunes, just to the east of the highway leading to Ra’s al-Khaimah and about 7 kilometres north of the turn-of for Umm al-Qaiwain. On the western side of the road is the silted embayment of Khor al-Yfrah, which was, perhaps, a natural harbour in the past. Ed-Dur is a sprawling site, over 2 kilometres long (north–south along the highway) and about 1 kilometre across. » #2773 D.T. Potts, In the land of the Emirates: The archaeology and history of the UAE, Trident Press and Sultan bin Zayed's Culture and Media Centre, Abu Dhabi, 2012 ~ p. 119

« Ed Dur, also known as Al Dour and Ad Dour (Arabic: ?لدُّوْر, romanized: Ad-Dūr, lit. 'The Houses')[1][2] is an Ancient Near Eastern City, today located in Umm Al Quwain, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[3] One of the largest archaeological sites in the emirates,[4] comprising an area of some 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi), the coastal settlement overlooks Al Beidha Lake. One of the most important archaeological finds in the UAE, and closely associated with the inland trading centre of Mleiha, Ed Dur has been dubbed 'one of the most significant lost cities of Arabia'.[5] » wikipedia

« Given the prominence of ed-Dur and the unmistakable signs of contact with many other parts of the world, from the Mediterranean to India, it is tempting to try to identify the site with one of the emporia on the Erythraean Sea mentioned in contemporary Greek and Latin sources. … Since the ed-Dur excavations revealed such a wealth of imported material, suggesting that the site was a major emporium, the ancient name that many scholars have identiied it with is Omana. » #2773 D.T. Potts, In the land of the Emirates: The archaeology and history of the UAE, Trident Press and Sultan bin Zayed's Culture and Media Centre, Abu Dhabi, 2012 ~ p. 130

Place Name: Emamzadeh Sabzeh Pushan
NIMA/GNS feature: SHRN UFI: -3194518 coordinate: lat 29.7384 long 50.3283
NIMA/GNS names: Emamzadeh Sabz Pushan , Emamzadeh Sabzeh Pushan , Emamzadeh-e-Sabzpushan , Emamzadeh-ye Sabz Pushan , Imamzadeh-i-Sebzpushan , امامزاده سبز پوشان , امامزاده سبزه پوشان , امامزادۀ سبز پوشان ,
VARIANT names: C. Bang , Emamzadeh Sabzeh Pushan , Sabz Pushan , Sous Pochoan ,

※ SOURCE for: C. Bang:
« C. Bang » in {map#1117 Chart of the Head of the Gulph of Persia, John McCluer (Dalrymple edition), 1786, British Library: 435.k.17, folio 367}


※ SOURCE for: Sabz Pushan:
« SABZ PUSHAN is a slightly projecting rocky point, with hillocks 40 to 50 feet high, and covered with jungle, close to the shore. On the summit is a small tomb, only seen when close in. A rocky shore reef extends 1 to 1 cables off this point, and there is a little water course close to eastward of it. The coast, just above Sabz Pushan, runs N.W. for 7 miles, and thence trends rather to the northward, for 17 miles more; there are low hillocks covered with shrubs all along it, till near Ras at Tamb, which is a low sandy point forming the South extreme of Duhet Deilim. » #2944 Alexander G. Findlay, A Directory for the Navigation of the Indian Ocean, Published for Richard Holmes Laurie, 1866, ~ p. 701

※ SOURCE for: Sous Pochoan:
« Sous Pochoan, Cap Bang » in {map#1143 Tab XV Nearchi Navigatio ab Indo ad Euphratum, Karl Müller, 1855, #2730 Karl Müller, Geographi graeci minores tabulae, Editore Ambrosia Firmin Didot, Paris, 1855 ~}

Place Name: Emamzadeh Shah Gheyb
NIMA/GNS feature: SHRN UFI: 10951960 coordinate: lat 27.908097 long 55.018327
NIMA/GNS names: Emamzadeh Shah Gheyb , Shahzadeh Mohammad , Ziaratgah-e Shahzadeh Mohammad , امامزاده شاه غیب , زیارتگاه شاه زاده محمد , شاهزاده محمد ,
VARIANT names: Emamzadeh Shah Gheyb ,

※ SOURCE for: Emamzadeh Shah Gheyb:
« Perhaps it was this very wildness and remoteness from humanity that persuaded the holy man, Shah Ghaib, to choose the margin of the salt lake as his home in life and death. Salt country. 1 49 His shrine was to be our resting-place that night ; ... Shah Ghaib's shrine is an oblong stone building, 16 feet high, by 24 long and 15 broad, with a conical blue-tiled dome at one end, which raises the height of the building to 35 feet. Shrine and dome are in good repair, thanks to Fath Ali. The space before the shrine is paved with the tombstones of persons whose bodies have been brought, after death, to lie near that of the saint. Some of these tombstones are of green marble, with rhyming inscriptions handsomely cut. Shah Ghaib was brother of Shah Chiragh of Shiraz, and thus related, in what degree I know not, to one of those extremely holy persons, the Imams.» #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 148-50

Place Name: Eridu
NIMA/GNS feature: ANS UFI: -3105001 coordinate: lat 30.7975 long 45.9777778
NIMA/GNS names: Abu Shahrain , Abu Shahrein , Eridu ,
VARIANT names: Eridu ,


Place Name: Esfahan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPLA UFI: 6013426 coordinate: lat 32.657218 long 51.677608
NIMA/GNS names: Aspadana , Esfahan , Esfehan , Isfahan , اصفهان ,
VARIANT names: Esfahan ,


Place Name: Esfal
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062148 coordinate: lat 28.7224 long 52.9376
NIMA/GNS names: Asfal , Esfal , اسفل ,
VARIANT names: Esfal ,


Place Name: Esma`ilabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062332 coordinate: lat 29.0299 long 52.9446
NIMA/GNS names: Esma`ilabad , Esma`ilabad-e Korbal , Isma`ilabad , اسماعیل آباد ,
VARIANT names: Esma`ilabad , Ismailaba ,


※ SOURCE for: Ismailaba:
« Ismailaba » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Stream in grp 32KAR14 name: Eulaeus
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 31.972475 long 48.412478 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Choaspes ? , Chospes ? , Eulaeus ? , Eulaios ? , Huvaspa ? , Ula ? , Ulai ? , Ulaya ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Eulaeus AT Shaur lat 31.972475 long 48.412478 [Potts],

※ SOURCE for: Choaspes:
« In sum, it is now clear that there was only ever a single river which flowed past Susa. That river was known to the Elamite speakers of the region as the Ula,(91) and from the Iranian speakers who entered Khuzistan it received an alternate name Huvaspa, which some Greek authors expressed as Choaspes. Thus, Ula/Ulaya/Eulaios = Choaspes. The river joined the Diz (Coprates), which in turn flowed into the Karun (Pasitigris) and on to the Shatt al-Arab or Persian Gulf fn. 91. Spiegel 1871-1878, 625, was of the opinion that, just because the Hebrew form Ulai was well at- tested in the Bible, "es wäre aber Unrecht, daraus schliessen zu wollen, der Name sei semitisch... Etymologisch lässt sich die Bezeichnung ebensowenig aus den érânischen wie aus den semitischen Sprachen klar machen." One should also say that, just because Ula is first attested in a Middle Elamite inscription doesn't mean that the name is linguistically Elamite, a possibility of which Spiegel was not aware in the 1870s. Nevertheless, it is certainly possible that the name is either Elamite or that it comes from another, pre-Iranian if non-Elamite native language once spoken in the region. » » #2980 Daniel T. Potts, Elamite Ulā, Akkadian Ulaya, and Greek Choaspes: A Solution to the Eulaios Problem, Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 1999 vol. 13:pp. 27-44 ~ p. 35

※ SOURCE for: Chospes:
« Eulaeus = Chospes » in #2982 Michael J. Kirkby, Appendix I. Land and water resources of the Deh Luran and Khuzistan plains, in: Frank Hole with M. J. Kirkby and Colin Renfrew, Studies in the Archeological History of the Deh Luran Plain: The Excavation of Chagha Sefid, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1977, ~ Fig. 108. Sequence of river courses in Khuzistan, based on freshness and wavelength of meander patterns. Stage 1 shows the ancient names of the rivers if they are consistent with this sequence. p. 277

※ SOURCE for: Eulaeus:
« The Gerrhaeans conducted a caravan trade with the incense land of South Arabia, and probably both sea and land trade with Seleucia on the Tigris, the successor of Babylon as the commercial xenter of Mesopotamia. Seagoing ships could sail right up to Seleucia, which was thus the terminus for Gulf traffic. There were also markets at Teredon on the mouth of the Euphrates and Charax at the junction of the Tigris with the Eulaeus (Kārūn). » #53 Hourani, George Fadlo (revised and expanded by Carswell, John), Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1995 ~ p. 14

« while the distance of Charax Spasinou (an old Hellenistic city located at the confluence of the Tigris and Eulaeus rivers7) to the Persian Gulf is obtained from the map “Agrippa’s portico” (HN 6.139; cf. Dilke 1985: 50). fn. 7 Pliny HN 6.138–139: originally a foundation of Alexander, the city was refounded by a Seleucid king Antiochos, and renamed Antiocheia, and then taken over by Spaosines, founder of the Characene kingdom (later known as Mesene) in the late second century bce, hence the city’s later name: Charax Spasinou, “Charax of Spasinos.” See also Potts 1990: 145–146; Fraser 1996: 168–169. » #2973 Ed. Ted Kaizer, A Companion to the Hellenistic and Roman Near East, Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, 2022 ~ p. 26

« Later changes of river course would tend to confuse the historical record, and might give rise to much of the difficulty in separately identifying the Choaspes and Eulaeus. It may be noted that the present proposal simplifies the journey of Nearchus from the Pasitigris (Karun) to Shush (Hansman, 1967:30-31), and explains the alternative use of the names Eulaeus and Pasitigris for the lower Karun (Ibid: 33). » #2982 Michael J. Kirkby, Appendix I. Land and water resources of the Deh Luran and Khuzistan plains, in: Frank Hole with M. J. Kirkby and Colin Renfrew, Studies in the Archeological History of the Deh Luran Plain: The Excavation of Chagha Sefid, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1977, ~ p. 279

※ SOURCE for: Eulaios:
« everything that is said about this river in cuneiform texts during the Neo-Assyrian period is consistent with it being identified wifh fhe united streams of the Karkheh, Dez, and Karun rivers, fhe combination of which ofherwise is called Ulaya, Eulaios, Eulaeus, or Pasitigris. (159) fn. 159 This united streams are also once called Choaspes, and once Tigris. » #2979 ed. Hennann Gasche, The Persian Gulf shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach. A Joint Belgo-Iranian Project. First Progress Report – Part 3, Akkadica, Brussels, 2007 vol. 128:pp. 1-72 ~ p. 30

※ SOURCE for: Huvaspa:
see source « Choaspes »

※ SOURCE for: Ula:
see source « Choaspes »

※ SOURCE for: Ulai:
« On the Persian Gulf, the ancient kingdon of "Sealand," which has been located with near certainty in Northeastern Arabia …. Warriors were there embarked, and the expedition sailed to the mouth of the river Ulai (the Kārūn): this river now enters the Sha??tṭ? ?al-‘Arab, but then flowed directly into the Persian Gulf, which extended further to the north and west than it does today. » #53 Hourani, George Fadlo (revised and expanded by Carswell, John), Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1995 ~ p. 10

※ SOURCE for: Ulaya:
« everything that is said about this river in cuneiform texts during the Neo-Assyrian period is consistent with it being identified wifh fhe united streams of the Karkheh, Dez, and Karun rivers, fhe combination of which ofherwise is called Ulaya, Eulaios, Eulaeus, or Pasitigris. (159) fn. 159 This united streams are also once called Choaspes, and once Tigris. » #2979 ed. Hennann Gasche, The Persian Gulf shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach. A Joint Belgo-Iranian Project. First Progress Report – Part 3, Akkadica, Brussels, 2007 vol. 128:pp. 1-72 ~ p. 30

Stream in grp 33K04 name: Eulaeus = Chospes
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 32.073138 long 48.224298 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Eulaeus = Chospes ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Eulaeus = Chospes:
« Eulaeus = Chospes » in #2982 Michael J. Kirkby, Appendix I. Land and water resources of the Deh Luran and Khuzistan plains, in: Frank Hole with M. J. Kirkby and Colin Renfrew, Studies in the Archeological History of the Deh Luran Plain: The Excavation of Chagha Sefid, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1977, ~ p. 277

Stream in grp 36E01 name: Euphrates River
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 30.936025 long 46.868954
VARIANT names: Euphrates River ,

※ SOURCE for: Euphrates River:
« Euphrates River » in {map#1085 Series 1404 World 1:500,000, Great Britain War Office and Air Ministry, 1958-, 1958, The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) Map Collection} Basra 445B

location of stream about 55 kms west of confluence with Tigris River

Arch. Site in IRN name: F11 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F11 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F11 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: 1989: 729; USBGN: 528). The location of Akhtar is given by Adamec (1989: 28), however the Northing given of 2741 is marked as 2742 on the TPC (Sheet H-6C). Inconsistencies elsewhere in Adamec suggest that the TPC information should be preferred. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F12 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F12 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F12 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 16 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F13 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F13 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F13 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 14 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F14 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F14 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F14 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 8 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F15 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F15 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F15 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F16 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F16 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F16 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 13 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F17 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F17 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F17 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F18 Akhtar
UTM: 5214, 2742 converted to coordinate: lat 27.7 long 52.2333333333333
VARIANT names: F18 Akhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: F18 Akhtar:
« Other variants: none Details: See F12. No. of sherds: 5 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F2 Shilau
UTM: 5220, 2739 converted to coordinate: lat 27.65 long 52.3333333333333
VARIANT names: F2 Shilau ,

※ SOURCE for: F2 Shilau:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Shilau is given as 4 miles West of Tahiri (Adamec, 1989: 687; C and S: 198). No. of sherds: 9 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F3 Shilau
UTM: 5220, 2739 converted to coordinate: lat 27.65 long 52.3333333333333
VARIANT names: F3 Shilau ,

※ SOURCE for: F3 Shilau:
« Other variants: none Details: See F3. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F4 Shilau
UTM: 5220, 2739 converted to coordinate: lat 27.65 long 52.3333333333333
VARIANT names: F4 Shilau ,

※ SOURCE for: F4 Shilau:
« Other variants: none Details: See F3. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in BHR name: F5 Failaka
UTM: none figure overlay basis for coordinate: lat 29.430644 long 48.279375 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: F5 Failaka ? ,

※ SOURCE for: F5 Failaka:
[location estimated from Fig. 3. Localisation des fouilles de Failaka Location of the excavations in Failaka Island, in #2930 Failaka. Fouilles françaises 1983, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, Lyon, 1983 ~ p. 17. PBR]

« The island of Ikaros, the modern Failaka, which is situated 25 km off Kuwait, is mentioned by several classical authors in their description of the Gulf area. Examining these sources bring new indications which complete the archaeological informations. The excavations carried out by the Danish Mission from 1958 to 1963 have in fact brought to light a Greek settlement of the Hellenistic period: a fortified hill (F5) enclosing a sacred area consisting of two temples, and a dwelling site (F4). » #2931 Calvet Yves, Ikaros : testimonia., in: , Failaka. Fouilles françaises 1983, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, Lyon, 1983, ~ p. 21

Arch. Site in IRN name: F5 Shilau
UTM: 5220, 2739 converted to coordinate: lat 27.65 long 52.3333333333333
VARIANT names: F5 Shilau ,

※ SOURCE for: F5 Shilau:
« Other variants: none Details: See F3. No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F6 Shilau
UTM: 5220, 2739 converted to coordinate: lat 27.65 long 52.3333333333333
VARIANT names: F6 Shilau ,

※ SOURCE for: F6 Shilau:
« Other variants: none Details: See F3. No. of sherds: 29 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: F7 Shilau
UTM: 5220, 2739 converted to coordinate: lat 27.65 long 52.3333333333333
VARIANT names: F7 Shilau ,

※ SOURCE for: F7 Shilau:
« Other variants: none Details: See F3. No. of sherds: 26 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Fahlian
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062546 coordinate: lat 30.197652 long 51.497879
NIMA/GNS names: Fahleyan Bala , Fahlian , Fahlian-e `Olya , Fahlian-e Bala , Faleyun-e Bozorg , Fehlian , فهلیان ,
VARIANT names: Fahlian , Fahliyan ,

※ SOURCE for: Fahlian:
« Fahlian [Name.] 30 17 [Lat.] 51 35 [Long.] 72 miles N.-W. of Shiraz, the chief village of Talaspid plain: situated in the Shib Bawwan valley at N. base of hills, 2 miles W. of Behbehän-Shiraz road at Güreh: narcissus in abundance: De Bodo gave number of houses as 60 or 70; palm-trees, ruined fort; water from canal running 14 miles from mountains beyond Kalah Safid. Climate must be very mild, as palms grow; grain, cattle and grazing plentiful water scarce: W. of Fahliin river is bitter and can only be used for irrigation. Mamassani have made themselves masters of this valley, dispossessing the original inhabitants. [Notes.] » #3095 Report on Fars by Captain A T Wilson, Indian Political Department, Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1916 ~ p. 281

※ SOURCE for: Fahliyan:
« Twenty years later Hallock identified the Fahliyan district of western Fårs as one of three key areas documented in the texts (Hallock 1977 : 129). The town of Fahliyan (30° 10’ 26” N, 50° 44’ 9” E) is c. 125 km as the crow flies to the northwest of Shiraz (Atarashi and Horiuchi 1963 : 1), 250 km from Persepolis (Speck 2002 : 144, n. 130) 1, and 290 km to the southeast of Ahwaz (Atarashi and Horiuchi 1963 : 1). » #3064 D.T. Potts, The Persepolis Fortification Texts and the Royal Road: Another look at the Fahliyan area, Persika 12, 2009 ~ p. 275 [The coordinates of the « town of Fahliyan (30° 10’ 26” N, 50° 44’ 9” E) » given aboveare those of the coordinates of the stream Fahliyan given the NIMA/GNS data sets and not the town. The distance of 125 kms norwest of Shiraz is correct to the coordinates of the town given here. PBR]

« Fahliyan » in {map#1132 Abb. 2 Karte von West- und Südwest-Iran mit Eintragung von Befunden, , , #1814 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 7:Teil 5: ~}

« We followed the valley in a N.N.W. direction, and at a quarter before 4 P.M. reached Fahliyán, situated at the northern base of the connecting range of hills which we had crossed in coming from Núrabád. Our distance this day was between 7 and 8 farsangs (29 and 30 miles), in a N. direction. Fahliyán is a little paltry town, of at most sixty or seventy honses; but it is enclosed by walls, now in ruins, which show that it was formerly not quite so insignificant. In the time of the Sefeviyeh dynasty it had 5000 inhabitants, a mosque, and four public baths. The district of Fahliyán extended from Múné-nahl on the S. to Básht on the N.W., and from Ardekán on the E. to Khisht on the S.W. The Mamásení have by degrees made themselves masters of almost all the arable land formerly possessed by the inhabitants of Fahliyán, who complain bitterly of the exactions to which they are continually subjected. The town is supplied with water by a canal cut through the hills from the snow-capped chain beyond Kal'eh Sefid, for a distance of, perhaps, 4 farsangs (14 miles). The water of the Ab-shúr being, as its name implies, brackish, it can only be used for irrigating the fields. ... Fahliyán is surrounded by fine palm-trees, and has a fort in ruins on the summit of a small hill. » #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~ p. 80

« Fahliyan is a little paltry town, of at most sixty or seventy honses; but it is enclosed by walls, now in ruins, which show that it was formerly not quite so insignificant. In the time of the Sefeviyeh dynasty it had 5000 inhabitants, a mosque, and four public baths. The district of Fahliyan extended from Múné-nahl on the S. to Basht on the N.W., and from Ardekán on the E. to Khisht on the S.W. The Mamásení have by degrees made themselves masters of almost all the arable land formerly possessed by the inhabitants of Fahliyan, » #3039 Clement Augustus de Bode, Extracts from a Journal Kept While Travelling, in January, 1841, Through the Country of the Mamásení and Khógilú (Bakhtiyárí), Situated between Kázerún and Behbehan, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1843 ~ p. 80

Stream in grp 01Z11 name: Fahliyan
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3062547 coordinate: lat 30.173889 long 50.735833
NIMA/GNS names: Fahlian River , Fahliyan , Fehlian , Fehlian Rud , Rud-e Fahlian , Rudkhaneh-ye Fahleyan , Rudkhaneh-ye Fahlian ,
VARIANT names: Fahliyan ,


Place Name: Faiyarin
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -789223 coordinate: lat 26.17893 long 56.54651
NIMA/GNS names: Faiyarin , Jazirat Um al Fayarin , Jazirat Umm al Fayyarin , Umm al Faiyarin , Umm al Faiyarin Island , Umm al Fayarin , جزيرة أم الفيارين ,
VARIANT names: Faiyarin , Fillam Rock , Ko Kaig , Omal Pherrim ,

※ SOURCE for: Faiyarin:
« Soon comes the Island of Umm al Faiyarin, standing stark 360 feet in height, four and a half miles off the shore. This island is known to.the Kumazara as Ko Kaig, or the egg mountain, in reference to its popularity with sea-birds in the nesting season. » #47 Thomas, Bertram, The Musandam Peninsula and its people the Shihuh, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, London, 1928 ~ p. 86

※ SOURCE for: Fillam Rock:
« Fillam Rock, or Islet, is in lat. 26° 10' N., distant 3 or 4 miles from the land, having 40 fathoms water between it and the shore; it is called Omal Pherrim by the Arahs. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ p. 380

※ SOURCE for: Ko Kaig:
« Soon comes the Island of Umm al Faiyarin, standing stark 360 feet in height, four and a half miles off the shore. This island is known to.the Kumazara as Ko Kaig, or the egg mountain, in reference to its popularity with sea-birds in the nesting season. » #47 Thomas, Bertram, The Musandam Peninsula and its people the Shihuh, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, London, 1928 ~ p. 86

※ SOURCE for: Omal Pherrim:
« Omal Pherrim » in {map#919 Map of Oman Routes of Wellsted and Whitelock, J. R. WellstedRoyal Geographical Society, 1837, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Rare 416-c Oman B-1837}

Place Name: Fakk al Asad
NIMA/GNS feature: STRT UFI: -786250 coordinate: lat 26.35864 long 56.50965
NIMA/GNS names: Fak al Asad , Fakk al As`ad Straits , Fakk al Asad , فك الأسد ,
VARIANT names: Bab Musandam , Fakk al Asad ,

※ SOURCE for: Bab Musandam:
HMSO, Series K6611, Sheet NG 40-6E, Edition 2-GSGS

※ SOURCE for: Fakk al Asad:
HMSO, Series K6611, Sheet NG 40-6E, Edition 2-GSGS

Place Name: Fal
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062598 coordinate: lat 27.6295 long 52.7
NIMA/GNS names: Fal , Fall , فال ,
VARIANT names: Fal ,

※ SOURCE for: Fal:
«De l'emploi du nom de Fål, une lettre de Rashid al-Din offre un cas remarquable, Le conseiller des Ilkhana énumère une série de ports et de districts côtiers qui le fournissent de produits exotiques, dont Fål et la principauté de Qais (mulk-i Kish)." Puisque le bourg de Fål n'est pas au bord de la mer, le mot s'applique ici à un territoire, selon toute vraisemblance à la partie littorale du Fal située à l'ouest de la principauté de Qais; de sorte qu'il est hautement probable que c'est par Shilâu que Fal reçoit l'ambre gris et le bois d'aigle destinés à Rashid al-Din, et que le nom de Fål est en équivalence de celui de Sirâf. C'est à la lumière de cette substitution du nom de Fål à celui de Siraf qu'il faut interpréter Yäqüt lorqu'il écrit qu'on passe par Fål pour aller de Shiraz à Ormuz: "Fål est un gros village semblable à une ville, aux confint méridionaux du Fårs, près des côtes. On y passe quand on va à Ormuz et à Qais, sur la route de Huzi."(16) Sur la foi de ce passage, on a émis l'hypothèse que Fål médiéval était située beaucoup plus au sud-est que Fäl moderne.(17) Bien que Yāqūt réfère à Fål en temps que bourg, il faut entendre qu'on passe non par Fäl, - qui n'est pas une des étapes de la route de Huzu, la liste desquelles est transmise par le Nuzhat al-qulüb, (18) mais par le Fäl, district qui, au temps de Yāqūt, s'étend loin vers l'est. Le Sirāf, nous le savons par Muqaddasi, géographe attentif à respecter les divisions adminis- tratives, allait jusqu'à la frontière du Kirman, couvrant ainsi toute la région des garmsirāt du Färs qui formera ultérieurement la façade côtière du Lāristan. (19) C'est donc dire que la route de Shirāz à Huzū et à Qais traversait le territoire de l'ancien Siraf, qui a pris le nom de Fäl lorsque Yaqut recueille ses informations. Dans les textes du XIVe siècle, le nom de Fäl est employé pour désigner en fait l'arrière-pays de la côte de Qais. Il figure le plus souvent dans une expression composée où il est associé, non point au nom de Sirāf/Shilāu, qu'il a recouvert, mais à celui d'une autre bourgade, ou d'un autre canton, pareillement inconnu des textes d'époque bouyide, Khunj. C'est le Khunjubāl familier des lecteurs des voyages de Ibn Battū?a. (20) Cette gémination signifie que Khunj a connu entre le XIIe et le XIVe siècle, un essor fn. 16 Yaqut, Mu'jam al-buldan, IV, p. 846 fn. 17 K. Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran, carnet de route d'un médecin à la poursuite du ver de Médine (Lund 1955), p. 252. fn. 18 Cf. infra, note 61. fn. 19 En effet Muqaddasi, éd. BGA, p. 52 et p. 422, compte parmi les mudun qui dépendent de Sirāf les deux ports de Sūru, face au Kirman, et de Zirabad (connu ensuite sous le nom de Lashtan). fn. 20 Pour les différentes formes du terme chez Ibn Battuta, cf. I. Hrbek, "The chronology of Ibn Battuta's travels", Archiv Orientální XXX (1962), p. 449. Nous employons systématique- ment ici la forme Khunj-o-Fål de préférence à la forme locale Hung-o-Pal. fn. 21 Stein, op. cit., p. 221, et p. 217. [Of the use of the name Fål, a letter from Rashid al-Din offers a remarkable case. The Ilkhana advisor lists a series of ports and coastal districts which supply him with exotic products, including Fål and the principality of Qais (mulk -i Kish)." Since the town of Fål is not by the sea, the word applies here to a territory, in all likelihood to the coastal part of Fal located to the west of the principality of Qais so that it is highly probable that it is through Shilâu that Fal receives the ambergris and eagle wood intended for Rashid al-Din, and that the name of Fål is equivalent to that of Sirâf. It is in the light of this substitution of the name of Fål for that of Siraf that Yäqüt must be interpreted when he writes that one passes through Fål to go from Shiraz to Hormuz: "Fål is a large village similar to a town , on the southern borders of Fårs, near the coast. We pass there when we go to Hormuz and Qais, on the road to Huzi."(16) On the basis of this passage, it has been hypothesized that medieval Fål was located much further south-east than modern Fäl.(17) Although Yāqūt refers to Fål as a town, it should be understood that we do not pass through Fäl, - which is not one of the stages of the road to Huzu , the list of which is transmitted by the Nuzhat al-qulüb, (18) but by the Fäl, a district which, in the time of Yāqūt, extended far to the east. The Sirāf, we know from Muqaddasi, a geographer careful to respect administrative divisions, went as far as the border of Kirman, thus covering the entire garmsirāt region of Färs which would later form the coastal frontage of Lāristan. (19) This therefore means that the road from Shirāz to Huzū and to Qais crossed the territory of the former Siraf, which took the name of Fäl when Yaqut collected his information. In 14th century texts, the name Fäl is used to actually designate the hinterland of the Qais coast. It appears most often in a compound expression where it is associated, not with the name of Sirāf/Shilāu, which it covered, but with that of another town, or another canton, similarly unknown in the texts of Buyid period, Khunj. This is the Khunjubāl familiar to readers of Ibn Battū?a's travels. (20) This gemination means that Khunj experienced a boom between the 12th and 14th centuries. fn. 16 Yaqut, Mu'jam al-buldan, IV, p. 846 fn. 17 K. Lindberg, Journey to the South of Iran, a doctor's travelogue in pursuit of the Medina worm (Lund 1955), p. 252. fn. 18 See below, note 61. fn. 19 Indeed Muqaddasi, ed. BGA, p. 52 and p. 422, counts among the mudun which depend on Sirāf the two ports of Sūru, facing Kirman, and of Zirabad (later known as Lashtan). fn. 20 For the different forms of the term in Ibn Battuta, cf. I. Hrbek, "The chronology of Ibn Battuta's travels", Archiv Orientální XXX (1962), p. 449. We systematically use here the form Khunj-o-Fål in preference to the local form Hung-o-Pal. fn. 21 Stein, op. cit., p. 221, and p. 217.] » #893 Aubin, Jean, La Survie de Shilāu et la route du Khunj-o-Fāl, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1969, 7:21-37 ~ pp. 22-3

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fanakhah (Biagi1)
UTM: DP280990 converted to coordinate: lat 26.2087327213325 long 56.2792920018681
VARIANT names: Fanakhah (Biagi1) ,

※ SOURCE for: Fanakhah (Biagi1):
#2803 Biagi, P., New Rock Art Sites in the Musandam Peninsula, Sultanate of Oman, Bulletin of the Society for Arabian Studies, 2003 ~ p.24

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fanakhah 16
UTM: DD273988 converted to coordinate: lat 26.2068916642529 long 56.2722967972683
VARIANT names: Fanakhah 16 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fanakhah 16:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 38

Place Name: Fanaku
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -786848 coordinate: lat 26.4982 long 56.52918
NIMA/GNS names: Fanaku , Gap , Gap Island , Jazirat Finaku , Jazirat Gap , Jazireh-ye Gap , جزيرة فناكو ,
VARIANT names: Fanaku , Lessenaren ,


※ SOURCE for: Lessenaren:
From the voyage log (report) of the Dutch 'de Meerkadt' about the Musandam and Batinah coast to Muscat in 1666: « From here one sees in N. N. E. direction the small islands 'de Leest (15), Lessenaren (16), /and/ Doodkist (17) which are situated at about 3½ miles off shore (18). The depth on the S. W. side of /the islands of/ 'de Leest' is 53 to 65 fathoms /over/ coarse sand ground. Three miles East off the Western corner of the bay of Comzaar an island (19) is situated which is on the corner (20) of Cape Mosandon. The Northern corner of this island lies at 26 degrees, 24 minutes Northern latitude. The depth there is 70 fathoms sand ground.fn. 15 The Last. fn. 16 The Lectern. fn. 17 The Coffin. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 299

Fanaku «De Lefsenaar» in {map#391 Map of part of the Persian Gulf from Mascate to Pt. Doggeby, Isaac de Graaff, 1666, Nationaal Archief, The Hague, 4. VEL 222}

Place Name: Fao
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3102267 coordinate: lat 29.9680556 long 48.4672222
NIMA/GNS names: Al Faw , Fao , Fao Terminal ,
VARIANT names: Fao ,


Place Name: Fariab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062790 coordinate: lat 27.475066 long 57.084067
NIMA/GNS names: Fariab , Faryab , Pariab , پرياب , فارياب ,
VARIANT names: Fariab ,

※ SOURCE for: Fariab:
in figure « Marco Polo's Route as fixed by Captain Sykes » #1511 Sykes, Major P. Molesworth, Kerman and Persian Baluchistan, with special reference to the journeys of Alexander the Great and Marco Polo, Journal of the Society of Arts, London, 1896-7, 45:648-60 ~ p. 655

Place Name: Fariab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062791 coordinate: lat 27.4905 long 52.9399
NIMA/GNS names: Fareyab , Fariab , Fariyab Varadi , Faryab , Faryab-e Varadi , فاریاب ,
VARIANT names: Fariab , Fariyab , Faryab , Paryab ,

※ SOURCE for: Fariab:
« Fariab » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicago fig. Kangan G-39E 1942}

※ SOURCE for: Fariyab:
see source « Faryab »

※ SOURCE for: Faryab:
« FARYAB (also FARIYAB and PARYAB), name of several towns in Iran: 1. A town in northern Afghanistan, now called Dawlatābād, formerly in the province of Djūzdjan. It was conquered by al-Ahnaf b. Kays in 65/685 (al-Baladhuri, 407). Many geographers mention the town as large and flourishing until the Mongol con- quest when it was destroyed. It never regained its former importance. 2. A small town in southern Fårs province (Le Strange, 257, 296). 3. A village in Kirman (Le Strange, 317). 4. A village in Sughd (Barthold, 138; Frye, The History of Bukhara, 1954, 152). Bibliography: Barthold, Turkestan, 79; Hudud al-'ālam, 335; Le Strange, 425. (R. N. FRYE) »#2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 pp. 817-8

※ SOURCE for: Paryab:
see source « Faryab »

Place Name: Fariab
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062794 coordinate: lat 28.901445 long 51.464226
NIMA/GNS names: Fareyab , Fariab , Faryab , Parian , Tarian , پاريان , فارياب ,
VARIANT names: Fariab ,

※ SOURCE for: Fariab:
« From this point the path tends E. by S., and after running for about 5 furlongs up the valley with a stream on the right (S.) and remains of a watercourse on the left (N.), debouches into a cultivated amphitheatre about 4 miles long by 2 broad, on the N.-E. of which lie three villages, Kalimeh (N.), Tang-i-Zard (E.), and Fariab (S.-E.). » #3080 Simla Drawing Office, General Staff, India, Mobilisation Routes In Persia (Vol. IV, Part II) (Fars, Laristan, Kerman And Yazd) British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/12/10, in Qatar Digital Library, ~ p. 62

Place Name: Fariab
NIMA/GNS feature: FRM UFI: 10390883 coordinate: lat 27.9389 long 53.1704
NIMA/GNS names: Fariab , فاریاب ,
VARIANT names: Fariab ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Fariab FOR Barab [Cornu],


Place Name: Farrashband
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062746 coordinate: lat 28.8713 long 52.0916
NIMA/GNS names: Farash , Farashband , Farrash , Farrashband , فراشبند ,
VARIANT names: Farrashband ,

※ SOURCE for: Farrashband:
« Farrashband » in {map#1158 Fig. 1 Location of Fahlian and other way stations on the Royal Road (Mostavi 1967), , , #3065 Nishiaki, Yoshihiro, Japanese excavations in the Mrav Dasht Plain, Iran. In: Archaeological Research and Preservation of Cultural Heritage in Iran, edited by K. Yamauchi, N. Murakami and T. Kanai, Fuefuki: Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Teikyo University, 2020 ~}

Place Name: Fasa
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062808 coordinate: lat 28.9383 long 53.6482
NIMA/GNS names: Fasa , Fassa , فسا ,
VARIANT names: Fasa ,

※ SOURCE for: Fasa:
« This route passed Tarom, Forgh, Rustak, Darab, Darakan, Fasa, Sarvestan and then Shiraz, and from there onwards to Isfahan. This was the normal trade route prior the reign of Shah `Abbas I (1587-1629) . » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 252 and #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 67

Place Name: Fasiqa
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786865 coordinate: lat 24.422222 long 56.691944
NIMA/GNS names: Fasiqa , Fasiqah ,
VARIANT names: El Fasikeh , Farksa , Fasiqa , Fasiqah ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Fasiqa FOR Roçaque [Dames],

※ SOURCE for: El Fasikeh:
« El Fasikeh » in {map#828 Map of Oman, S B Miles, 1910, Royal Geographical Journal}

※ SOURCE for: Farksa:
« Farksa » in {map#919 Map of Oman Routes of Wellsted and Whitelock, J. R. Wellsted Royal Geographical Society, 1837, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Rare 416-c Oman B-1837}


※ SOURCE for: Fasiqah:
« Fasiqah » in {map#904 1:500,000 - World Series 1404, Great Britain. War Office and Air Ministry, 1958, -dubayy-548-d}

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fath 77
UTM: FV 181 032 converted to coordinate: lat 22.63165 long 58.14925
VARIANT names: Fath 77 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fath 77:
CHECK « Cairn tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 57 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fath 78
UTM: FV 205 051 converted to coordinate: lat 22.64864 long 58.17275
VARIANT names: Fath 78 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fath 78:
CHECK « Beehive tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 57 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fath 79
UTM: FV 200 020 converted to coordinate: lat 22.62067 long 58.16765
VARIANT names: Fath 79 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fath 79:
CHECK « Cairn tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 57 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Fatuyeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062891 coordinate: lat 27.330844 long 54.409976
NIMA/GNS names: Fatooyeh , Fatuyeh , فتویه , فتيه ,
VARIANT names: Fatuyeh ,


Arch. Site in OMN name: Faw'ah 10
UTM: FA 662 823 converted to coordinate: lat 23.34187 long 58.62573
VARIANT names: Faw'ah 10 ,

※ SOURCE for: Faw'ah 10:
« Circular tombs, oval graves » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 42 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Feshan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062947 coordinate: lat 28.9182 long 53.2443
NIMA/GNS names: Feshan , فشان ,
VARIANT names: Feshan , Fesjun ,


※ SOURCE for: Fesjun:
« and on the other side of the stream, the village of Baradjun, entirely surrounded by green foliage. After this place Barajan (Baradjun), via villages named as Charbi, Sendjan, Sagada, Bier, Fesjun and Asmunga, (82) fn. 81 Kaempfer, Reisetagebücher, p. 111; Thevenot, vol.II, p.127; Stodart, p. 79 (Moozaferie); Valentijn, vol. V, p. 262 (Moesaserie; Mose Faril); Speelman, p. 82 (Mosaffry); Fryer, vol. II, p. 208 (Mussaferry); Hedges, p. 207 (Mussaferee); KA 1793, fol. 998 (Mossa Ferhie); Chardin, vol. VIII, p. 460 (Mouza fari); LeBrun, vol. II, p. 312 (Mossefarie); Carmelites, loc. cit. (Musafiri). » #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 75

Place Name: Fidagh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062533 coordinate: lat 27.585652 long 53.566901
NIMA/GNS names: Fadagh , Fidagh , Fidaq , فداغ ,
VARIANT names: Fidagh ,


Place Name: Fiduyeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3062997 coordinate: lat 28.0088 long 52.7999
NIMA/GNS names: Fadooyeh , Fiduyeh , فیدویه ,
VARIANT names: Fiduyeh , Pidu ,


※ SOURCE for: Pidu:
« The Pidū stream is joined here by a tributary from the Garmusht valley; the hamlet of that name consists of 50 mud and mat huts and a mud fort; supplies small; water slightly brackish from ganāt. Continuing up the Pidu valley, the track crossthe level of the above low range, and crosses the Pidü stream. Pidū is a village of 30 huts, date grove. Tracks diverge to Haftawan vid Bakhan and to Khunj direct (12 farsakhs) »#3113 Routes in Persia. vol. III, part I., Printed at the government monotype press, Simla, 1918 ~ pp. 163-4

Place Name: Filam
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786887 coordinate: lat 26.18849 long 56.41787
NIMA/GNS names: Al Film , Fiiam , Filam , Film , الفلم ,
VARIANT names: Filam , Fillm ,

※ SOURCE for: Filam:
« The expedition was held up at the Musandam Station for more than a month (9 February to 18 March) owing to a touchy political problem. The Dhahuriyin Arabs who inhabit the Maqlab area were suspicious and unused to dealing with Europeans; most of them (notably in the villages of Habalayn, Muqaqah and Filam) were unfriendly, at least at first. » #52 Harris, Christina Phelps, The Persian Gulf submarine telegraph of 1864, The Geographical Journal, London, 1969 ~ p. 179

※ SOURCE for: Fillm:
From the voyage log (report) of the Dutch 'de Meerkadt' about the Musandam and Batinah coast to Muscat in 1666: « On the other side of the aforementioned mountain on which Cheijsa is situated one finds the bay of Fillm (22) . On its Northern side Mocha (23) is situated, to which the same applies as has been observed with regard to Cheijsa. fn. 22 The bay of Film, which forms part of the very large inlet known as Khor Ghazirah or Ghubbat Ghazirah. It is also known as Malcolm's Inlet . » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 301

Place Name: Filim
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786888 coordinate: lat 20.616997 long 58.193907
NIMA/GNS names: Filim , فلم ,
VARIANT names: Filim ,

※ SOURCE for: Filim:
« International trade from the South Arabian period onwards was defined archaeologically by the presence of amphorae that began to flood the market by the third century BC. … Complete examples of these vessels have remarkably survived in Salalah houses, the tomb of Saleh bin Hud, and the largest number from Mahawt and Filim near Masirah. » #2665 Lynne S. Newton and Juris Zarins, Preliminary results of the Dhofar archaeological survey, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 2009 vol. 40:pp. 247-265 ~ p. 257

Arch. Site in OMN name: Film 1
UTM: FH240810 converted to coordinate: lat 20.6240970290989 long 58.1901052752205
VARIANT names: Film 1 ,

※ SOURCE for: Film 1:
« Cairns » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Arch. Site in OMN name: Film 2
UTM: FH235842 converted to coordinate: lat 20.6530390888732 long 58.1855312247429
VARIANT names: Film 2 ,

※ SOURCE for: Film 2:
« Cairns » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 289

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fins 1
UTM: GL265381 converted to coordinate: lat 22.9356666539463 long 59.2087253012093
VARIANT names: Fins 1 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fins 1:
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fins 2
UTM: GL264383 converted to coordinate: lat 22.9374855746624 long 59.2077799902664
VARIANT names: Fins 2 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fins 2:
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fins 3
UTM: GL254401 converted to coordinate: lat 22.9538691951977 long 59.1982963971747
VARIANT names: Fins 3 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fins 3:
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fins 4
UTM: GL258390 converted to coordinate: lat 22.9438856112538 long 59.2020345706492
VARIANT names: Fins 4 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fins 4:
« Flint scatter » #2649 Paolo Biagi, Surveys along the Oman Coast: Preliminary Report on the 1985-1988 Campaigns, East and West, Rome, vol. 38:no. 1/4:pp. 271-291 ~ p. 287

Stream in grp 09M28 name: Firûzâbâd river
NIMA/GNS feature: STM independent coordinate: lat 28.949526 long 52.544657
VARIANT names: Burâzah (or Barârah) , Firûzâbâd river , Tirzah ,

※ SOURCE for: Burâzah (or Barârah):
« The Firûzâbâd river is named by Istakhri the Tirzah; the Fars Namah and Mustawfi call it the Burâzah (or Barârah) river. It rose in the Khunayfghân district, and was said to have been turned from its original course by Alexander the Great, who, when besieging Jûr, flooded the country round and made the lake, which was subsequently drained by Burazah the Sage in the reign of King Ardashir » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ p. 256

※ SOURCE for: Firûzâbâd river:
« About half-way between Laghir and the sea the main stream receives an important affluent from the north, namely the river of Firûzâbâd. » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ p. 255

※ SOURCE for: Tirzah:
« The Firûzâbâd river is named by Istakhri the Tirzah; the Fars Namah and Mustawfi call it the Burâzah (or Barârah) river. It rose in the Khunayfghân district, and was said to have been turned from its original course by Alexander the Great, who, when besieging Jûr, flooded the country round and made the lake, which was subsequently drained by Burazah the Sage in the reign of King Ardashir » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ p. 256

Place Name: Firuzabad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063026 coordinate: lat 28.8438 long 52.5707
NIMA/GNS names: Firuzabad , فیروز آباد ,
VARIANT names: Ardašir-Xwarrah , Ardeshir Khore , Cur , Firuzabad , Gör , Goûr , Gur , Jur ,

※ SOURCE for: Ardašir-Xwarrah:
« Ardašir-Xwarrah or Gör - Attestations: Islamic geographers reported that at the site of Gör there had previously been another town at the time of the Kayanids (Achaemenids), one which had been destroyed and flooded by Alexander. After Ardašir I had established his power in Pārs and its neighboring provinces, he ordered the town of Gor to be built at the site of the disappeared town. According to Tabari, it was the foundation of this royal town by Ardašir that infuriated Arda?ān or Ἁρτάβανος (Artabanos) V, resulting in the decisive battle of Hurmuzjan. Kārnāmag i Ardaširi Pābgān, however, recorded that Gör was a town that had been founded by Ardašir after his victory over Artabanos (KAP. V.13, IX. 13) 12. Gör was the center of a district with the same name and the capital of Ardašir-Xwarrah. … - Identification: The ruins of the circular town of Gor (modern Firūz-Abād) are located about 3 km to the west of the modern town of Firūz-Abād. The Sasanian town of Gor was in fact part of a larger collection of structures and monuments built by Ardašir I in the Firūz-Abād region. They included the palace-fortress of Qal'e-Doxtar, the larger palace in the Firūz-Abād plain, two magnificent rock reliefs below Qal'e-Doxtar and the hydraulic structures, reported both in Kārnāmag i Ardaširi Pābgān and in the Islamic sources, to the south west of the circular town. Fn. 11 Tabari, Vol. V: 11. » #3092 Negin Miri, Sasanian Pars: Historical Geography and Administrative Organization, Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa, California, 2012 ~pp. 48-9

※ SOURCE for: Ardeshir Khore:
« and before reaching the sea it used to drink Khonaifaqan, Gur and other areas in Ardeshir Khore. (Istakhari, 121; » #3088 Negin Miri, Historical Geography of Fars Rivers (in Persian) in Proceeding of the 1st Conference of Historical Geography, Tehran-March 2015 (pp.651-668), ~ p. 656

※ SOURCE for: Cur:
« FIRÜZABAD (formerly Piruzābād, 'the town of victory', and originally known as Gūr or Cür) » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 925

※ SOURCE for: Firuzabad:
« FIRÜZABAD (formerly Piruzābād, 'the town of victory', and originally known as Gūr or Cür) is situated in 28° 50' N. Lat. and 52° 34' E. Long. (Greenwich); it is 1356 m. above sea level. The present town, which had 4,340 inhabitants in 1951, is 3 km. to the south-east of the ancient site. Firü-zābād, besides being one of the chief centres of the Kash-ka'i tribe [q.v.], is the chief administrative centre of the district (shahristan) of the same name in the seventh Ustan (Fars). The surrounding country is very fertile and well-watered and the climate is temperate. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 925

« I2th March, Firuzabad, 6 farsakhs ; 8.30a.m. to 5 p.m. The next day's march was to take us to Firuzabad. The road passes through two defiles, cloven by the river in a rocky ridge 500 feet high, called the Knife-edge (par-i-Kdrd), and in a mountain-range beyond. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 84

※ SOURCE for: Gör:
see source « Ardašir-Xwarrah » above

※ SOURCE for: Goûr:
« 4° DJOÛR (Goûr, en persan). D'après l'Alwal, 77º de longitude et 28° 25' de latitude; d'après Ibn Sa'id, 78° de longitude et 31° 30' de latitude; d'après le Rasm, 78°15' de longi- tude et 31° 30' de latitude. Troisième climat. District d'Ardaschir. Djoûr (7) est une des villes principales du Fars. Ibn Hauqal dit qu'elle est environnée d'une muraille de terre et d'un fossé. Elle a quatre portes et pos sède des cours d'eau. C'est une ville agréable remplie de vergers. On en exporte de l'eau de rose dans tous les pays. L'auteur de l'Azizi dit qu'un petit canton dépend de Djour et que de Djour à Schiraz on compte vingt- quatre parasanges. Ailleurs il dit vingt parasanges. Il ajoute que de Djour à Kâzroûn il y a seize parasanges. fn. Cf. plus bas l'article Firouzabadh. » #3136 Abū al-Fidā' Ismā?il ibn ?Ali, Joseph Toussaint Reinaud, Géographie d'Aboulféda Volumes 1–2, A l'imprimerie Nationale, Paris, 1848 ~ Tome II Parte 2 p. 94

※ SOURCE for: Gur:
« FIRÜZABAD (formerly Piruzābād, 'the town of victory', and originally known as Gūr or Cür) » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 925

« 6. Gür, renamed Firūzābād under the Buyids. Ist., 153, seems to indicate that only the qaisum-water was the exclusive speciality of Jūr. » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937, ~ p. 377

※ SOURCE for: Jur:
« The city of Firuzâbâd was anciently called Jûr, and in Sassanian times this (in place of the later Shiraz) had been the chief town of the district of Ardashir Khurrah. Istakhri reports that the plain here had originally been a lake, this having been drained by King Ardashir, who built the city round an artificial mound-still existing here in the 4th (roth) century and later-called At-Tirbâl, the Look-out,' with a building named in Persian the Aywân (Archway), standing upon a great platform. At this time Jûr was as large as Istakhr, and the city was surrounded by a wall and ditch, with four gates, namely Báb Mihr to the east, Bâb Bahram opposite, Bâb Hurmuz to the north, and Bâb Ardashir to the south. The name Jur, in Persian pronounced Gür, means 'a grave,' and it was held inauspicious by the courtiers of 'Adud-ad-Dawlah the Buyid, who was fond of coming here, that the Amîr should be said to be residing in Gûr, 'the grave.' Hence Jûr was renamed Fîrâzâbâd-the Abode of Luck-and so it is called at the present day. Mukaddasi, who gives the story, speaks of the great town square (Rahbah), and the beautiful rose gardens of Firûzâbâd, also of the well-cultivated country round, stretching a day's march across. Water for the town was brought from a neighbouring hill by means of a syphon tube, and according to the Persian geo- graphers there was a great castle four leagues from the town, called Kalah Saharah (or Shaharah). » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ pp. 255-6

Place Name: Forat
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 30.796755 long 47.703385 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Forat ? , Forat Meisan ? , Maghloob ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Forat:
« In the 1st century A.D., caravans from Petra arrived at the town of Forat 11 or 12 miles downstream from Charax. Its site was either near the modern town of al-Tanuma on the left bank of the Shatt al-'Arab, or, according to Hansman, at Maghlub, 17.4 km. (10.8 miles) southeast of Djabal Khayābir. Apologos (al-Ubulla) also appears as an emporium on the right bank of the Shat al-Arab opposite Forat at 'Ashshār, the modern port of al-Basra, in the 1st century. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 6 p 919

« The name Apologos is not attested elsewhere. Strabo (16.765) mentions only a Teredon at the head of the gulf. Pliny (6.145) mentions a Forat as well as Teredon and (6.139-40) discusses Charax at length. Forat, the Furat Maisan of the early Islamic period, was probably located about twenty airline miles northwest ofBasra (j. Hansman, "Charax and (he Karkheh," lranica Anliqua 7 [1967]: 21-58 at 26,47,51-52). » #2599 Casson, Lionel, The Periplus Maris Erythraei : text with introduction, translation, and commentary, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1989, ~ p. 179

« Palmyrene inscriptions of the second century also testify to successful caravan journeys undertaken between that city and both Charax and Forat (2). Forat was located some 11 miles (17.7 km) below Charax on the Tigris (3). The town of Apologos, situated across and down river from Forat, appears at this time to have replaced Charax as the major port of the country (4). Nodelman suggests that Mithradates IV (A.D. 128-147) further moved the capital from Charax to Forat (5). domains (6). fn. 2) Starcky op. cit. No. 81 p. 52; No. 112 p. 68; No. 114 p. 69 sq. fn. 3) Pliny VI, 145. fn. 4) Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (trans. Schoff) New York, 1912, XXXV-XXXVI p. 36; also see Weissbach, 'Maisan' in Pauly-Wissowa. fn. 5) See Nodelman p. 113 sq. for the state of Characene during the reign of Mithradates. » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 vol. 7:pp. 21-58 ~ p. 25

« It is easy to understand why the city of Forāt (al-Furāt) was so named by the pre-Islamic inhabitants of Mesopotamia. The emporium of Characene became identified with the Aramaic name of the Euphrates (Forat), which flowed into the 'old' Tigris a short distance below that city. When the Tigris changed it course into the Wasit channel, the Nahr Abū '1-Asad (Nahr al-Furāt) came to carry the waters of both Tigris and Euphrates. » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 vol. 7:pp. 21-58 ~ p. 50

« In fact it is only in the first and second centuries A.D. that we find evidence indicating thal Charax - and Forât further downstream - were important transshipment points for goods traveling to and from both the Nabateans and Palmyra. (16) fn. 16. For trade between Charax and Palmyra and the Nabataeans and through the Persian Gulf in the first and second centuries A.D. see, for example, Tarn, GBI2 61; J. Teixidor, Mesopotamia (1987) 191–92; id. In Materialien 293–94; H. M. Bin Seray, Aram 8 (1996) 15–32; Schuol, Die Charakene 380–87, 412–15. » #2858 Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2013, ~ p. 116

※ SOURCE for: Forat Meisan:
« Between 130 and 150 A.D. , in the reign of Mithridates IV, Spasinou Charax was given up for Forat Meisan (today Maghloob), but the two towns might have co-existed for a while. The new site lies a few miles to the south of Spasinou Charax and appears like a tell of 1.2 x 1 mile . Some changes in the shores of the “Chaldean Lakes” could explain this move . The city is mentioned in the Syriac texts o f the 5th century A.D. as “Perat of Meiahan” or Furat. In Nestorian and later Armenian sources it is referred to as the biggest City of Maiahan (Chabot 1902: 272, 478). Following Hamza Isfahani, Ardeshir I could have set up the city again as Bahman Ardeshir (after Whitehouse nd Williamson 1973: 31 - 2). » #2809 R. Boucharlat, J.-F. Salles, The History and Archaeology of The Gulf From The Fifth Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D.: A Review Of The Evidence, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1981, Vol. 11:pp. 65-94 ~ p. 72

※ SOURCE for: Maghloob:
« The mound which measures approximately 1.1 miles (1.8 km) by .81 mile (1.3 km) is now called Maghloob (Arabic for conquered), Maghloob is located 2 miles (4.2 km) to the east of the old Tigris (fig. z). A similar separation of Charax from Tigris Channel I, was earlier observed. … In conclusion then, there would seem little doubt that Maghloob is, in fact, Forat. The location is certainly in agreement with Pliny, and indeed, we know of no other city of such extensive size of the historical period, which could claim the site. » #2970 John Honsman, Charax And The Karkheh, Iranica antiqua, 1967 vol. 7:pp. 21-58 ~ pp. 52 and 53

Place Name: Forte Portoghese Failakah
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 0 long 0 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Forte Portoghese Failakah ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Forte Portoghese Failakah:
« Forte Portoghese Failakah » in {map#1084 Fig. 7. L'isola di Failakah con l'indicazione dei siti archeologici (1-16)., , 1984, #2947 S. Patitucci, G. Uggeri, Failakah : insediamenti medievali islamici ricerche e scavi nel Kuwait, L'Erma di Bretschneider, Rome, 1984 ~}

Place Name: Forur
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -3063099 coordinate: lat 26.2875 long 54.516389
NIMA/GNS names: Farur Island , Favr , Jazireh-e Forur , Jazireh-e-Farur , Jazireh-ye Forur , Zazirat Farur , جزيره فرور , جزيرۀ فرور , ززيرت فارور , فور ,
VARIANT names: Faro , Farūr , Farus , Forur , I. palurde , Pelour I. , Pelouro , Phelur , pilor , Polier , Polior Or Belior , Pylora ,

※ SOURCE for: Faro:
« PHELUR, ilha - v. Faro, ilha. [Pedro Teixeira - Relações de …]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. O-Z p. 48

« FARO, ilha - A ilha Farus, em 26° 17' lat. N. e 54" 30' long. E., no golfo Pérsico. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 43

※ SOURCE for: Farūr:
« pilor, I. palurde [Portuguese name] Farūr [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 100

※ SOURCE for: Farus:
« FARO, ilha - A ilha Farus, em 26° 17' lat. N. e 54" 30' long. E., no golfo Pérsico. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 43


※ SOURCE for: I. palurde:
« pilor, I. palurde [Portuguese name] Farūr [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 100

※ SOURCE for: Pelour I.:
« I. Pelour » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

※ SOURCE for: Pelouro:
« We passed the isles of Phelur, which we call Pelouro;(3) fn. 3 Meaning “cannon-ball” in Portuguese.-D. F » #258 Teixeira, Pedro, The Travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his Kings of Harmuz, and extracts from his Kings of Persia. Translated and annotated by W. F. Sinclair ... With further notes and an introduction by D. Ferguson., Hakluyt Society:Kraus Reprint, 1902:1991 ~ p. 20

※ SOURCE for: Phelur:
« PHELUR, ilha - v. Faro, ilha. [Pedro Teixeira - Relações de …]. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. O-Z p. 48

※ SOURCE for: pilor:
« pilor, I. palurde [Portuguese name] Farūr [Arab name] » #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 100

※ SOURCE for: Polier:
« Polier» in {map#997 [Carte anglaise du golfe Persique] / Made by John Thornton at the Signe of the Platt in the Minories, John Thornton, 1699, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18E PF 209 DIV 2 P 5 RES} see AHduGP map 87

※ SOURCE for: Polior Or Belior:
« POLIOR, OR BELIOR, in lat. 26° 18' N.,† lon. 54° 40' E. is an uninhabited island, situated to the south of Mogoo Bay, being about 5 miles long from N. N. E. to S. S. W., and 3 miles broad, and it may be seen 7 leagues. Two rocks above water lie about a cable's length off its west end, but in all other parts the island seems steep to, and may be approached within a cable's length on the east side. A ship may lie completely sheltered from a N. Wester, by anchoring in 28 fathoms about a of a mile from the shore, with the extremes of the island from S. W, W. to N., and Nobfleur S. W. S. On the north side of the island, there are 50 fathoms within a mile of the shore. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ p. 260

※ SOURCE for: Pylora:
« LE LENDEMAIN, il laissa sur sa gauche l'île Pylora, aujourd'hui Péloro, prit quelques rafraîchissemens à Sidodona, et vint relâcher au promontoire Tarsias, nommé Gherd maintenant, après avoir fait dans cette journée 300 stades. » [THE NEXT DAY, he left Pylora Island on his left, today Peloro, took some refreshments at Sidodona, and came to release at the promontory Tarsias, named Gherd now, after having made in this day 300 stadia.] #2703 P.-F.-J. Gossellin, Recherches sur la géographie systématique et positive des anciens. Tome 3 / ; pour servir de base à l'histoire de la géographie ancienne., Impr. de la République, 1798-1813 ~ p. 73

Place Name: Forur Shoal
NIMA/GNS feature: SHOL UFI: -3063100 coordinate: lat 26.433333 long 54.55
NIMA/GNS names: Farun Shoal , Farur Shoal , Forur Shoal , فرور شل ,
VARIANT names: Forur Shoal ,


Place Name: Fudhra
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786812 coordinate: lat 26.124842 long 56.132332
NIMA/GNS names: Fadgha' , Fadgha' , Fadghah , Fudar , Fudgha , Fudhra , فضغاء ,
VARIANT names: Endra , Fudhra ,

※ SOURCE for: Endra:
located between Rumdtha and Bokha. Map created in 1832. It was written in English and Arabic.#2587 Original surveys by Lieutenants John Michael Guy, George Barnes Brucks, Robert Cogan, William Eales Rogers and Stafford Bettesworth Haines, 1821-29, 'Chart of The Gulf of Persia.' IOR/X/3635/35/1-2, James Horsburgh, Hydrographer to the Honourable East India Company, 1832 ~

※ SOURCE for: Fudhra:
Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

Place Name: Fujairah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782158 coordinate: lat 25.116412 long 56.341408
NIMA/GNS names: Al Fujayrah , Al-Fudjayra , Fujaira , Fujairah , Fujayrah , الفجيرة ,
VARIANT names: Fedjeerah , Fidgira , Fujairah ,

※ SOURCE for: Fedjeerah:
« Fedjeerah is a small fort and village, in lat. 25° 7' 30" N., long. 56° 23' 40" E. It has about one hundred and fifty inhabitants, mostly fishermen and cultivators. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p.624

※ SOURCE for: Fidgira:
« Bireïmah may be approached from Schinas by two of these , Wádí Khór and Wádí Uttar. From Fidgira another road leads across the ridge to Shárga , which is two and a half days distant . » #19 Wellsted, James Raymond, Travels in Arabia, John Murray, London, 1838 ~ vol. 1 p. 237


Arch. Site in OMN name: Fulaj 50
UTM: FV 641 016 converted to coordinate: lat 22.61336 long 58.59661
VARIANT names: Fulaj 50 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fulaj 50:
CHECK « Cairn tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 51 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Arch. Site in OMN name: Fulayj 34
UTM: GV 455 860 converted to coordinate: lat 22.46271 long 59.38572
VARIANT names: Fulayj 34 ,

※ SOURCE for: Fulayj 34:
« Cairns » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 47 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Funnel Hill
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 27.883134 long 51.700807 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Funnel Hill ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Funnel Hill:
[ « Funnel Hill » coordinate based on highest point that represents a pillar. PBR]

« Funnel Hill (27°52'N., 51°36'E.) is situated about 13 miles SSE of the summit of Kuh-e Darang and about 3 miles inland. It is table-topped, about 244m high, and has a small natural pillar that is a good landmark. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022, ~ p. 297

Place Name: Furg
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063128 coordinate: lat 28.3055 long 55.2109
NIMA/GNS names: Farak , Forg , Furg , Furk , فرگ ,
VARIANT names: Forg , Forgh , Furg ,

※ SOURCE for: Forg:
« The town of Forg, so to call it, is surrounded by a mud wall in the form of a square, with a side of perhaps 400 yards, armed with round towers at regular intervals. It had four tall gates, and a governor's residence inside; but these are all ruined and deserted now. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 156

※ SOURCE for: Forgh:
« This route passed Tarom, Forgh, Rustak, Darab, Darakan, Fasa, Sarvestan and then Shiraz, and from there onwards to Isfahan. This was the normal trade route prior the reign of Shah `Abbas I (1587-1629) . » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 252 and #1169 Floor, Willem, The Bandar Abbas-Isfahan Route in the Late Safavid era, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1999, 37:67-94 ~ p. 67


Place Name: Gabandi
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063770 coordinate: lat 27.2083 long 53.0361
NIMA/GNS names: Gabandi , Gavbandi , گاوبندی ,
VARIANT names: Gabandi ,


Place Name: Gachin
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3754653 coordinate: lat 27.126667 long 55.875
NIMA/GNS names: Gachin , Gachin Bala , Gachin Olya , Gachin-e `Olya , Gachin-e Bala , گَچين , گچين بالا , گَچينِ عُليا ,
VARIANT names: Gachin ,

※ SOURCE for: Gachin:
« Gachin » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Gachin-e Pa'in
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063187 coordinate: lat 27.0921 long 55.8893
NIMA/GNS names: Gachin-e Pa'in , گچين پائين ,
VARIANT names: Gachin-e Pa'in ,


Place Name: Galehdar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063268 coordinate: lat 27.6595 long 52.6575
NIMA/GNS names: Galehdar , Galleh Dar , Gilehdar , Kaleh Dar , گله دار ,
VARIANT names: Galehdar , Galléhdar , Gillahdur , Qalehdar ,


※ SOURCE for: Galléhdar:
« Ce Koran qui était aussi bien le nom d'une bourgade que celui du canton dont celle-ci était le chef-lieu, a disparu de la carte et on ne peut plus dire exactement où il se trouvait. Schwarz par exemple a pensé que le site actuel de Galléhdar pourrait correspondre à celui de Koran, mais il est possible qu'il se trouvait un peu plus à l'est, peut-être à Fal, puisqu'il était sur la route directe allant à Darabdjerd. [This Koran, which was both the name of a town and that of the canton of which it was the capital, has disappeared from the map and we can no longer say exactly where it was. Schwarz, for example, thought that the current site of Galléhdar could correspond to that of Koran, but it is possible that it was located a little further east, perhaps at Fal, since it was on the direct route going in Darabdjerd.] » #3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p. 107

※ SOURCE for: Gillahdur:
« Kurān könnte in Gillahdur gesucht werden, [Kurān could be sought in Gillahdur] » #1717 Schwarz, Paul, Iran im Mittelalter nach arabischen Geographen, ~ p. 201

※ SOURCE for: Qalehdar:
« Qalehdar » in {map#1219 in #3109 ed. St John Simpson, Sasanian Archaeology: Settlements, Environment and Material Culture, Archaeopress Archaeology, Oxford, 2022 ~ fig. Figure 4. Satellite map of the Siraf hinterlands with the map of identified sites (after Whitcomb 2009: 78)}

Place Name: Gambrun
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3065139 coordinate: lat 26.6886 long 55.692
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar-e Guran , Gambrun , Guran , بندر گوران , گامبرون , گوران ,
VARIANT names: Gambrun ,


Place Name: Gardanah Djuhunu
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 28.603096 long 52.419413 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Gardanah Djuhunu ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Gardanah Djuhunu:
« Gardanah Djuhunu » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: fig. Abb. 16 Karawanenweg von Shiraz - Firuzabad (Gur) - Bandar-e Taheri (Siraf)}

Place Name: Gardaneh-i-Salwakhi
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 28.779984 long 52.431069
VARIANT names: Gardaneh-i-Salwakhi ,

※ SOURCE for: Gardaneh-i-Salwakhi:
« Gardaneh-i-Salwakhi » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicagfig. Firuzabad_H-39W_1948}

Place Name: Gardaneh-ye Baba Hajji
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3759622 coordinate: lat 29.3629 long 52.6389
NIMA/GNS names: Gardaneh-ye Baba Hajji , گردنه بابا حاجی ,
VARIANT names: Gardaneh-ye Baba Hajji ,

※ SOURCE for: Gardaneh-ye Baba Hajji:
« The Mahalu mountains were still on our left. Seven miles from Deh-i-Nau, they throw out a low spur, which divides the plain of Shiraz from that of Kavar. It is crossed by a road called Baba Haji's Pass 4 (gardana i Baba Haji), and there is also an easier road which turns the point of the spur, and which is used by the Qawam's carriage, when he takes his drives abroad. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 77

Place Name: Gardaneh-ye Muk
NIMA/GNS feature: PASS UFI: 10068968 coordinate: lat 29.1555 long 52.6377
NIMA/GNS names: Gardaneh-ye Muk , گردنه موک ,
VARIANT names: Dasht-i-Muak , Gardaneh-ye Muk ,

※ SOURCE for: Dasht-i-Muak:
« Like the mountain-side sloping down to it, this dell was covered with almond, wild olive, and mastichtrees (bana). A solitary fort stood in the middle, recently built for a garrison of ten tufangchis, who cultivate a little wheat, and receive precarious pay. The Dasht-i-Muak (so this dell is called) is watered by a spring which breaks out of a cleft in the rocks a little to the left of the road by which we descended. The brook makes its escape at the farther end of the dell. Above » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 82


Place Name: Garmusht
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063635 coordinate: lat 28.003 long 52.7333
NIMA/GNS names: Garmasht , Garmosht , Garmusht , Jarmosht , گرمشت ,
VARIANT names: Garmusht ,


Stream in grp 17K24 name: Gashk
NIMA/GNS feature: STM UFI: -3194831 coordinate: lat 28.000278 long 55.710278
NIMA/GNS names: Gashk , Goshk , Gushk , Rudkhaneh-i-Gushk , Rudkhaneh-ye Gushk , رودخانۀ گوشك , گشك , گشك , گوشك ,
VARIANT names: Gashk ,


Place Name: Gazdan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063908 coordinate: lat 27.711521 long 53.767564
NIMA/GNS names: Gazdan , Gezu , گزدان ,
VARIANT names: Gazdan ,


Place Name: Genaveh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3063352 coordinate: lat 29.5791 long 50.517
NIMA/GNS names: Bandar Ganaveh , Bandar-e Ganaveh , Bandar-e Genaveh , Bandar-e-Gonaveh , Ganaveh , Genaveh , Gonaveh , Kenareh , بندر گناوه ,
VARIANT names: Canawah , Djannaba , Djunnaba , Ganafa , Ganaveh , Ganawa , Genaveh , Gennaba , Giannaba , Gonara , Gunawa , Gunewah , Jannāba , Jannábah , Jeannahab ,

※ SOURCE for: Canawah:
« Canawah » in {map#1060 Persia, Afghanistan, and Belouchistan., Philip, George, 1910, david Rumsey Map Collection list no: 15487.080}

※ SOURCE for: Djannaba:
« DJANNABA, (Djannābā, Djunnāba), arabicized forms of Ganafa, a town and port in the VIIth ustan (Fars) of Persia. The name is a corruption of Gand-āb, 'stinking water', so called because of the bad quality of its water (see Ibn al-Balkhi, Färsnama, 149 and Ḥamd Allah Mustawfi, Nuzha, 130). Ganafa is situated on the coast of the Persian Gulf in Lat. 29° 35' N. and Long. 50° 31' E. In former times it was an important manufacturing centre where cloths of good quality were produced. Pearl- fishing was also carried on from there. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 452a

※ SOURCE for: Djunnaba:
« DJANNABA, (Djannābā, Djunnāba), arabicized forms of Ganafa, a town and port in the VIIth ustan (Fars) of Persia. The name is a corruption of Gand-āb, 'stinking water', so called because of the bad quality of its water (see Ibn al-Balkhi, Färsnama, 149 and Ḥamd Allah Mustawfi, Nuzha, 130). Ganafa is situated on the coast of the Persian Gulf in Lat. 29° 35' N. and Long. 50° 31' E. In former times it was an important manufacturing centre where cloths of good quality were produced. Pearl- fishing was also carried on from there. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 452a

※ SOURCE for: Ganafa:
« DJANNABA, (Djannābā, Djunnāba), arabicized forms of Ganafa, a town and port in the VIIth ustan (Fars) of Persia. The name is a corruption of Gand-āb, 'stinking water', so called because of the bad quality of its water (see Ibn al-Balkhi, Färsnama, 149 and Ḥamd Allah Mustawfi, Nuzha, 130). Ganafa is situated on the coast of the Persian Gulf in Lat. 29° 35' N. and Long. 50° 31' E. In former times it was an important manufacturing centre where cloths of good quality were produced. Pearl-fishing was also carried on from there. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 2 p. 452a

※ SOURCE for: Ganaveh:
« Near Ganaveh are some extensive ruins, probably marking the site of the Jannābah of the mediaeval Arab and Persian geographers.* fn. * See Le Strange's Lands of the Fastern Caliphate. The Carmathian Abu Tahir is said to have been bom at Jannabah, which was also celebrated in the middle ages for the manufacture of linen stuffs. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 202

« 5. Quant à Taoce, on en retrouve le nom dans celui de Taûg, ou Taûag [Tawwag] selon qu’il se lit dans la version de l’Édrisi par les Maronites….et marquant sa distance d’un lieu maritime et plus éloigné, nommé Gennaba [Bandar Ganaveh], de douze parasanges, l’Édrisi y compte trente-six milles, ce qui est correspondant. Par la route que décrit l’Édrisi de Shiraz à Taûag, faisant compter quatrevingt- seize milles, il indique le même total de distance dans un autre endroit’ (d’Anville 1764: 161–162). [5. As for Taoce, we find its name in that of Taûg, or Taûag [Tawwag] as it reads in the version of the Edrisi by the Maronites….and marking its distance from a maritime place and more distant, named Gennaba [Bandar Ganaveh], of twelve parasangs, the Edrisi counts there thirty-six miles, which is corresponding. By the route described by the Edrisi from Shiraz to Taûag, counting ninety-six miles, he indicates the same total distance in another place’ (d’Anville 1764: 161–162).] » #2839 Edited by Jebrael Nokandeh and Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, The Persian Gulf, an Archaeological Perspective, National Museum of Iran, Qeshm, 2019 ~ p. 347

※ SOURCE for: Ganawa:
« 10. GANAWA ( [sic]), a large and flourishing town which is a resort of merchants and possesses much wealth. From it come mani- fold textiles (jama). In the sea of Ganafa (t [sic]) there is a pearl bank (ma'dan-i murvaridh). Bū Sa'id Daqqaq, who carried on propaganda (da'vat kard) and took Bahrayn, was from this place. Sulayman ibn al-Hasan al-Qarmati was the son of Ibn Ba Sa'id. » #2901 V Minorsky, Hudud Al Alam The Regions Of The World, Luzac and printed at the University Press, Oxford, for the Trustees of the 'EJW Gibb Memorial', London, 1937 ~ p. 127

« Abulfeda (1274-1331) places Siraf on the coast between Jannabah (Ganáwah) » #571 Stiffe, A. W., Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf, I. Siraf, The Geographical Journal, London, 1895 (Aug.), 6:2:166-73 ~ p. 172


※ SOURCE for: Gennaba:
« 5. Quant à Taoce, on en retrouve le nom dans celui de Taûg, ou Taûag [Tawwag] selon qu’il se lit dans la version de l’Édrisi par les Maronites….et marquant sa distance d’un lieu maritime et plus éloigné, nommé Gennaba [Bandar Ganaveh], de douze parasanges, l’Édrisi y compte trente-six milles, ce qui est correspondant. Par la route que décrit l’Édrisi de Shiraz à Taûag, faisant compter quatrevingt- seize milles, il indique le même total de distance dans un autre endroit’ (d’Anville 1764: 161–162). [5. As for Taoce, we find its name in that of Taûg, or Taûag [Tawwag] as it reads in the version of the Edrisi by the Maronites….and marking its distance from a maritime place and more distant, named Gennaba [Bandar Ganaveh], of twelve parasangs, the Edrisi counts there thirty-six miles, which is corresponding. By the route described by the Edrisi from Shiraz to Taûag, counting ninety-six miles, he indicates the same total distance in another place’ (d’Anville 1764: 161–162).] » #2839 Edited by Jebrael Nokandeh and Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, The Persian Gulf, an Archaeological Perspective, National Museum of Iran, Qeshm, 2019 ~ p. 347

※ SOURCE for: Giannaba:
« Giannaba » in {map#917 The empire of the great Turke in Europe, Asia and Africa, William Berry, 1685, National Library of Israel sys. No. 990026261540205171} see AHduGP map 89

※ SOURCE for: Gonara:
« Jeannahab » in {map#1083 Abrianus nicomedensis.tab XV Nearchi navigatio ab Indo ad Euphratem, Karl Müller, 1882, #2959 Karl Müller, Tabula in Geographi graeci minores, Firmin-Didot et sociis, Paris, 1882 ~}

※ SOURCE for: Gunawa:
« From this to Gunawa is 9 miles ; here the ruins of a considerable town are visible standing about a mile from the sea ; there is at present only a small Arab village on the spot, but it is supplied with numerous wells of good water. » #1334 Monteith, William, Notes on the Routes from Bushire to Shiraz, etc., Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1857, 27:108-19 ~ p. 108

※ SOURCE for: Gunewah:
« Gunewah » in {map#1117 Chart of the Head of the Gulph of Persia, John McCluer (Dalrymple edition), 1786, British Library: 435.k.17, folio 367}

※ SOURCE for: Jannāba:
« Jannāba [place name] 87;20, 30;15 (50;33, 29;34) [coordinates] 73r:3,83 [reference] Mod. Ganaveh (LS, p. 294), on the Gulf coast, west of Shirāz [remarks] » #1425 Kennedy, E. S.:Kennedy, M.-H., Al-Kashi’s Geographical Table, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1987, New Series ~ p.15

※ SOURCE for: Jannábah:
« This gulf has a triangular shape, at one angle el-Obollah is situated, thence the gulf extends towards the east along Faris. Of the places situated on this coast, we name Persian Daurak دورق الغرس Máherbán [arabic] (Mahrúbán), and Shíníz; from this town the embroidered Shinízee cloth has its name; for this and other sorts of clothes are manufactured there: farther the town of Jannábah, has its الثياب الجنابية whence the Janabeen clothes name; the town of Najíram belonging to » #228 El Masudi trans. Aloys Springer, El Masudi's Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, Oriental Translation Fund, London, 1841 ~ p. 266

« The Dastakan district was also of the Sîf Muzaffar, and in the 4th (10th) century its chief town was called Saffarah. The district itself appears to have been in the neighbourhood of Jannâbah, but the exact position of the town of Saffarah is unknown(1). Fn. 1 Possibly this Dastakan district is identical with the coast of the Bani-as- Saffär, already mentioned. Ist. 34, 106, 116, 127, 141, 154- Muk. 422, 426, 427. F. N. 73, 74 a. Yak. iii. 211, 217. Mst. 172. The ruins of Siráf are described by Captain Stiffe in the J. R. G. S. 1895, p. 166. » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ p. 259

※ SOURCE for: Jeannahab:
« Jeannahab » in {map#1083 Abrianus nicomedensis.tab XV Nearchi navigatio ab Indo ad Euphratem, Karl Müller, 1882, #2959 Karl Müller, Tabula in Geographi graeci minores, Firmin-Didot et sociis, Paris, 1882 ~}

Arch. Site in OMN name: Gerran Amr 69
UTM: FV 599 963 converted to coordinate: lat 22.5659 long 58.55522
VARIANT names: Gerran Amr 69 ,

※ SOURCE for: Gerran Amr 69:
« Cairn tombs, beehive tombs » #1292 Doe, D. B, Gazetteer of Sites in Oman, 1976, Journal of Oman Studies, Muscat, 1977 3:1:35-58 ~ p. 56 and Plate IX Location Map opp p. 40

Place Name: Gerrha
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL independent coordinate: lat 26.8747222 long 48.7177778 † see notes (u, p, d)
VARIANT names: Gerrha ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Gerrha AT Thaj lat 26.8747222 long 48.7177778 [Potts], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Gerrha AT Al Jubayl lat 25.4 long 49.65 [Potts], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Gerrha AT Hasā oasis lat 25.3333333 long 49.6333333 [Groom], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Gerrha AT al-‘Uqayr lat 25.6430556 long 50.2144444 [Groom], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Gerrha AT Hofuf lat 25.3783333 long 49.5866667 [Mouton],

※ SOURCE for: Gerrha:
Potts lists the possibilities for the location of Gerrha including Qatif, Hofuf, al Uqayr and Salwa then says « that Thaj and al-Jubayl are the sites of the inland town of Gerrha and its coastal port » #382 Potts, D. T., The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990 ~ pp. 85-97 and p. 90

owtrad web file OWTRAD Dataset tmcIRa0100 last updated 3may01 gives « Gerrha, 50.214443, 25.643057, SA, nkn, exact, 11, tmcIRa0100_051a » which places it at al Uqayr and not Jubayl

« The exact location of Gerrha is still debated.(95) Recent authors seem to favour an identification with Thag, 90 kilometres inland from Gubayl. (96) It has also been argued that Gerrha is the same name as Hagar.(97) Further, it has been alleged that the HGR mentioned on some of the coins found in eastern Arabia refers to Thag, 'the only site in north-eastern Arabia which merits the South Arabian designation HGR.(98) Nothing of this is tenable. Linguistically the equation Hagar - Gerrha is difficult to accept." That (99) HGR must have the same meaning as the corresponding word in South Arabia or that it must be a word imported from there remains to be proved. From Islamic sources we are well informed about Hagar in north-eastern Arabia, which is identical with present-day Hufuf. It is most likely that the epigraphic HGR is identical with this site. In that case it cannot be identical with Gerrha since Hufuf is c. 80 kilometres from the sea, i.e. twice the distance given for Gerrha,(100) fn. 95 For the references in ancient literature, see Tkac, Gerrha; for the discussion, see Potts, Thaj 87 and idem, Gulf II 85-97. fn. 96 W. W. Müller in von Wissmann, Geschichte II 29 note 21a; Potts, Thaj, idem, Gulf II 90; Bowersock, Review of Högemann. fn. 97 W. W. Müller, loc. cit. Cf. Potts, Thaj 89. fn. 98 Potts, Thaj 88-89. fn. 99 Beeston (Observations 7 note 5) derives it from qarya 'village', which at least linguistically is a better solution. According to al-Hamdani (Sifa 137) there was a site in the area of Tamim named al-Garfa, which looks like the same name although the location is uncertain; cf. Sprenger, Geographie 135; James, Location. von Wissmann (Grundlagen 100 note 55, idem, Geschichte I 12) identifies HGR with TMLH in the list of hierodules from MaSin fn. 100 The identification is also rejected by von Wissmann, Geschichte I 12. » #1411 Retso, Jan, The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads (NIAS Monograph), RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 ~ Part II, 10 Alexander the Great and the Arabs, Excursus: the location and role of Gerrha.

« Gerrha was rich and Strabo repeated stories about fine houses and furniture with gold and silver inlays.(8) fn. 8 Strabo 16. 4. 19, quoting the first century B.C. writer Artemidorus; see also Pliny, Nat. Hist. VI, 32. The documentary evidence and the possible site of Gerrha are discussed by Geoffrey Bibby, Looking for Dilmun (London 1970), pp. 307-28. J. Starcky, Palmyre (Paris 1952), pp. 70-6 and Georges L. Rider, Suse sous les Séleucides et les Parthes: les trouvailles monetaircs et l'histoire de la ville, in M.M.A.I. XXXVIII (Paris l961) pp. 432-3 » #1127 Whitehouse, D. and Williamson, A., Sasinian Maritime Trade, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, London, 1973 11:29-49 ~ p. 30

« Teredon seems to have been the trading post of the Gerrhaeans. This leads to the problem of the location of Gerrha, which has already been so substantially debated that it would be superfluous to go into detail over the arguments here. In effect there are now two schools of thought: first, the original view, which the writer has upheld elsewhere, that it centred on the Hasā oasis with a port not far from al-‘Uqayr (7) ; second, the view, strongly argued recently by Dr Potts and others, that the city was Thāj and the port was al-Jubayl (8) . fn. 7 Groom, 1984. fn. 8 Potts, 1984a. » #197 Groom, Nigel, Eastern Arabia in Ptolemy's map, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, London, 1986 ~ p. 68

« In my opinion Hofuf / Uqair seems to be a better candidate for Gerrha (Thaj could be identified as ancient Phigea), considering the importance and fertility of the Hofuf oasis, as well as the toponymic similarity of Uqair and other names preserved in the geography of the area (Groom 1982). Here, it is the inland site of Hofuf that remains unknown, but an occupation in antiquity is attested. We may raise the question whether, in this case, the main political centre was on the coast, with Hofuf being its agricultural hinterland. » #2928 Michel Mouton, The settlement patterns of north-eastern and south-eastern Arabia in late antiquity, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Copenhagen, 2009 vol. 20:pp.185–207 ~ p. 201

« The geographical evidence is more strongly against Tarot; Gena is never said to be an island (Tarut is separated from the mainland by a tidewater flat ), and Gerra was on the fifth bay from Charax - Tarut is on the fourth. Most damaging to the case is the fact that Ptolemy shows a "Tharro" north of Gerra. "Tharro" appears to be a Greek corruption of "Tarut." Tarot is more likely, therefore, to have been a settlement contemporary with Gerra » #2968 W. E. James, Anhang: On the Location of Gena in Nachträge - Das christliche Aksum, De Gruyter, Berlin ; Boston, 2018 ~ p. 52

Place Name: Ghalilah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -782935 coordinate: lat 25.9975 long 56.074444
NIMA/GNS names: Ghalilah ,
VARIANT names: Ghalilah ,

※ SOURCE for: Ghalilah:
« At Ghalilah, an elderly Shihuh commented, In the past, Ghalilah was bounded by walls from the mountain spurs to the sea on the south and the north, from where the old sanam was. People brought their possessions inside the walls when there were attacks. These attackers were from outside, they were outside authorities, Qawasim, Turks, Portuguese, and before the Portuguese, the authority [Hormuzi] at Dhaba’ at Shimal. » #2813 William Lancaster, Fidelity Lancaster, Honour is in Contentment Life Before Oil in Ras Al-Khaimah (UAE) and Some Neighbouring Regions, De Gruyter, Berlin ; Boston, 2011 ~ p. 484

« They also form the population of the three northernmost places in the Sharjah Piincipality, viz., Sha’am, Ghalilah and Khor Khuwair, and of the village of Hail in Sir ; they are found, too, at Saham Town in Batinah. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1805

Arch. Site in OMN name: Gharam 3
UTM: DE365123 converted to coordinate: lat 26.329219159407 long 56.3637167737707
VARIANT names: Gharam 3 ,

※ SOURCE for: Gharam 3:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 34

Place Name: Ghiz Castle
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 29.254429 long 51.730799
VARIANT names: Ghiz Castle , Qiz Qala ,

※ SOURCE for: Ghiz Castle:
« Ghiz Castle is located 200 m to the east and northeast of the road leading from Tol-e Saman to Hossein Abad in the Kali Kuheh site. The current elevation of the structure from the surrounding plain is about 7 m. The dimensions of the structure are 12.60 x 11.60 with 120-cm-thick walls. Around the structure, a ditch has been dug 50 m in length, 6 m in width, and 3 m in depth (Fig. 6). Figure 6. The remains of Ghiz Castle with enclosing ditch in the west of Kali Kuheh site, Tol-e Saman, Sar Mashhad. » #3084 Parsa Ghasemi, Preliminary Report on the Identification of Ghandejan / Dasht-e Barin City Center on Sar Mashhad Plain, North of the Persian Gulfگزارش مقدماتی از شناسایی موقعیت شهر باستانی غندجان/ دشت بارین در دشت سر مشهد ? شمال دریای پارس, Journal of Iranian Archaeology, 2013 no. 3:65-71 ~ pp. 68-9

※ SOURCE for: Qiz Qala:
« Qiz Qala is a square-shaped building made of stone, which is located in the northwest of the ancient site, and a moat has been dug around it, and the remains of towers can be seen in the four corners of this building. The existence of fences around the city suggests the theory that this area is protected by numerous castles, whose traces are still left in the surrounding mountains. The presence of Qiz Qala, which is located inside the area and in its northwest corner, strengthens this claim. Qiz Qala, which is made of stone and plaster and on a natural surface, has the remains of four towers in its four corners. Even in the mentioned building, it is surrounded by a moat, which shows the importance of its use. In addition to these things, it can be said that pottery occupies the largest share of works. This area is divided into two parts, north and south. In the southeast corner, there is a square building made of stone and plaster. This building includes a central courtyard and a set of architectural spaces around it » #3124 Hassan Karimian and Afshin Aryanpur, Sassanid-Islamic City of Ghandijan: Spatial Organization, Form and Function, Journal of Iranian Studies, Tehran, ~ p. 239

Place Name: Ghubb `Ali
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -787016 coordinate: lat 26.25206 long 56.37425
NIMA/GNS names: Ghabi , Ghub `Ali , Ghubb `Ali , غب علي ,
VARIANT names: Cobalje , Ghubb `Ali ,

※ SOURCE for: Cobalje:
From the voyage log (report) of the Dutch 'de Meerkadt' about the Musandam and Batinah coast to Muscat in 1666: « On the Eastern side one finds the river Clobije (9) , where in former times the Portuguese used to put their frigates. From the river Ciebie to the creek of Cabaljel (10) the course is N. E. and then in northern direction for 2 miles and the depth is 25, 26, 27 to 30 fathoms over murky ground. Cobalje is a place situated in a valley in the mountains. There are 5 to 6 cabins in which fishermen live. From the refuge of Cabalje till one ist East off Puncto Mogoleef (11) (on its corner a crag is situated) the course is N. N. E. for 3¼ miles and from there till the beforementioned point the course is East for one mile.fn. 9 Copyist's error, the Sibi river is meant here. fn. 10 Cabalje or Cobalje is the Colville Cove, or the Khor Groob Ali or in Arabic the Ghubb 'Ali. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 300


Arch. Site in OMN name: Ghubb Ali 6
UTM: DE374033 converted to coordinate: lat 26.2479982982689 long 56.3731714851552
VARIANT names: Ghubb Ali 6 ,

※ SOURCE for: Ghubb Ali 6:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 35

Place Name: Ghubbat `Aqaba
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -786208 coordinate: lat 25.916667 long 56.416667
NIMA/GNS names: Ghubbat `Aqaba , Ghubbat `Aqabah , Ghubbat al `Aqabah , Ghubbat al `Aqbah , Kubbat Akabah , غبة العقبة ,
VARIANT names: Bay of Lima Khodima , Ghubbat `Aqaba ,

※ SOURCE for: Bay of Lima Khodima:
« Ras Summootee is the north point forming the Bay of Lima Khodima. It is in lat. 25° 54' 37" N., long. 56° 30' 36" E.; soundings near it twenty-seven to twenty-three fathoms. Within this, at the bottom of the bay, is Lima Khodima, at which place there is a little flat land, and a few date trees. The contrast from all the high and black rock before you come to it, and after leaving it, makes it appear a little Paradise in this rocky wilderness. In the bay are soundings twenty to eight fathoms, and rather better ground than in the other places. The bay is two and a, quarter miles deep, and about a mite to a mile and a half wide. Above this is a high, remarkable, peaked hill, usually called Lima Peak. » #115 Thomas R. Hughes (ed.), Arabian Gulf Intelligence: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, No. XXIV, 1856, Oleander Press Ltd, Cambridge:New York, 1985 ~ p. 521


Arch. Site in OMN name: Ghubbat Dabshun 14a
UTM: DD397974 converted to coordinate: lat 26.1948254 long 56.3964758
VARIANT names: Ghubbat Dabshun 14a ,

※ SOURCE for: Ghubbat Dabshun 14a:
#279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vtia-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.) new series 25:1-2:9-75 ~ p. 37

Place Name: Ghubbat Hanabil
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 21 long 58.9
VARIANT names: enceada di S.º p.º ? , Enfeada.de.S.Petro , Ghubbat Hanabil , Hannatil Bay , Kobat Ahanatil , St. Peters B ,

※ SOURCE for: enceada di S.º p.º:
This is a POSSIBLE LOCATION for « enceada di S.º p.º » which is based on Tibbetts assocation with « Gh. Khanätil » and that of his location of it in {map#894 A Chart of the Arabian Sea, Tibbetts, G. R., 1971, Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean before the coming of the Portuguese}. The location used here has not been associated with any modern equivalent place name but as a symbolic marker of the bay.

« en. de s. Petro [Portuguese name] Gh. Khanätil [Arab name] » Tibbets does not list a modern equivalent in his list in #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 99

« enceada di S.º p.º » in {map#650 Carte de l'Océan Indien, des cotes de l'Afrique et de l'Asie depuis le cap de Bonne-Espérance jusqu'au Japon, João Teixeira Albernaz, c. 16.., Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE SH 18 PF 213 DIV 3 P 2/2}

※ SOURCE for: Enfeada.de.S.Petro:
{map#837 Deliniantur in hac tabula, Orae maritimae Abexiae, freti Mecani: al. Maris Rubri: Arabiae Freti Mecani: al Maris Rubri: Arabiae, Ormi, Persiae, Supra Sindam usque . . ., Jan Huygen Van Linschoten, 1596, Barry Lawrence Ruderman tock# 81979}

※ SOURCE for: Ghubbat Hanabil:
« Beyond this both of Sulaiman's texts have al-Hilmatain which according to Qutami is at the southern end of Masira ('Umda 91°, Minhaj 94°) and which is followed by Hilf Masira (9½° and 10¼° P.S.) … the northern cape of Masira island. From Khuriya Muriya the route was NE to Masira or from the former to Madraka NE by E and from here to Masira NE by N from Masira to al- Hadd was NNE. North of Masira the texts agree except for the actual figures with Ghubbat Ḥanabil at 9¾° and 10¼°, Khanátil in Qutami); » #370 Tibbetts, G. R., Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean before the coming of the Portuguese, The Royal Asiatic Society, Luzac and Co., London, 1971 ~ p. 444

※ SOURCE for: Hannatil Bay:
« An Arabic cosmographical table in the possession of tbe pilot mentions Kobat Ahanatil or Hannatil Bay in 21°, or about ten lenguas due N orth of Massera; but the coast is aid to be so shallow tbat even tbe smallest craft do not coast it hereabout. » #2710 Capt. W. F. W. Owen, The Coast of Arabla Felix, — from the Journal of Capt. W. F. W. Owen, of H.M.S. "Leven.", in: , The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle, Simpkin, Marshall and Co., , no. 26 1857, pp. 180-191 ~ p.188

※ SOURCE for: Kobat Ahanatil:
« An Arabic cosmographical table in the possession of tbe pilot mentions Kobat Ahanatil or Hannatil Bay in 21°, or about ten lenguas due N orth of Massera; but the coast is aid to be so shallow tbat even tbe smallest craft do not coast it hereabout. » #2710 Capt. W. F. W. Owen, The Coast of Arabla Felix, — from the Journal of Capt. W. F. W. Owen, of H.M.S. "Leven.", in: , The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle, Simpkin, Marshall and Co., , no. 26 1857, pp. 180-191 ~ p.188

※ SOURCE for: St. Peters B:
« St. Peters B » indicated in W shaped bay north west of Masirah island in {map#848 A Chart of the coast of Arabia, the Red Sea, and Persian Gulf, , 1740 }

Place Name: Ghubbat Hashish
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -787226 coordinate: lat 20.513714 long 58.159134
NIMA/GNS names: Ghubbat al Hasni , Ghubbat Hashish , Ghubbat Hashish , غبة حشيش ,
VARIANT names: Enceada das baixas ? , Ghubbat Hashish ,

※ SOURCE for: Enceada das baixas:
enseada das baixas = lowland cove in {map#837 Deliniantur in hac tabula, Orae maritimae Abexiae, freti Mecani: al. Maris Rubri: Arabiae Freti Mecani: al Maris Rubri: Arabiae, Ormi, Persiae, Supra Sindam usque . . ., Jan Huygen Van Linschoten, 1596, Barry Lawrence Ruderman tock# 81979} « Enfeada das ba?xas » written across a river.

« Enceada das baixas » south of « j’ dama ceira » in {map#650 Carte de l'Océan Indien, des cotes de l'Afrique et de l'Asie depuis le cap de Bonne-Espérance jusqu'au Japon, João Teixeira Albernaz, 16.., Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE SH 18 PF 213 DIV 3 P 2/2}

« en dos baixos [Portuguese name] Ghubbat al-Hashish? [Arab name] » but no Modem equivalent in #32 Tibbetts, G. R., Arabia in the Fifteenth-Century Navigational Texts, Arabian Studies, London and Basingstoke, 1974 1:98 ~ p. 99

※ SOURCE for: Ghubbat Hashish:
« To the south of the island is the Gulf of Maseera, which is known to the Arabs of Oman as Bahr al-Hadri, or the “ Lower Sea.” At the top of this is Ghubbet Hashish, or " Grass Bay,” a small shallow bay with three islets, Mahot, Rig, and Abuna. The bay derives its name from the long coarse grass, which grows abundantly in the vicinity. » #355 Miles, Samuel Barrett, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, Harrison and Sons: Garnet Publishing Limited, London:Reading, 1919:1994 ~ p. 488-9



Place Name: Ghubbat Quwayrat
NIMA/GNS feature: BAY UFI: -788459 coordinate: lat 19.716667 long 57.716667
NIMA/GNS names: Ghubbat Quwairat , Ghubbat Quwayrat , Ghubbet Kuwaeirat , Ghubbet Kuweirat ,
VARIANT names: Bo:ca del Fiume ? , Ensenada dos Baxas ? , Ghubbat Quwayrat , Ghubbet Kuerát ,

※ SOURCE for: Bo:ca del Fiume:
« Bo:ca del Fiume » in (map [858] Dell´Arcano del Mare, Dudley, Robert, 1646, ) italian for "mouth of the river". Located in « Masiera » bay though « C: dell Idole » is some 95 kms north of Ra's al Madraka and the « S. Maceira » is located west of Masirah island

※ SOURCE for: Ensenada dos Baxas:
« (Ensenada dos Baxas) » in (map [850] 6. Arabia und das Nil-Land, Berghaus, Heinrich, 1835, David Rumsey Map Collection list no: 15177.003) literally in spanish means creek or small inlet, two, low. Proposed Ghubbat Quwayrat [PBR]


※ SOURCE for: Ghubbet Kuerát:
in (map [855] Africa, Sheet VI from the Juba Islands to Maskat with the Entrance to the Red Sea [1r] (1/2), Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen, 1877, British Library IOR/X/3828/598)

Place Name: Ghumdha
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -786964 coordinate: lat 26.112123 long 56.126654
NIMA/GNS names: Ghamda' , Ghamda' , Ghamdah , Ghamtha , Ghumda , Ghumdha , Ghumla , غمضاء ,
VARIANT names: Ghrumdah , Ghumdha , Rumdtha ,

※ SOURCE for: Ghrumdah:
Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~


※ SOURCE for: Rumdtha:
Map created in 1832. It was written in English and Arabic.#2587 Original surveys by Lieutenants John Michael Guy, George Barnes Brucks, Robert Cogan, William Eales Rogers and Stafford Bettesworth Haines, 1821-29, 'Chart of The Gulf of Persia.' IOR/X/3635/35/1-2, James Horsburgh, Hydrographer to the Honourable East India Company, 1832 ~

Place Name: Ghundijan
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 29.247326 long 51.743122 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Ghandejan , Ghundijan ? , Ghundzjan , Kandigān ? ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION of Ghundijan AT Tang-e-Ram lat 29.171462 long 51.824908 [Le Stange], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Ghundijan AT Hoseynabad lat 29.171462 long 51.824908 [Whitcomb], POSSIBLE LOCATION of Ghandejan AT Kali Kuheh lat 29.25643 long 51.733244 [Ghasemi],

※ SOURCE for: Ghandejan:
« In the search for Ghandejan or Dasht-e Barin from the 2004 onwards, the author systematically surveyed the area bounded by western Firouzabad, southern and southwestern Bishapur, and eastern Tavaj or Touz (Borazjan) as described by Ibn Balkhi, Ibn Faghih, and Ibn Khordadbeh. This resulted in the discovery of numerous small to large urban and rural settlements dating from the Sassanid to Early Islamic era. During the surveys, the author found the center of Ghandejan or Dasht- e Barin city at the margin of the Tol-e Saman village, today known with the general name of “Kali Kuheh” meaning “ruins” in the local dialect. The site is located at the southwest of Kazerun at 800 a.s.l, situated at the southeast of the Tol-e Saman village of Sar Mashhad area and in its near vicinity (Figs. 2-4). » #3084 Parsa Ghasemi, Preliminary Report on the Identification of Ghandejan / Dasht-e Barin City Center on Sar Mashhad Plain, North of the Persian Gulfگزارش مقدماتی از شناسایی موقعیت شهر باستانی غندجان/ دشت بارین در دشت سر مشهد ? شمال دریای پارس, Journal of Iranian Archaeology, 2013 no. 3:65-71 ~ p. 66

« According to archaeological evidence and the Early Islamic historical and geographical records, Dasht-e Barin or Ghandejan is the name for an ancient city situated between Bishapour, Firouzabad (Ardashir Khurreh), and Tavaj or Tuz (Borazjan). The oldest name for this city is Dasht-e Barin that is also the name for Sar Mashhad plain. Mehr Narseh was born at Abravan in Sar Mashhad plain, and Abravan village should be one of the archaeological sites of Sar Mashhad plain. According to Early Islamic historical and geographical documents, the city of Ghandejan was well-known for his famous scholars and virtuous people like Al-Aswad Ghandejani, the production of cotton textiles, kilim rug and Jajim weaving and cushion making, and its location in-between Shiraz to Seif (seashore) as a resting point for travelers. Ibn Khordadbeh is the first person who mentioned this city in 230 A.H. and Ibn Faghih and Ibn Khordadbeh report on the placement of the city at the western border of Ardashir Khorreh, between Jereh and Tavaj (Borazjan). » #3084 Parsa Ghasemi, Preliminary Report on the Identification of Ghandejan / Dasht-e Barin City Center on Sar Mashhad Plain, North of the Persian Gulfگزارش مقدماتی از شناسایی موقعیت شهر باستانی غندجان/ دشت بارین در دشت سر مشهد ? شمال دریای پارس, Journal of Iranian Archaeology, 2013 no. 3:65-71 ~ p. 69

※ SOURCE for: Ghundijan:
[coordinates placed adjacent to the Kali Kuheh location. PBR]

« The important town of Ghundijân, in the district of Dasht Barin, was of this neighbourhood. The position of Ghundîjân, of which apparently no ruins now exist, is given in the Fårs Namah as standing four leagues from Jirrah and 12 from Tawwaj; and the author speaks of the Jirrah river as flowing by 'a part of Ghundijân.' In the 4th (roth) century the town is said to have equalled Isṭakhr (Persepolis) or Jannâbah in size; carpets and veils were made here, and the district was counted as of the hot region. Mukaddasi describes a stream among the Ghundijän hills as producing a poisonous hot vapour, so that none could approach it, and birds flying over the stream fell down suffocated; but there were also hot mineral springs here that healed the sick. The population of Ghundijân, according to Mustawfi, consisted mostly of shoemakers and weavers, and in his day the name Ghundijân had taken the place of Dasht Bârin in the common speech for the district. In the neighbourhood was a strong castle, called Kal'ah Ram Zavân (or Dam Darân, with many other variants), where great cisterns had been dug for storing water.(1) fn. 1 Mukaddasi and Yakut with many of the older authorities state that Dasht Bârîn was the name of the town, Ghundijän being that of the district. Originally, however, this can hardly have been the case, since the name Dasht Bârîn, meaning the Plain of Barin, is not applicable to a town. The name of a district or province in the East is very frequently taken over by the chief town, and following this rule when Ghundiján fell out of use, the name Dasht Bârîn may have taken its place, being used then for town or district indifferently, as Mustawfi remarks later, but contrariwise of the name Ghundiján. Ist. 106, 128, 130, 152, 153- Muk. 422, 423, 432, 435, 445, 448. F. N. 73 a, 76 a, 79 6, 82 b, 86 a. Mst. 171. 177, 179. 218. Yak. i. 199, 890; ii. 576; iii. 5, 820. Tawwaj is often included in the Shapûr Khurrah district by the earlier geographers. » #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905, ~ p. 260

[LeStrange placed « Ghundijan » at about lat 29.200558° long 51.530127° some 4.8 kms north of Tang-e-Ram in {map#1138 , Le Strange, , #895 Le Strange, G., The lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur., Cambridge University Press, London, 1905 ~} Map 6 Provinces of Fars and Kirman, about 20 kms WSW from established location. PBR]

« On the western edge of this zone of the garmesir within Ardashir Kurah was the large town of Chundijan, in the region of Dasht Barin. Muqaddasi describes Ghundijan as "a town without fields, without gardens, without a river, and without ornamentation" (432, 2). Rather it owed its continuing existence to its manufactures of textiles (carpets and veils), which art it shared with Tawwaj (Ist. 153, 18). Various geographers group this town with Shapur Kurah as a dependency of Jerrah; this confusion reflects perhaps a connective function between Tawwaj and Shiraz by an alternate route to the more important Kazerun road and the road between Shiraz and the port of Najiram. The location of the ruins of Ghundijan (said to have been as large as Istakhr) were first noted by Henning and were confirmed during survey in 1973 (Whitcomb, n.d.). » #3094 Donald Whitcomb, Trade and Tradition In Medieval Southern Iran - Thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1979 ~ p. 64

Whitcomb placed « Ghundijan » at about lat 29.171462° long 51.824908° some 2.5 kms east of Hoseynabad in {map#1177 Fig. 13. Map of Shapur kurah and Arrajan kurah., , , #3094 Donald Whitcomb, Trade and Tradition In Medieval Southern Iran - Thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1979 ~}

« ... Ghundijan produced carpets, curtains, cushions, ... » #3083 R. H. Tawney, Studies in Economic History: The Collected Papers of George Unwin, Taylor and Francis, 1927 ~ p. 255

« The Shapur river, up in the mountains, was joined on its left bank by the Ab-i-Jirrah, which, flowing down from the Maṣaram and Ghundijan districts, passes the city of Jirrah [31], which is some miles south-east of Kazirun. » #2866 Guy Le Strange, Mesopotamia and Persia under the Mongols in the Fourteenth Century A.D. from the Nuzhat-al-Kulub of Hamd-Allah Mustawfi, Royal Asiatic Society, 1903, ~ p. 69

« He is said to have come from a town (qaryah) called Abruwan(267) in the rural district of Dasht-i Bārin(268) in the province of Ardashir Khurrah. He had lofty buildings erected there and at Jirih, in the province of Sabur, because of the contiguity of that and Dasht-i Barin, fn. 267. The text has 'b.r.wan, but the form of this name is uncertain. It may possibly be the Artuwan of al-Maqdisi, Ahsan al-taqasim, 258, in the list of the towns and districts of Säsänid Persia attributed to Qubadh (I), son of Fayrüz, or the Arduwal/Arduwan of Yaqut, Buldan, I, 149, as a small town of southwestern Persia. fn. 268. The "plain of Barin" was a district of southwestern Färs whose urban center was in Islamic times Ghundijän. See Nöldeke, trans. III n. 4; Le Strange, Lands, 260, 268, 294; Schwarz, Iran, 68-70. » #3081 trans: C. E. Bosworth, The History of al-Tabari, State University of New York Press, New York, 1999 ~ vol. 5 p. 105

« They mustered their forces below the mountains, when they halted at Kāzarún, but they neither overcame nor conquered. They found us earnest fighters, in an encounter where they thought they would win, but did not, At Dasht Barin, on the day of the pass,(575) when those lions who roared as they shed human blood were overtaken - They encountered detachments that left them no gap to exploit, disdainful of those who had the misfortune to fight them, Advancing when challenged by the enemy cavalry, and attacking again as they exposed their rear. And at Jubayrayn,(576) when they advance in lines, fn. 575. Yawm al-shi'b. Dasht Barin was a rustag of the district of Säbür, whose capital was al-Nawbandajan, see Ibn Khurradadhbih, Masalik, 45; Yaqut, Mu'jam. II, 576. The "day of the pass" probably refers to the battle described by Ibn A'tham al-Küfi (Futüh. VII, 34) at Shi'b Bawwan, just east of al-Nawbandajan, see Ibn Khurradadhbih, Masalik, 43, and note 554 above. fn. 576. Considerable variation in pointing and even ductus in various manu- scripts, the reading adopted is from Istakhri, Masalik (BGA, I), 105, 136, where this place is mentioned immediately after Dasht Barin. See also Ibn Hawqal, Masalik (BGA, III, 204, reading Jinzir. » #3081 trans: C. E. Bosworth, The History of al-Tabari, State University of New York Press, New York, 1999 ~ vol. 22 p. 158

※ SOURCE for: Ghundzjan:
« On the return trip, following an easier route skirting the mountains, we passed extensive ruins of a city at the southern end of the valley in which Sar Mashad is located. These ruins may be tentatively identified as the site of medieval Ghundzjan, which lay to the west of Jireh. Another possibility is the town of Fahlan, which also lay to the west of Jireh (22). From Bala Deh I returned to Kazerun and thence to Shapur. Here the bas-reliefs were photographed and squeezes were secured of the inscriptions of Apasay on a fallen pillar (23). fn. 22 The exact location is unspecified, cf. K. Miller, Mappae Arabicae (Hamburg-Stuttgart, 1929), 3. Band, 3. Beiheft, Islam Atlas M 10 (Fars), Taf. 28. fn. 23 R. Ghirshman, Inscription of the monument of Chapour I to Chapour, Revue des arts Asiatiques 10 (1938), 123-129. » #3082 Richard N. Frye, Report on a Trip to Iran in the Summer of 1948, Oriens, 1949 ~ p. 209

※ SOURCE for: Kandigān:
« Ghandijan is an abondoned city from Sassanian era to the early Islamic period. The old name of the city probably was "Kandigān" but another hypothesis is "Pandegan". The early Islamic historians mentioned the name of Ghandejan as a city in Fars state. The context of the city located in the south of Iranian plateau near the coast of Persian Gulf. » #3124 Hassan Karimian and Afshin Aryanpur, Sassanid-Islamic City of Ghandijan: Spatial Organization, Form and Function, Journal of Iranian Studies, Tehran, ~ p. 229

Place Name: Girash
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3064072 coordinate: lat 27.669664 long 54.135859
NIMA/GNS names: Gerash , Girash , گراش ,
VARIANT names: Gerash , Girash ,

※ SOURCE for: Gerash:
« Gerash » in {map#1180 in #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~ fig. Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars}


Place Name: Gird Bisheh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3194695 coordinate: lat 28.066667 long 52.933333
NIMA/GNS names: Gerd Bisheh , Gird Bisheh , گرد بيشه ,
VARIANT names: Gird Bisheh ,


Place Name: Goban I.
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 30.272394 long 48.511774 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Gaban ? , Gabbaan ? , Gabbon ? , Gabon ? , Ghaban ? , Gibbon ? , Gobân ? , Goban I. ? , Gubban ? , Kobbán ? , Qobban ? , Quban I. ? ,

※ SOURCE for: Gaban:
« The Delta of Susiana is much more properly than the Delta of Egypt inclosed and divided by seven (363) streams(364), which are called, 1. The Cossisa-Bony (364); 2. The (365) Bamishere (367); 3. The Caroon, or Karûn; 4. The Selege; 5. The Mohilla; 6. The Gaban; and, 7. The Deree-Bouna. These are names which I obtain from M'Cluer and a very curious (368) chart of Mr. Dalrymple's, and are apparently the titles by which these channels are known to the Karack pilots. This chart explains the journal of Nearchus as perfectly as if it had been composed by a person on board his fleet. Three of these streams, after cutting the Delta, pass through a shoal which is called the Meidan (369) Ala, the great flat, evidently from its plain and even surface, extending out twelve, and in some places seventeen miles, from the coast of the Delta. » #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ p. 423

« Gaban » in {map#1056 Map of Susiana or Khoozistan, , , #852 Vincent, William, The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean, T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies, London, 1807 ~ vol. 1 }

« Mede heeft dese hoecq aen weersijden een groote inwijcq; ontrent 3 mijl noordelijcker ofte 4 crijcht ghij vlack water en is die vlacte twelcq tot in de riviere van Bassora treckt bij 't eijlant Gaban oft Amsterdam langs. » #2863 ed. A. Hotz, Cornelis Cornelisz Roobacker's Scheeps- Journaal Gamron-Basra (1645); De Eerste Reis Der Nederlanders door de Perzische Golf. In Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ p. 376

« The Chaub is originally a subject of the Turks, and has for many years possessed a considerable territory within their dominions bordering upon the Persian Empire, for which he ought, and did for some years, annually to pay (sic) a large sum into the treasury of the this Pachaship. A few years after the death of Nadir Shah, and in the troubles that followed it, he also got possession of a territory in the Persian dominions; by this means he became a subject of both powers. The territory of Gaban and its districts is the name of that he possesses on the Turkish, and Durack, that in (? on) the Persian (? side). Tradition, we may add, seems to point to a date somewhat earlier than 1683, which is mentioned by Major Rawlinson, as that of the first settlement of the Ka'ab in Arabistan ; and, with reference to this date and to the supposed unbroken connection of the Ka'ab with the Turks, it should not be forgotten that Basrah only caine under the direct control of the Turks about 1669, that some years previously to 1691 it fell into the hands of the Persians, and that the Turks did not resume possession of it until about 1695. » #2934 Lorimer, John Gordon, 'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915', British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ p. 1627

« Gaban (45 E, 55 E, 67-1 E): [Qoban / Goban] » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 420

« Gaban, I. (66 E): [Qoban / Goban] » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 420

※ SOURCE for: Gabbaan:
« Gabbaan (96 E): [Qoban / Goban] » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 420

※ SOURCE for: Gabbon:
« Gabbon (44 E, 46 El: [Qoban / Goban] » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 420

※ SOURCE for: Gabon:
« Gabon (65 E, 86 E) : [Qoban / Goban] » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 420

« Gabon, I. (50 B): [Qoban / Goban] » #1939 Couto, Dejanirah, Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis, and Taleghani, Mahmoud (eds.), Atlas historique du golfe Persique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006 ~ p. 420

※ SOURCE for: Ghaban:
« Detail of the map on plate 3 showing the soundings made between Kharg, Bubiyan and Basra. Dutch handwriting of the seven- teenth century may not be easy to read. The ships came from the right-hand side of the chart between Kgarack [Kharg] and Gargu [Khargu]. The Dutch ship first crossed the extremity of the shallows off Ghaban [Qubban], but, once there, did not enter by the right entrance. Instead they sailed around the shallows off Ghadder [Khidr]. They tried to enter the Shatt al Arab, but found it too shallow. Turning back they tried two lower entrances between the mudflats: the Khor Abdallah and a creek near Fasht al Aych. Finally they turned back, entering the Bamishir, as shown by the long line of depth figures. » #2936 B. Slot, The Origins of Kuwait, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1991 ~ pl. 4 p. 23

※ SOURCE for: Gibbon:
« Gibbon » in {map#1092 A draught of the gulf of Persia from cape Rosulgatt to Busero river, Anonymous English, 1721, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE SH 18 PF 209 DIV 2 P 11 D} see AHduGP map 91

※ SOURCE for: Gobân:
« Gobân » in {map#1035 Sinus Persici maximam partem ad observationes proprias A. MDCCLXV, Carsten Niebuhr, 1765, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l'homme, 4-O2G-7 (A)} see AHduGP map 102

« Goban » in {map#1061 Lower Mesopotamia Between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf., War Office, London, 1915, Geographicus, New York}

« Goban » in {map#1029 Kaart van de Perzische Golf, ed. A. Hotz, 1907 (1645), #2863 Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, Deel Xxiv., Brill, Leiden, 1907 ~ ( Kaart No. IV) after p. 545}

※ SOURCE for: Goban I.:
« Goban I. » in Pl. 175 (Map: E. 362) #1412 Alai, Cyrus, General Maps of Persia 1477 - 1925 (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1, the Near and Middle East), E.J. Brill, 2005 ~ pp. 249 and 251 see also in {map#1075 Persia, Afghanistan and Beluchistan, Royal Geographical Society Edward Stanford William James Turner, 1892, Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Stock#77684}

Kärun about broadens out into the Khor Musa (also called Khor Moi Allah). This is probably the oldest course of the Kārun; (2) The Shatt "al-Amaya" (as it is usually written on maps) or al-A'ma (= the blind stream), probably so called because its bed is usually choked with mud. It is also called Shatt Koban (Goban) from the district which lies on its right bank; Portuguese writers of the 17th century reproduced the name as Rio de Gabão (cf. Tomaschek, 75 f.). #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 4 p. 674

※ SOURCE for: Gubban:
« Generally pronounced Gubban. A deserted site on the western border of the Fallabich district of Southern Arabistan, It lies at the point where the Khar Bu Khuwairin and Khadhair unite to form the Qanaqeh branch of Khur Musa, and it is distant about 12 miles south-east from the Marid erock of the Kärün river, and 7 miles north and a little east of the village of Ba Shaneh on the Bahmanshir. Boats can come up the Khur Qanaqeh to within 1 miles of this place. In dry weather, eg, November, there is scarcity of water round Qubban, but at other seasons the whole country to the northward, as far as the eye can reach becomes a swamp, and the mounds mentioned below are converted into islands. These mounds are the only traces of occupation now remaining They are 3 in number, 20 feet high, and appear to be relics of Fortified buildings. » #2878 Gazetteer of Persia vol. III., Government of India Press, Simla, 1924 ~ pt. 2 L-Z p. 819

※ SOURCE for: Kobbán:
« The Cha'b Arabs came originally from Wásit and the marshes near the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates. They were buffalo-herdsmen; and, settling on the Delta formed by the estuary of the Shat-el-'Arab and the Kárún, they founded the town of Goban (Kobbán) (1). The country they now inhabit, was at that time occupied by the Persian tribe of Afshár, and the town of Dórak (2) was their principal settlement. The Afshárs allowed them to settle in the lower part of the country upon paying a tribute of butter and other produce of their cattle. To the Turkish government they also paid a yearly sum for occupation of lands near the Euphrates; fn. 1 The Cha'b Sheikh informed me that the tribe emigrated from Koweït and the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf. Some divisions of the tribe may trace their origin to that part of Arabia. fn. 2 Kobbán is not modern in origin, as it is mentioned by the older Arabian geographers. – F. S. » #2939 AH Layard, A Description of the Province of Khúzistán, The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, London, 1846 ~ pp. 41-2

※ SOURCE for: Qobban:
« The largest and best-organized of the "pirate" states that the Vakil set himself to subdue was that of the Banu Ka'b. In origin they were said to be a branch of the Banu Khafaja bedouin, who had migrated into lower Iraq in pre-Islamic times and made their name almost a synonym for banditry. Late in the sixteenth or early in the seventeenth century they were settled at Qobban, between Khawr Musa and the the Shatt ol-'Arab, by one of the Dayri pashas of Basra and rose in their service to dominance over the coastal region. In Nader's reign they took advantage of a revolt by Mohammad Khan Baluch in Shushtar to raid as far as Dawraq on the river Jarahi, which was soon to become their chief center. Nader dispatched a force to besiege Qobban and the Ka'b sued for terms, » #3003 John R. Perry, Karim Khan Zand A History of Iran, 1747-1779, University of Chicago Press, Chicago:London, 2015 ~ p. 161

« Afrasiyab Pasha also ousted the forces of the Vali of Hoveyzeh from Basra province as well as those of another Safavid official, Bektash Agha Afshar, from the Qobban area. When Safavid forces under Emamqoli Khan attacked Basra in the late 1620s, it were the Ka`b under Sheikh Badr b. `Othman who at Qobban opposed the Safavid troops. As a reward for their valor the Ka`b allegedly received title to the islands of the estuary.(14) fn. 14. Kasravi 1333, p. 101. For the rise of Afrasiyab Pasha and the wars with the Safavids see Floor 2006, pp. 544-47. » #3002 Willem Floor, Persian Gulf: Links with the Hinterland, Bushehr, Borazjan, Kazerun, Banu Ka`b and Bandar Abbas, Mage Publishers, Washington, 2015 ~ p. 197

※ SOURCE for: Quban I.:
« Quban Island in Fig. The upper end of the gulf » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 10

« The top of the Gulf is an area highly susceptible to physical and political changes. The course of rivers has changed, the coastline has been shifting to the South-East because of depositions of silt, and the border between Persia and the Ottoman Empire has also moved between the seventeenth and the twentieth centuries. In the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth century, the border between Ottoman Iraq and Persia ran considerably more to the East than now: instead of the Shatt al Arab, the Karun-i Amiye (or Shatt al Ama) and the Khor Musa were the border rivers. This means that the islands of Khidr between the Shatt al Arab and the Bamishir (on which the modern port of Abadan is situated) and Quban between the Bamishir and the Karun-i Amiye were Ottoman territory.(26) It is not clear when the Shatt al Arab actually became the border river. During the seventeenth century the Bamishir and not the shallow Shatt al Arab was the principal road for shipping between the Gulf and Basra. The Bamishir at that time got its water from the upper Shatt al Arab, not from the Upper Karun as is the present situation. The waters of the Upper Karun ran at that time inde- pendently to the Gulf by way of the Karun-i Amiye and the Khor Musa. (27) The French traveller Thevenot (c. 1664) mentions that the Bamishir was in use for big shipping and was called by sailors 'River of Hormuz', while the Lower Shatt al Arab was only used by small shipping to ports on the coast of the Arabian peninsula and was called River of Bahrain or River of Qatif. (28) The lower Shatt al Arab became accessible to large ships in the course of the eighteenth century. (29) On the island of Quban between the Bamishir and the Khor Musa and Karun-i Amiye, the Ottomans had some border fortresses of which the principal was called Dawraq. This Dawraq should not be confused with the place Dawraq, which can be seen on maps of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and now is called Fallahiya: this place is more inland. (30) At first the former Dawraq was in the hands of the Pasha of Basra, it is already referred as such in 1623. (31) Around the 1750's, it was occupied by the Banu Ka'b, a tribe whose Shaikh had his residence in Fallahiya. (32) fn. 26 A Dutch document of 1645 explicitly mentions that the Ottoman-Persian border ran through the river bordering the island of Quban in the East: Hotz, 'Roobacker', 370-371: this island [Quban/Dawraq] is bordering Persia. The Khor Musa separates it from Persia; there are 2-3 fortresses on it which belong to the King of Basra'. A geographical description of the area can be found in the El i.v. Karun (vol. 4, pp. 673-678). fn. 27 Hotz, 'Roobacker', pp. 342-348. The map by Roobacker in Badische Landes- bibliothek in Karlsruhe clearly shows the Shatt al Arab closed by shallows and the Bamishir as the route for shipping. fn. 28 Thevenot, Suite du voyage, pp. 306-307, 332; Bocarro's Livro das Piantas in Bragança Pereira, Arquivo, tom. 4 (Historia administrativa) vol. 2 (1600- 1699) pt. 1, p. 94. fn. 29 A chart of 1753 (J. van Keulen, Zee-fackel, chart of the Gulf) shows the Shatt al Arab as principal way of access to Basra. fn. 30 The English Basra Diary vol. 197, pp. 371 (9-4-1767) mentions that Quban [Dawraq island] is Ottoman territory. Dawraq [Fallahiya] has always been Persian. fn. 31 In 1623, according to a Portuguese document published in Cordeiro, Dois Capitães, pp. 87, the Ottomans defeated a Persian attack on their border fortress of Dawraq on the island of Quban. A later reference to Dawraq as an Ottoman stronghold in ARA, VOC vol. 9099, Dutch Basra diary of 18-9-1725. fn. 32 About this tribe see especially EBD of 1766 and 1767, passim, but especially vol. 197, p. 22 (reference to the settling of the Banu Ka'b on Dawraq), J.R. Perry, The Bani Ka'b, an amphibious brigand state in Khuzistan' Le monde iranien et l'Islam vol. 1 (1971) pp. 131-152; El, vol. 4 p. 314 i.v. Banu Ka'b (by A.M. Abu Hakima), Otter, Voyage, vol. 2, pp. 199-201 and Niebuhr, Beschrei- bung, pp. 319-320. » #1558 Slot, B. J., The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784 : an alternative approach to the early history of the Arab Gulf states and the Arab peoples of the Gulf, mainly based on sources of the Dutch East India Company, 1993 ~ p. 11

Place Name: Goinak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3067526 coordinate: lat 28.7879 long 51.0691
NIMA/GNS names: Gavainak , Goinak , Govinak , Gov'inak , Ja'enak , Ja'inak , Javinak , Kuyenak , جائنك , جائینک , جاوينك , كوينك , گوئينک , گوينک ,
VARIANT names: Goinak ,

※ SOURCE for: Goinak:
« Goinak » in {map#1033 Asia. Persian Gulf [173r], Guy, Brucks, Constable, Stiffe, 1933, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3924, f 173, in Qatar Digital Library}

Place Name: Golashkerd
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3064514 coordinate: lat 27.968333 long 57.152222
NIMA/GNS names: Galashgerd , Golashkerd , Kolashkerd , Qulashgird ,
VARIANT names: Alexandreia , Alexandria in Carmania , Golashkerd , Gulashkird , Valashgerd ,

※ SOURCE for: Alexandreia:
« From Harmozeia (Hormuz) Nearchus went inland to Alexandreia (Gulaskird), [n. (#854 Bengtson, H. and Milojcic, V., Grosser Historischer Weltatlas, Munich, 1954, 17)] » #824 Miller, J Innes, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire, 29 BC to AD 641, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1969, p. 253

※ SOURCE for: Alexandria in Carmania:
« al-ISKANDARIYYA, the name of a great number of towns of which Alexander (al-Iskandar) was the founder, real or legendary, or for which he was chosen as eponymous protector when they were built after his death. The relevant ancient texts are listed in the Real-Encyclopaedie of Pauly-Wissowa (i, 1377-98 and Suppl., i, 54) and, in less detail, by M. Besnier, Lexique de geographie ancienne, Paris 1914, 32-4. These towns are: ... 7. Alexandria apud Oritas, on the coast of Gedrosia, near Cocala: Sonmiani, at the mouth of the Pourali. - 8. Alexandria in Macarene, in the Makran, on the river Mashkil. - 9. Alexandria in Carmania: known to the Arab geographers as Walash-djird (cf. Yakut, s.v.). » EI IV:131a « Alexandria; "4. In Carmania, the capital of the country, now Kerman. » (Amm. Marc. xxiii. 6.) #840 vol. 1, p. 102 « We may also note that Pliny, Ptolemy, and Ammianius refer to an Alexandria in Carmania, unknown, like that of Makerene, to historians, the tradition of the Romance, and the Arab geographers. [n. Tarn, 239, accepts the Carmanian Alexandria, in the region of Hormuz (for which see his detailed study, GBI 481 ff.), as a foundation of Alexander himself, but its attestation is weak.] » #848 Fraser, P. M., Cities of Alexander the Great, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996 p. 166-7 n. Is this "48. Beyond the frontier of this people Greater Carmania rises with lofty peaks, extending as far as the Indian Sea, supplied with products of the soil and fruit trees, but far inferior in fame and in extent to the lands of the Arabs; however, the country is no less rich in rivers, and equally blest with a fertile soil. 49. The rivers better known than the rest are the Sagareus, Saganis, and Hydriacus. There are also cities which, though few in number, are very rich in all that contributes to the maintenance and enjoyment of life. Conspicuous among them are Carmana, mother city of them all, Portospana, Alexandria, and Hermupolis. » #234 bk. XXIII, 6 48-49


※ SOURCE for: Gulashkird:
« Graeco-Macedonian town on the Gulf of Ormuz » ref? Has it got the right link name?

※ SOURCE for: Valashgerd:
« G4 | Valashgerd § [Gulashkird] | R?L | IRN | Le Strange 1905, 317 » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ directory map 3 Asia Occidentalis p. 39 [coordinates lat 27.97 long 57.20 estimated from map]

Place Name: Gonbad
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3064781 coordinate: lat 28.9692 long 52.0368
NIMA/GNS names: Gombaz , Gonbad , Gunbad , گنبد ,
VARIANT names: Gonbad ,


Place Name: Gorazu'iyeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 10138 coordinate: lat 27.0533333 long 57
VARIANT names: Gorazu'iyeh , Gurāzu ,


※ SOURCE for: Gurāzu:
« Gurāzu گرازو [name] 7 miles south south-west of Minab Town. [position] 55 houses of Baluchis. [houses and inhabitants No irrigation, no cereals, 100 date trees. Animals are 2 camels, 2 donkeys and 20 cattle. Water is fairly good; it is obtained not from wells but from pits, 3 or 4 feet deep, dug in the ground. [remarks] » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1217

[From centre of Minab the above puts Gurāzu about 2 km east of modern Gorazuiyeh]

« Beyond a narrow stretch of date-palm groves fringing this dry marsh bed, and belonging to the hamlet of Gurazu, there extends a line of low sandy terraces for about 800 yards from north-west to south-east. The site is thickly covered with broken pieces of burned bricks and pottery debris, and is known as Qalat-sarawan. » #1693 Stein, Sir M. Aurel, Archaeological reconnaissances in north-western India and south-eastern Irān, Macmillan and Co., London, 1937 ~ p. 185

see British Museum at <www.britishmuseum.org/collection/search?place=Gurazu>

« This ware was almost certainly shipped across the Strait of Hormuz from a centre of production in the Minab area. Both stamped and moulded pottery was made at Qalat- Sarawan, near Gurazu, some ten miles south of Minab (79) and precise parallels are known from there for the roulette stamped ware from such Omani sites as Old Ghubb Ali, Dabshun, Khasab and Qabal. It should be noted that no moulded wares were found in either northern Oman or in the regions across the border and this kind of ware appears to have had a purely inland distribution on the Iranian mainland (80) » #279 de Cardi, Beatrice with Vita-Finzi, Claudio and Coles, Ann, Archaeological Survey in Northern Oman 1972, East and West, Rome, 1975 (Mar.-Jun.), new series ~ p. 64

Place Name: Goshneh Kan
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: 10030146 coordinate: lat 29.4993 long 52.8804
NIMA/GNS names: Goshneh Kan , گشنه کان ,
VARIANT names: Goshneh Kan , Gushnakan ,


※ SOURCE for: Gushnakan:
« Gushnakan » in {map#1203 in #1241 Wilson, Sir Arnold T., Notes on a Journey from Bandar Abbas to Shiraz via Lar, in February and March, 1907, The Geographical Journal, London, 1908 (Feb.) 31:2:152-69 ~ fig. Country between Bandar Abbas abd Siraz}

Place Name: Gowri
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3072520 coordinate: lat 28.1807 long 52.3296
NIMA/GNS names: Gowri , Guri , Kuri , گوری ,
VARIANT names: Gabri , Gaouri , Gauri , Gowri ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Gowri FOR Kabrin [Le Strange],

※ SOURCE for: Gabri:
« Gabri » in {map#1193 in #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: p.163 ~ fig. 1. Carte de la région prospectée.}

« Gabri » in {map#1135 U.S. Army Map Series K501: Iraq and Iran:, , , The University of Chicago fig. Firuzabad H-39W 1948}

※ SOURCE for: Gaouri:
« Dar ol-Mizan à Gaouri, 41 kilomètres (lundi 4 mars). A Dihak, une jolie petite caver. »#3059 K Lindberg, Voyage dans le Sud de l'Iran : carnet de route d'un me´dicin, a` la poursuite du ver de Me´dine., C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1955 ~ p. 122

※ SOURCE for: Gauri:
« Avant d'arriver dans la plaine de Dizgāh, signalons, au nord de l'endroit appelé Savar Ghaib, les ruines d'une forteresse, vraisemblablement sassanide, nommée Gabr-i Dukhtar, et, 1 km. au nord du village Gabr ou Gauri, qui se trouve déjà dans le bulūk ou la plaine de Dizgāh, un tépé assez élevé du nom de Tall-i Gabri. [Before arriving in the plain of Dizgāh, let us point out, to the north of the place called Savar Ghaib, the ruins of a fortress, probably Sasanian, named Gabr-i Dukhtar, and, 1 km. north of the village Gabr or Gauri, which is already in the bulūk or the plain of Dizgāh, a fairly high tép called Tall-i Gabri.] » #3101 Vanden Berghe, L, Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars, Iranica antiqua, Leiden, 1961 Vol.1: pp.163-198 ~ p. 171


Place Name: Great Quoin
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL UFI: -786283 coordinate: lat 26.503626 long 56.510582
NIMA/GNS names: As Salama Island , As Salamah , Banat Salami , Great Quoin , Jazirat as Salamah , Jazirat Salamah , Jazireh-ye Qovan-e Bozorg , Jazireh-ye Salameh , Mumar , Quoin Island , Salamiyeh , جزيرة سلامة ,
VARIANT names: As Salamah , Çalemas , de Leest , Great Quoin , Jazirat Quwayn al Kabir , Salamas , Sa-la-mo hsü ,

※ SOURCE for: As Salamah:
« 13.6 As Salamah (Great Quoin) (26°30'N., 56°30'E.) is a wedgeshaped islet with the vertical side at its SE end. Landing can be made on its NW side. A reef, with a least depth of 3.7m, extends about 0.2 mile S from the islet; a detached above-water rock lies almost 91m from the N side of the islet. 13.6 The Inshore Traffic Zone for the Traffic Separation Scheme in the Strait of Hormuz encompasses the islands mentioned above, and may best be seen on the chart. 13.6 Tidal currents in the vicinity of As Salamah wa Banat-ha set NW and SE, attaining a rate of 3 to 4 knots at springs. Near Kachalu and Jazirat Tawakkul, their rate is strongest and they cause broken water. 13.6 In calm weather, at springs, the noise of the rips caused by these currents can be heard at a considerable distance. » #2696 Pub. 172 Sailing Directions (Enroute) Red Sea and The Persian Gulf, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A., 2022 ~ p.275

※ SOURCE for: Çalemas:
« Çalemas » in #1644 Livro de Lisuarte de Abreu, Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa, 1992 ~ illustration f.83v-84, centre left of latter folio

※ SOURCE for: de Leest:
From the voyage log (report) of the Dutch 'de Meerkadt' about the Musandam and Batinah coast to Muscat in 1666: « From here one sees in N. N. E. direction the small islands 'de Leest (15), Lessenaren (16), /and/ Doodkist (17) which are situated at about 3½ miles off shore (18). The depth on the S. W. side of /the islands of/ 'de Leest' is 53 to 65 fathoms /over/ coarse sand ground. Three miles East off the Western corner of the bay of Comzaar an island (19) is situated which is on the corner (20) of Cape Mosandon. The Northern corner of this island lies at 26 degrees, 24 minutes Northern latitude. The depth there is 70 fathoms sand ground.fn. 15 The Last. fn. 16 The Lectern. fn. 17 The Coffin. » #131 Floor, Willem, First contacts between the Netherlands and Masqat or a report on the discovery of the coast of Oman in 1666, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1982 ~ p. 299

Great Quoin «De Leeft» in {map#391 Map of part of the Persian Gulf from Mascate to Pt. Doggeby, Isaac de Graaff, 1666, Nationaal Archief, The Hague, 4. VEL 222}

※ SOURCE for: Great Quoin:
« THE QUOIN'S are three small islets or rocks to the northward of Ras Moosendom, so named by Europeans from two of them being formed like a wedge or quoin; the Arabs call the Great Quoin, Benatha, or Mamma Salama, and the Little Quoin, Ben Salama; Salama signifying Salutation or Welcome, and Mamma, and Ben, their relative size. The Great Quoin is in lat. 26° 30' N., Ion. 56° 34' E., bearing from Cape Great Quoin. Moosendom N. ¼ W., distant 6¾ miles; it is between 200 and 300 feet high, with its steep side facing the N.W. The Little Quoin bears from the Great Quoin S.E. ¾ S., distant nearly 2 miles; and Gap Islet, the smallest of the three, bears from the Great Quoin E.S.E., distant nearly one mile. They have 45 fathoms water close to, with safe passages between them; but these being narrow, with irregular currents, large ships ought not to pass between the Quoins, except in case of necessity. Between the Little Quoin and the cape, there are from 70 to 100 fathoms, over rocks; and on this coast where the high land fronts the sea, the soundings increase from the opposite or Persian Coast, where they are comparatively shoal. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ vol. 1 ed. 6 p. 381

※ SOURCE for: Jazirat Quwayn al Kabir:
« There are (or were) feral goats on Bu Rashid (Tawakkul). The speed and volume of small boat traffic apparently disturbs feeding flocks of Phalacrocorax nigrogularis significantly. Oil pollution from tanker washings is frequent despite the efforts of Coastguards to prevent violation of the international maritime legislation to which Oman is a signatory; the site lies next to a major tanker lane. Six of the seven most important islands for breeding birds are proposed National Nature Reserves (totalling 630 ha), as follows (proposed areas include sea and sublittoral habitat 200 m beyond low water mark): Jazirat Abu Sir (Jazirat Fujar, 150 ha), Jazirat al Khayl (Jazirat Kun, 300 ha), Bu Rashid (Tawakkul, As Suwayq, 50 ha), Jazirat as Salamah (Jazirat Quwayn al Kabir, 60 ha), Fanaku (20 ha) and Jazirat Umm al Fayyarin (50 ha). The seventh such island, Jazirat Lima (c.40 ha), is not part of a proposed Nature Conservation Area. » BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Musandam islands. at <www.birdlife.org> (accessed:30 Apr 2023).

※ SOURCE for: Salamas:
« SALAMAS, ilhas - Os ilhéus Salamah·Wa-Binat-Ha, em 26° 30' lat. N. e 56° 33' longo E., nu estreito de Ormuz. » #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. O-Z p. 128

※ SOURCE for: Sa-la-mo hsü:
« 509 As Salama, Great Quoin, island, 26° 30' N, off the east coast of Arabia. [f. 22] » #329 Ma Huan, Ying-Yai Sheng-Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores 1433, Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society, Cambridge, 1970 app. 1 p. 214

Place Name: Greater Tunb
NIMA/GNS feature: ISL independent coordinate: lat 26.2652953380687 long 55.304659607459 † see notes (p)
VARIANT names: Fomon ? , Great Tunb , Greater Tunb ? , Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg ? , Jezt Tanb , Petombo ? , Raze I. , Tabiana ? , Tomon ? , Tunb al Kubra ? , Tunb Buzurq ,

※ SOURCE for: Fomon:
« In approximately 1518, the Portuguese navigator Duarte Barbosa counted among the possessions of the principality of Hormuz an island called Fomon, which island, entitled in a later Spanish edition of Barbosa's work as Tomon, has been identified as Great Tonb.(34) Neither Fomon nor Tomon seems to have a meaning in Persian, Arabic, Portuguese or Spanish. There is evidence to suggest that Fomon and Tomon may have been, respectively, the corruption of the Persian term folfolmun, a wild mint, or folfol, meaning pepper and also referring to the betel nut, and tambul, meaning betel, consumed as an exhilarant in the form of pan by people in India and elsewhere.(35) fn. 34. Barbosa, Book of Duarte Barbosa, 79-82. fn. 35. See discussion below in section V.» #761 Mirfendereski, Guive, The Toponymy of the Tonb Islands, Journal of the Society for Iranian Studies, Michigan, ~ p. 303

※ SOURCE for: Great Tunb:
« GREAT TUMB, in lat. 26° 17' N. lon. 55° 24' E., is a low level Island about 3 miles long with some trees on it, distant 4 or 44 leagues south of the S. W. end of Kishm, and Great Tamb. may be seen about 5 or 6 leagues from the deck of a large ship. A ship may approach this island within or a mile, and find tolerable anchorage under it during a N. Wester: a bank projects 3 or 4 miles to the southward, not dangerous, as there is not less than 7 or 8 fathoms on it, except near the shore. » #2590 James Horsburgh, The India Directory Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, Black, Parbury and Allen, London, 1817: 1852 ~ pp. 259-260

※ SOURCE for: Greater Tunb:
The Greater Tunb Island (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran)

« TONB (GREATER AND LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island. They are referred to as Tonb-e Bozorg (26°15' N, 55°18' E) and Tonb-e Kucak (26°14´ N, 55°08' E) in Tehran,Ṭunb Kubrā (orṬunb) andṬunb Suḡrā (NabiṬunb) in the Arab capitals. The most common name variations areṬonb and Tomb,… Previously the name was written by the British as Tomb, Tamb, Tumb. » #1189 Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica, online edition, 2012, <www.iranicaonline.org/articles/tonb> (accessed on 29 March 2023).

※ SOURCE for: Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg:
The Greater Tunb Island (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran)

※ SOURCE for: Jezt Tanb:
« Jezt Tanb » in {map#632 Asia. Persian Gulf, Commander C G Constable and Lieutenant Arthur William Stiffe, 1860, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/W/L/PS/10/457}

※ SOURCE for: Petombo:
« Petombo » in {map#997 [Carte anglaise du golfe Persique] / Made by John Thornton at the Signe of the Platt in the Minories, John Thornton, 1699, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18E PF 209 DIV 2 P 5 RES} see AHduGP map 87

※ SOURCE for: Raze I.:
« I. Raze » in {map#980 Plan particulier du golfe de Perse, depuis les caps de Rosalgatte et de Jasque, jusqu'à Bassora / [d'Après de Mannevillette] ; Dheulland sculp, Anonyme, Guillaume Dheulland, Graveur, 1700-1799, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Cartes et plans, GE DD-2987 (6746)} see AHduGP map 74

※ SOURCE for: Tabiana:
In 326 B.C. Alexander the Great's fleet raised anchor from Oarakta (Qeshm) Island and moored at "another island" before passing by a desert island named Pylora (Farur).(13) This "other island" has been identified as Great Tonb.(14) On the basis of circumstantial evidence and conjecture, it is concluded further that the Tonbs correspond to the ancient Tabiana, described by Ptolemy as "islands adjacent to Persidis [Fars]." (15) fn. 13. Arrian (d. A.D. 180), Historia Indika, bk. viii. ch. xxxvii, reprinted in E. Iliff Robson, trans. and ed., Arrian: History of Alexandre and Indica, The Loeb Classical Library (London: William Heinemann. 1949), 2:414-17. fn. 14. See William Vincent, The Voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates (1797) reprinted in idem, The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean (London: Cadell and Davies, 1807), 1:356-57. fn. 15. Claudius Ptolemaeus (d. A.D. 168), Geographia (Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Ter- rarum, 1969), Tabula Sexta Asiae (Sixth Map of Asia) and bk. six, ch. iv. A 19th- century map depicted two islands named Tabiana at the entrance to the Persian Gulf slightly eastward of two other islands identified as Pylora and Fora (the Farurs). See D. Campio (litho.). "Arabia et Arabicus Sinus" (Nurenberg, 1829), in Christen Got- tlieb Reichard, Orbis Terrarum Antiquus (Nurenberg: Freidrich Campe, 1819-1831), map no. 16. The name Tabiana may have derived from the Latin word tabeo, meaning "to waste away." See D. P. Simpson, ed., Cassell's New Compact Latin Dictionary (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1963), 220. It may be that in antiquity the Tonbs were seen in relation to the Tab River (mod. Hindiyan) flowing into the Persian Gulf in the southwest of Fars. See Wilson, The Persian Gulf, 6, 41, 50, 71-73.

※ SOURCE for: Tomon:
« In approximately 1518, the Portuguese navigator Duarte Barbosa counted among the possessions of the principality of Hormuz an island called Fomon, which island, entitled in a later Spanish edition of Barbosa's work as Tomon, has been identified as Great Tonb.(34) Neither Fomon nor Tomon seems to have a meaning in Persian, Arabic, Portuguese or Spanish. There is evidence to suggest that Fomon and Tomon may have been, respectively, the corruption of the Persian term folfolmun, a wild mint, or folfol, meaning pepper and also referring to the betel nut, and tambul, meaning betel, consumed as an exhilarant in the form of pan by people in India and elsewhere.(35) fn. 34. Barbosa, Book of Duarte Barbosa, 79-82. fn. 35. See discussion below in section V.» #761 Mirfendereski, Guive, The Toponymy of the Tonb Islands, Journal of the Society for Iranian Studies, Michigan, ~ p. 303

« The Tunbs are mentioned by the Portuguese author Duarte Barbosa in his description of the Inner Gulf (ca. 1518) as Fomon (read Tomon = Tunb) as amongst those islands dependent on the nominal Arab ruler in Hurmuz [q.v.]. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 10 p. 624

« The Tunbs are mentioned by the Portuguese author Duarte Barbosa in his description of the Inner Gulf (ca. 1518) as Fomon (read Tomon = Tunb) as amongst those islands dependent on the nominal Arab ruler in Hurmuz [q.v.]. » #2645 The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill, Leiden, ~ vol. 10 p. 624

※ SOURCE for: Tunb al Kubra:
The Greater Tunb Island (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran)

※ SOURCE for: Tunb Buzurq:
« TONB (GREATER AND LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island. They are referred to as Tonb-e Bozorg (26°15' N, 55°18' E) and Tonb-e Kucak (26°14´ N, 55°08' E) in Tehran,Ṭunb Kubrā (orṬunb) andṬunb Suḡrā (NabiṬunb) in the Arab capitals. The most common name variations areṬonb and Tomb, and there are other combinations of t/ta+a/o/u+n/m+/-b. Previously the name was written by the British as Tomb, Tamb, Tumb. » #1189 Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica, online edition, 2012, at <www.iranicaonline.org/articles/tonb> (accessed: 29 March 2023).

Place Name: guoba
NIMA/GNS feature: none independent coordinate: lat 21.049742 long 58.81157 † see notes (u)
VARIANT names: goubo ? , guoba ? , guobaa ,

※ SOURCE for: goubo:
located after headland north of Masirah in {map#918 f. 16r: A map of the eastern coast of Africa, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, …, Diogo Homem, 1555-1559, British Library,The Queen Mary Atlas, Add MS 5415 A} with estimated map coordinates 21.049742, 58.81157

※ SOURCE for: guoba:
north of Masirah island headland in {map#935 Chart of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, Gaspar Viegas, 1537, Biblioteca Riccardiana, Firenze} see PMC vol. 1 EST 50C with estimated map coordinates 21.049742, 58.81157

※ SOURCE for: guobaa:
in same atlas as « guoba » but with an extra a perhaps a typographical error in {map#936 Chart of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, Gaspar Viegas, 1537, Archivio di Stato, Firenze, CN 17} see PMC vol.1 EST 50D with estimated map coordinates 21.049742, 58.81157

Place Name: Gurak
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3065134 coordinate: lat 28.9458 long 51.0528
NIMA/GNS names: Goorak , Gurak , Gurak Sadat , Kurak , Ma`na'i , Mahani , كورك , گرك , گورك , گورک سادات , معنائی ,
VARIANT names: Gurak ,


Place Name: Guran
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3064760 coordinate: lat 26.7218 long 55.6187
NIMA/GNS names: Gombaran , Gomeran , Guran , گمبران , گمران , گوران ,
VARIANT names: Guran ,

※ SOURCE for: Guran:
« Between Gurán and Básidu are the following villages:- Cháhu, about 7 miles from Gurán, a small scattered village chiefly inhabited by fishermen, about half a mile from the coast, with a date grove to the N.W. of it; this place is opposite Kishkúh hill, already described, and there is a white tomb near it, which is seen from the strait. Dúlu and Tersai, two small villages, with date trees, about 3 miles from the last; the inhabitants are cultivators and fishermen. Kunársiya, a larger place, one mile from the last, and 94 from Básidu point, lies about a mile from the shore, and has a date grove north of it. Neither of these last three are seen from the strait. » #2904 The Persian Gulf Pilot 3rd edition, The Hydrographic Office , Admiralty, London, 1890 ~ p. 224

Place Name: Gur-e Bahman
NIMA/GNS feature: TMB UFI: 10068980 coordinate: lat 29.1517 long 52.6818
NIMA/GNS names: Gur-e Bahman , گور بهمن ,
VARIANT names: Gur-e Bahman ,

※ SOURCE for: Gur-e Bahman:
« On the farther side rises the Safidar range, 2000 feet high, still capped with snow. This we crossed by a defile opening unexpectedly between cliffs 150 feet high. It is called the pass of Gur Bahman, or Bahman's tomb. The tomb is a barrow of stones in the mouth of the defile. » #3078 Stack, Edward, Six months in Persia, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, 1982 ~ vol. 1 p. 81

Place Name: Gur-e Dokhtar
NIMA/GNS feature: RUIN independent coordinate: lat 29.216917 long 51.651111
VARIANT names: Gur-e Dokhtar ,

※ SOURCE for: Gur-e Dokhtar:
« Gūr-e Dokhtar (the Maiden’s Tomb) stands in the Bozpar valley surrounded by hills 100 km southwest of Kazerun (figs. 1 ). No historical mention of such a tomb exists in ancient and medieval sources. Gūr-e Dokhtar consists of a rectangular chamber, 5.20 x 4.50 m, sitting on three receding plinths and capped with a gabled roof made of large stone slabs. The height of the monument is 4.45 meters. The tomb chamber, 207 x 220 x 160 cm, can be accessed by means of an entrance (89 cm high and 67 cm wide) on the north side. As Stronach has noticed, this situation is reminiscent of the location of the tomb of Cyrus the Great in the Pasargadae plain, facing a majestic gorge called Tang-e Bolaqi (Stronach, Pasargadae, p. 301). » at <irangazetteer.humspace.ucla.edu/catalogue/gur-e-dokhtar-bozpar-%DA%AF%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%AF%D8%AE%D8%AA%D8%B1-%D8%A8%D8%B2%D9%BE%D8%B1/>

« Gur-e Dokhtar » in {map#1180 Abb. 5 Kartenausschnitt der Provinzen Bushehr und Fars, , , #3079 Kleiss, Wolfram, Karawanenbauten in Iran. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie, Materialien zur iranischen Archa¨ologie, D. Reimer, Berlin, 2000 Band 6:Teil 4: ~} see <arachne.dainst.org/entity/10097>

Place Name: Gwadar
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -2761961 coordinate: lat 25.1155556 long 62.3283333
NIMA/GNS names: Gwadar , Gwadur ,
VARIANT names: Barna , Gwadar , Gwadel , K'o-wa-ta-erh ,

※ SOURCE for: Barna:
« H4 | Barna | CH | perhaps near Gwadar PAK | RE Badara » #846 Talbert, Richard (ed.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2000 ~ p.34


※ SOURCE for: Gwadel:
« Gwadel [n. Kewádir.? – E.] is a large and commodious bay, something similar to Arabah, being formed by a high projecting bluff or promontory, which runs out three or four miles into the sea, aud is called Rás Nó. The town is governed by a sheikh and is built on a low sandy soil; it contains about five or six hundred inhabitants, and carries on some trade with Karáchee Maskat, aud different ports in India. » #253 Kempthorne, Lieut. G.B., Notes on a Survey along the Eastern Shores of the Persian Gulf in 1828, Royal Geographical Society, 1835, pp. 268-9

※ SOURCE for: K'o-wa-ta-erh:
« Gwadar town, 62° 19' N » #329 app. 2 p. 298

Arch. Site in IRN name: H10 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H10 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H10 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Rishahr is given by USBGN (448). No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H11 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H11 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H11 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: See H10. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H12 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H12 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H12 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: See H10. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H17 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H17 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H17 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: See H10. No. of sherds: 154 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H18 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H18 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H18 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: See H10. No. of sherds: 21 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H19 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H19 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H19 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: See H10. No. of sherds: 51 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H2 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H2 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H2 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See Hl. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H20 Rishahr
UTM: 5050, 2855 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9166666666667 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H20 Rishahr ,

※ SOURCE for: H20 Rishahr:
« Other variants: none Details: See H10. No. of sherds: 309 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H21 Tangac
UTM: 5053, 2856 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9333333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H21 Tangac ,

※ SOURCE for: H21 Tangac:
« Other variants: Tangak, Tangak-e Safari Details: There is a small fort and village referred to as Tangak-e Safari located close to the edge of the Mashileh swamp, the position of which is given. However there are also two villages with the name Tangak located one and two miles to the south (Adamec, 1989: 735). No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H22 Tangac
UTM: 5053, 2856 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9333333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H22 Tangac ,

※ SOURCE for: H22 Tangac:
« Other variants: none Details: See H 21. No. of sherds: 11 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H23 Tangac
UTM: 5053, 2856 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9333333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H23 Tangac ,

※ SOURCE for: H23 Tangac:
« Other variants: none Details: See H 21. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H25 Gharibou
UTM: 5053, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H25 Gharibou ,

※ SOURCE for: H25 Gharibou:
« Other variants: Tangak-e Mohammad Ja'far Details: It is not possibie to identify the toponym Gharibou though Williamson States that "Gharibou, Tangac and next one all have same name today as Tangac" (Williamson, 1969-70: 215). The next town is Zangina therefore by a process of elimination the position of the town can be identified at Tangak-e Mohammad Ja'far (Adamec, 1989: Map Sheet 43-B). No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H26 Gharibou
UTM: 5053, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H26 Gharibou ,

※ SOURCE for: H26 Gharibou:
« Other variants: See H25 Details: See H25. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H27 Gharibou
UTM: 5053, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H27 Gharibou ,

※ SOURCE for: H27 Gharibou:
« Other variants: See H25 Details: See H25. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H28 Gharibou
UTM: 5053, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H28 Gharibou ,

※ SOURCE for: H28 Gharibou:
« Other variants: See H25 Details: See H25. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H29 Gharibou
UTM: 5053, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H29 Gharibou ,

※ SOURCE for: H29 Gharibou:
« Other variants: See H25 Details: See H25. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H3 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H3 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H3 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H] Details: See H1, No. of sherds: 5 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H31 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H31 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H31 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: The location of Sabzabad is given as "6 miles South of Bushehr, 1 mile East of Rishahr foot and quarter of a mile South of Imamzadeh" (Adamec, 1989: 630). No. of sherds: 8 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H32 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H32 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H32 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H33 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H33 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H33 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 6 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H34 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H34 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H34 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 17 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H35 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H35 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H35 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H36 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H36 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H36 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 6 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H37 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H37 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H37 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H38 Gharibou
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H38 Gharibou ,

※ SOURCE for: H38 Gharibou:
« Other variants: See H25 Details: See H25. No. of sherds: 34 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H39 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H39 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H39 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H4 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H4 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H4 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See HI. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H40 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H40 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H40 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 29 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H41 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H41 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H41 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 14 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H42 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H42 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H42 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 21 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H43 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H43 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H43 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H44 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H44 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H44 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 44 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H45 Sabzabad
UTM: 5052, 2854 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9 long 50.8666666666667
VARIANT names: H45 Sabzabad ,

※ SOURCE for: H45 Sabzabad:
« Other variants: none Details: See H31. No. of sherds: 7 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H5 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H5 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H5 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See HI. No. of sherds: 11 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H55 Zangina
UTM: 5053, 2853 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8833333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H55 Zangina ,

※ SOURCE for: H55 Zangina:
« Other variants: Tangak-e Zangeneh Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Tangak-e Zangeneh, is marked (Adamec, 1989: Map Sheet 43-B). No. of sherds: 22 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H56 Zangina
UTM: 5053, 2853 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8833333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H56 Zangina ,

※ SOURCE for: H56 Zangina:
« Other variants: See H55 Details: See H55. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H57 Zangina
UTM: 5053, 2853 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8833333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H57 Zangina ,

※ SOURCE for: H57 Zangina:
« Other variants: See H55 Details: See H55. No. of sherds: 4 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H58 Zangina
UTM: 5053, 2853 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8833333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H58 Zangina ,

※ SOURCE for: H58 Zangina:
« Other variants: See H55 Details: See H55. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H59 Zangina
UTM: 5053, 2853 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8833333333333 long 50.8833333333333
VARIANT names: H59 Zangina ,

※ SOURCE for: H59 Zangina:
« Other variants: See H55 Details: See H55. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H6 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H6 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H6 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See H1. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H61 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H61 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H61 Halileh:
« Other variants: Heleyleh Details: An equivalent version of the place name, Heleyleh, is marked (TPC Sheet H-6B). No. of sherds: 14 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H62 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H62 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H62 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 3 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H63 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H63 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H63 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 16 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H64 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H64 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H64 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 25 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H65 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H65 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H65 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 28 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H66 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H66 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H66 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H67 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H67 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H67 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 0 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H68 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H68 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H68 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 12 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H69 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H69 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H69 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. No. of sherds: 12 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H7 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H7 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H7 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See H1. No. of sherds: 2 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H70 Halileh
UTM: 5054, 2850 converted to coordinate: lat 28.8333333333333 long 50.9
VARIANT names: H70 Halileh ,

※ SOURCE for: H70 Halileh:
« Other variants: See H61 Details: See H61. The Site Card contains the caption ‘middle site Halileh. Collected 1970, recollected under different numbers 1971'. No. of sherds: 12 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H8 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H8 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H8 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See H1. No. of sherds: 6 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Arch. Site in IRN name: H9 Bushehr
UTM: 5050, 2859 converted to coordinate: lat 28.9833333333333 long 50.8333333333333
VARIANT names: H9 Bushehr ,

※ SOURCE for: H9 Bushehr:
« Other variants: See H1 Details: See H1. No. of sherds: 1 » #2855 Priestman, Seth M.N., Settlement and ceramics in Southern Iran: An analysis of the Sasanian and Islamic periods in the Williamson collection, Durham these, Durham University, Durham, 2005 ~ Table 16 All of the known sites from the Williamson Survey derived from a combination of information taken from the sherd collection and Site Cards. pp. 365-391

Place Name: Habalayn
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -787051 coordinate: lat 26.15208 long 56.3279
NIMA/GNS names: Al Habalayn , Al Hablayn , Habalain , Habalayn , الحبلين ,
VARIANT names: Habalayn ,

※ SOURCE for: Habalayn:
Survey, design, consultants of water supply schemes for Tayibat, Ghrumdah, Fudhra, Bukha, Al Jadi, Al Jirri, Qidah, Kumzar, Habalayn, Shabus, Shairsah, Limah, Bayah #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

Arch. Site in OMN name: Habalayn (Biagi3)
UTM: DP327935 converted to coordinate: lat 26.1593012634127 long 56.3266210341131
VARIANT names: Habalayn (Biagi3) ,

※ SOURCE for: Habalayn (Biagi3):
#2803 Biagi, P., New Rock Art Sites in the Musandam Peninsula, Sultanate of Oman, Bulletin of the Society for Arabian Studies, 2003 ~ p.24

Place Name: Hada Ku
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3065318 coordinate: lat 28.3608 long 51.177
NIMA/GNS names: Hada Ku , Hadakan , Hadakuh , Hadkan , هدكان ,
VARIANT names: Hada Ku ,
POSSIBLE LOCATION at Hada Ku FOR Najiram [Le Strange],


Place Name: Hadbeh
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -3065322 coordinate: lat 30.640457 long 48.735125
NIMA/GNS names: Hadbeh , Hazbeh , Jadid , Nahr-e Jadid , حدبه ,
VARIANT names: Hadbeh ,

※ SOURCE for: Hadbeh:
« Hadbeh » in {map#1063 Kuwait State. Basra Division. Khuzistan Province. - 'Iraq, Kuwait and Persia. No. 10 B and C, Khuramshahr (Mohammerah), , , British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3737, f 76, in Qatar Digital Library}

Place Name: Haffah
NIMA/GNS feature: PPL UFI: -787085 coordinate: lat 25.757484 long 56.318793
NIMA/GNS names: Haffah , Haffah , حفة ,
VARIANT names: Haffah , Modofar ,

※ SOURCE for: Haffah:
« Haffah is a fishing village of about 150 people situated in a sheltered position on the east side of Khawr Haffah, which is north of Thaghi. Haffah has no plantations and in Summer most people go to Thaghi where they work in the plantations there. (b) Present Water Situation - Haffah has five birkats in the village, two of which are very small and were both dry. The other three were between an eighth and a half full. We were told that there were other birkats farther from the village. » #171 Pencol Engineering Consultants, Musandam Water Supply Schemes, Pencol Engineering Consultants, London, 1975 ~

« The Elphinstone (Khor-ash-Sham) and Malcolm (Ghubbat Ghazirah) Inlets and Dohat Haffah in Ruus-al-Jibal would make good harbours, but their position in a wild and barren district renders them commercially valueless. » #2726 Gazetteer of Arabia, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/2/2, 1917 ~ p. 1423

« Haffah [name], Mouth of cove is 7 miles north of Dibah, on east coast. [position] Cove and village. The The Cove runs inland northwards, keeping parallel to the coast for 2½ miles. It varies from ¼ to ½ a mile in width, has regular soundings of 7 to 8 fathoms and is completely landlocked to seaward. It might be useful for naval purposes of secondary importance. [nature] The cove contains a village of 10 mud and stone houses occupied by Shihuh of the Bani Shatair section, Kumāzirah subsection, who fish and own some dates at Dibah. They have 5 fishing boats. » #660 Lorimer, John Gordon, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1915 ~ vol. 2 p. 1608

※ SOURCE for: Modofar:
« MODOFAR, porto de - Porto do litoral de Omão ou Oman que propendemos a identificar com Dubat Haffah, em 25° 43' lat. N. e 56° 18' long. E. [Gaspar Correia - Lendas da India]. » [MODOFAR, port of - Port on the coast of Oman or Oman which we tend to identify with Dubat Haffah, at 25° 43' lat. N. and 56° 18' long. E. [Gaspar Correia - Legends of India].] #2603 Visconde De Lagoa, Glossario Toponimico Da Antiga Historiografia Portuguesa Ultramarina, Oficina Grafica, Casa Portuguesa Rua Das Gaveas, 1953 ~ vol. D-N p. 274

Stream in grp 35S02 name: Haffar Channel
NIMA/GNS feature: STMX UFI: -3065350 coordinate: lat 30.433333 long 48.166667
NIMA/GNS names: Hafar Channel , Haffar Channel ,
VARIANT names: Haffar Channel , <